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JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE. M.A., 



PRESIDENT OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1906-1908. 



Born on May iqt/i, 1 8$ I, and died on November 18//Z, 1916. 
(Presented by The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers.) 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF 
MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

[Founded 1852.— Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1876.] 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. LXVIII. -ZJ< 



1917-1918. — // 



EDITED BY THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE: PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 



Printed by Andrew Reid & Co., Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

101S. -*■ 

[All rights of publication or translation are reserved.] 



/AJ 
/ 






ADYKKTISKMI 



The Institute is not, as a body, responsible for the statements and opinions 
advanced in the papers which may be read, nor in the discussions which may 
take place at the meetings of the Institute. 



>SPP1 

I 2. . i . S7 



CONTENTS. 



Ill 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LXVIII. 



Advertisement 
Contents 



iii 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



1917. PAGE. 

Aug. 4. — Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... 1 

Discussion of Mr. F. C. Lee's paper on " Some Practical Notes 

on the Economical Use of Timber in Coal-mines" ... 1 
Discussion of Mr. George P. Nicholson's paper on " The 

Horsley and Nicholson Automatic Compound Syphon "... 5 
" Little Namaqualand and its Possibilities as a Further Copper 

Producing Country." By F. W. Jenkins ... ... ... 7 

Oct. 13. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)... ... ... ... 9 

"The Flow of Water in Syphons." By Mark Halliday ... 9 

Discussion ... ... ... 11 

Sept. 14. — Twenty-eighth Annual Genera] Meetings of The Institution 

of Mining Engineers (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)... ... ... 15 

Reception by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... 15 

Presentation of the Institution Medal ... ... ... ... 19 

Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Council, 1916-1917 ... 21 

Accounts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Election of Officers, 1917-1918 36 

Enemy Alien Members ... ... ... ... ... ... 36 

"The Oxidizable Constituents of Coal." Part I. By J. 

I von Graham and James Hill ... ... 37 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

" American Notes." By Samuel Dean ... ... ... ... 65 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Death of Mr. Samuel Dean . . ... ... ... ... ... 91 

Discussion of Dr. J. S. Haldane's paper on "The Spontaneous 

Firing of Coal " ... 92 

Discussion of Mr. William Maurice's paper on "Acetylene 

Mine Lamps" 98 

Dec. 8. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 103 

Discussion of Mr. George Gibb's paper on "A Fresh Aspect 

of Intensive Mining Thin Seams" 103 

Discussion of Mr. Mark Halliday's paper on " The Flow of 

Water in Syphons" ... ... ... ... 117 

"Notes on the Uniflow Steam-engine." By G. G. T. Poole ... 121 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ■ •• ••• ••• 137 

" Memoir of John Herman Merivale " By Miss Judith 

Merivale 14fi 



C0NT1 i 
L91I 

• ' • ' \I< ' ' ' Me M poll I VIM | 1 |9 

rbe luti Pro! G \ lexandei Loui Lebom 

\|. in-. ii .,t John ' l: .1 • ■ 

\ 6 i 81 oi in" .mi. i Till. - ii Coal, wii li Rema 

upon t be Prevent ion of Sponl an< on B Coal- 

heap By John Mori I i 

hi en ion [57 

" rhe 81 rengl h oi Pil ,,,. l:. Fred I. Bool b 165 

Discussion ]<;:> 

Ipril L3 General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tj 177 

Hie late M r Simon Tate 177 

I be l.ii e M i . Will iam A nnsl • 177 

[nstil ate A mbulance Fund 1 78 

Discussion of Mr John Morison'a paper on "A System of 
Storing and Filling Small Coal, with Remarks apon the 
Prevention of Spontaneou Beating in Coal-heaps'' ... 178 
June 1. Genera] Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) .. ... 186 

Death of the Duke oi Northumberland 
"Notes on the Overhead Koepe Winding Plant al Plenmell 

Colliery, Haltwhistle, Northumberland." By I 186 

Discussion ... 202 



APPENDIX. 

I. — Annua] Report of the Council and Accounts for the Year 1917- 
1918; List of Council, Officers and Members for the Year 1918- 
1919; etc.. and Roll of Honour i-lx 



Index 1-4 



List of Plates. 

page. 

Portrait ok Mr. John Herman < 1 150 

Mbrivale ... ... Frontispiece, 



THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



OF 



MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

August 4th, 1917. 



Mr. FRANK COULSON, Retiring President, in the Chair. 



Mr. John Simpson was unanimously elected President for the 
ensuing year. 

The Gr. C. Greenwell Medal was presented to Prof. W. G\ 
Fearnsides for his paper on " Some Effects of Earth Movements 
on the Coal-Measures of the Sheffield District (South Yorkshire 
and the Neighbouring Parts of West Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and 
Nottinghamshire). " 



DISCUSSION OF ME. F. C. LEE'S PAPER ON " SOME 
PRACTICAL NOTES ON THE USE OF TIMBER IN 
COAL-MINES."* 

Mr. J. R. R. Wilson, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines 
(Newcastle-upon-Tyne), wrote that many of the points in this ex- 
cellent paper had already been discussed, but he hoped that 
before the discussion was closed those who had been using iron 
and steel supports would give the results of their experience. 

The writer was singularly fortunate as a student in having 
had the opportunity of seeing a system of working which was not 
scientific, which could not have been the result of experience, 
and noting its attendant evils ; and then being allowed to change 
over that system and work the coal upon lines which, in the case 
of others, had been proved by life-long experience to be the cor- 
rect method. 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii. , pages 86 and 162. 

VOL. LXVIII.-1»17-101S. 1 E 



i i \ -, m i [01 i ii i rORTH OF RNG1 D I riTUTl V< 

I |,(i papei 1 1 i'-i i ed to • he loiifl wall im i liod ol wo\ I oal, 

;iIM l |k \| i i., , , tated i lia i on ai i ou m oi i lie i apid ad\ ance of 
tlii- which invariably mea u ood rool oi fair! the 

oi timbei employed in longwall working it correspom 
inferior in quality." Be gave this as one rea on wrhj the tin 
was not withdrawn, and aa anothei rea on for this neglect he 
blamed Section 52 oi the < oal Mine* Ah. One wondered how 
much timber was withdrawn Prom the goaves before the Coal 
M ines A ci beca me la w. 

In longwall work iirj-- in other coalfields the fac< e often 

rapidly advanced where the immediate roof was by no means 
always. even fairly good, it was often very short, 01 oi a <■!;> 
nature which required very close timbering. And. if ther< 
one system of working thai more than another required a really 
first-class support, it was longwall. The man who used ii • 
timber invited disaster, and it would be 01 ir if at the time 

when the inevitable disaster occurred, b< should happen to be 
engaged near the coal-face. 

The reason timber was not withdrawn from longwall work- 
ings was not because it was inferior, nor was it on account of a 
misunderstood clause of the Coal Mines Act; it was for want of 
thought, and often for want of knowledge. 

H(> was sorry to see the suggestion thai a man who was not a 
qualified skilled workman was quite capable of withdrawing tim- 
ber, but the author seemed to alter his opinion further on in the 
paper. At first, as a sinner, he complained that the Act 
insisted upon the work being properly, that was. safely done. 
Later on, lie seemed to have found salvation, for lie stated that 
this was the most successful way, as shown by the results, and 
he ended by preaching the gospel of scientific longwall, and 
advocated the soundest methods of safe and economical mining. 

He (Mr. Wilson) would commend to colliery managers the 
author's suggestion respecting appointing a special underground 
official to look after timbering : this had already been done at one 
or two Durham collieries, and the results obtained had proved 
the wisdom of the arrangement. The author's points for guid- 
ance to such an official were well worth pondering over. Most 
props in a gateway at the side of a pack were serving no useful 
purpose, but, as he stated, did more harm than good to the roof, 
the pack, and themselves. It should be considered a mis- 
demeanour to leave a prop in a pack. 

With regard to break-off timber for eanehes, the best way to 
save it was to eliminate it altogether. In those coalfields where 
the longwall system had been very long established, and where it 
was seen at its best, the packs were kept in front of the canches. 
There was then not the same danger of a drawn or broken roof 
from shot-firing, which ultimately had to he supported by packs, 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION ECONOMICAL USE OF TIMBER IN MINES. 3 

No careful manager allowed odd props to be lying at random 
by the side of the rolleyways. When they were found kind 
enquiries should be made as to the well-being of the last official 
who passed that way. 

The author was to be congratulated that he was connected 
with collieries where it was realized that one prop cost less than 
two props and a supported bar. Oftener than not the bar or 
plank soon became end bound, and the first side pressure broke it 
in the middle, and rendered it worse than useless. As he pointed 
out, a tapered bar was very effective, as it would bruise at the 
end and continue to support the roof; and it was certainly 
economical. 

Packs, as he mentioned, should be built to support the roof, 
and not as a slender wall to hide a heap of dirt. They should 
be straight in line with the side canch, but the packs themselves 
should determine that line, and not the reverse. 

The author properly pointed out how systematic timbering not 
only faciliated drawing and thus saved timber, but also tended 
to make the roof pressure uniform along the face so that less 
breakage was likely to occur. A face, too, which moved fairly 
quickly broke less timber than one which was taken forward 
slowly. The roof behind the coal-face must rest upon some- 
thing ; the longer any roof rested upon a given section of timber 
the worse it was for the timber, and the more dangerous the roof 
became. In a machine cut face the roof would fracture on the 
line of each cut; if it was held up too long it would probably 
break oif at the face. If the face moved forward very slowly, 
the roof upon the timber slowly subsided, and the friction of that 
slow movement upon each line of fracture produced a smooth 
slippery surface. Moreover, where the line of fracture usually 
lay at an angle slightly overhanging the goaf, he had observed 
that the parting in the roof, instead of overhanging the goaf was 
often on a vertical line, and when the movement of the face was 
unusually slow it occasionally lay in the opposite direction, that 
was, leaning over the face. Slips in this direction were fruitful 
sources of accident, as a piece of unsupported roof at the face in 
the shape of a right-angled triangle might come away without 
any warning. 

The weight upon the timber along a slow moving face may be 
enormous; perhaps the author had made the experiment of 
measuring the vertical height from floor to roof say every 3 feet 
from the face to the goaf; if so he would have realized what a 
powerful lever was at work. This lever should do a great deal 
towards getting the coal, and its length should be determined by 
the power required, and that length was the only portion of the 
roof which should receive any support. 

A longwall face of considerable length used less timber per 



1 iCTIG i ii i FORTH OF i.'.« • i . D i im n .in 

running yard than a jerie oi bort tapped i;«« • The latter 

method brought in n train manj evils; the rooi tried to bm 
ofl on .1 line parallel to the general line of 
diagonally to the actual face Line; the rooi weight crushed ofl 
the coal al the cornel of the ide where the wind road wa« 

supposed i" be, and Btopped the ventilation; in mai ms this 

had pi 01 ed to be ;i sou rce oi goh-fi i e 

A the poof could not gei down on a line parallel to the actual 
Pace too much weight was brought upon that face, and this 
shown by the development oi slips, which for some reason 
assumed a direction ;it right-angles to the general line <»t \ 
and diagonally bo the actual face. This mode oi working 
licit hue longwall, it was a bastard, and like many another poor 
bastard, it was often the product oi carelessness due to want of 
knowledge. 

The excuse often given for the method was that the particular 
roof could not be kept up on a longer face. A reason that was 
never beard was that the gate packs were neither wide enough nor 
well enough built so thai the roof could break off at the goaf 
sides; the supporting timber at tin- face was not properly 
arranged, and the back timber was never systematically with- 
drawn from the goaf. 

If pit economics compelled the introduction of coal-cutting 
machines or conveyors, it was astonishing how soon many of 
these difficulties disappeared. The principles of successful long- 
wall working were well known ; one of the very first was the with- 
drawal of every prop from the goaf. At many Midland collieries 
every prop entering the mine had to be accounted for, and the 
broken props were counted as carefully as the new ones entering 
the mine. 

Perhaps those who were responsible would ascertain if the 
cost of timber per ton of output in the North of England coal- 
field compared favourably with other coalfields ; was the quan- 
tity used per ton of output less or greater than other districts. 
There appeared to be nothing in the conditions to make it 
greater. 

The author of the paper came from China : his suggestion 
respecting systematic timbering reminded him (Mr. Wilson) 
of three things which a mining engineer practising in 
China told him nianv vears ago. ITe described a visit 
to a very old coal-mine entered by a drift where the 
face was so far in-bye that a workman who took in his own 
empty tub could return with it laden with coal only after the 
lapse of nearly 24 hours. The method of working was long- 
wall : the timbering was systematically set, and every prop along 
a considerable length of face was in perfect Hue with its neigh- 
bours. He showed him (Mr. Wilson) a piece of vegetable fibre 



1917-1918.1 DISCUSSION AUTOMATIC COMPOUND SYPHON. 

rope such as had been used from time immemorial for hauling 
boats up the largest rivers of that country. The stranding of 
the rope was Lang's patent lay. 

Mr. J. W. Jamieson (South Hetton) remarked that Mr. 
Wilson had mentioned that there were collieries in Durham 
where something had been done to try to economize in the use 
of timber. He knew a colliery where, in the early part of this 
year, it was thought desirable, owing to the scarcity and in- 
creased cost of pit timber, to economize in its use and to prevent 
waste of it from any cause. A joint meeting of all officials and 
deputies was held. The constantly increasing difficulty of ob- 
taining timber, its higher cost, and the necessity for exercising 
care in its use, owing to both local and national considerations, 
were pointed out and explained to them. The officials very 
cordially agreed to do all they possibly could to reduce waste. 
Qualified men who, for want of a better term, were called 
" economists ' were appointed to examine the timber in the 
various districts in the pits, and to report daily to the manager 
on provided forms, in keeping with written instructions, the 
quantities of timber used and any improper use of it. The 
employment of these men caused extra expenditure, but this 
outlay had been more than counterbalanced by the saving in 
timber. The saving since the appointment of the " econo- 
mists ' ' had been about 20 per cent, on the number of pieces 
sent down the pit, and about 21 per cent, on the cubic feet used, 
whilst the extra outlay on wages for this supervision had been 
about 20 per cent, of the value of timber economy. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. GEORGE R. NICHOLSON'S PAPER 
ON " THE HORSLEY AND NICHOLSON AUTOMATIC 
COMPOUND SYPHON."* 

Mr. Frank Coulson said it occurred to him that the model 
exhibited showed the syphon working under the most favour- 
able conditions, and he could not think that it would work 
as well if the suction pipe were taking water out of dip workings 
with an open end. It also seemed that with certain classes of 
water containing gas or air it would be very liable to form an 
air-lock, which would stop the syphon. It was impossible with 
some water to prevent the formation of air-locks. He had had 
some little experience of trying to force water through pipes 
where there were air-locks, and had put on enormous pressures, 
but had not succeeded. 

* Traits. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii. , pages 99 and 160. 



ir- MTU) i ' ! i ( ) ItT 1 1 O I i 'I 1)1 l i I • I I . 

Mi ( ( Leach (Seghil b ked h bel her i he -\ phon 
more d i f fie u H to sta ri than n ord i narj y phon . 

Mi. \ i< imi i lit he ,. phon w b tai U d lb the 

ordinary waj bj pulling watei righl through it. Ii wai tl 
perfectlj automatic, and required no furthei attention. A- to 
a 1 1 loch i ng, he v i hal he had nol i he mi >d< I -• I 

he exhibited ai a previous me< which demonstrated the 

practicability oi the ayphon clearing an air-lock entirely out. 
\\ nli their syphon thej maintained that, under ordinary con- 
ditions, any ordina ry air-lock was carried off in action; ten- 
tion proved with the glass model. Willi a model standing 2 teei 
high he had had an air-lock of L6 inches, and as the water had 
passed round it had taken the air-lock out. He mentioned a i 
in actual working in which I air-lock was pulled 
through. Ho said that two of tl s were now working 
in pits, and thai other three wer< on hand at present. One oi 
tin 1 latter would have a total lift ol 27 feet. One of the syphons 
installed on a farm was doing satisfactory work with a total lilt 
of about '27 feet. The apparatus was in continuous i 

.Mr. Frank Coxtlson said that the syphon had, no doubt, 
many points to recommend it, although, like all tilings of the 

kind, he did not suppose that it was quite perfect under certain 
conditions. However, it was very useful and beneficial to the 
members of the Institute to know of the working of such «. 
syphon. In many cases it would relieve men of considerable 
anxiety. 



1917-1918.] JEXKINS LITTLE NAMAQUALAND. 



LITTLE NAMAQUALAND AND ITS POSSIBILITIES AS 
A FURTHER COPPER PRODUCING COUNTRY. 



By F. W. JENKINS. 



Port Nolloth is situated about 300 miles from Cape Town on 
the West Coast of Africa, and is really the entrance to Little 
Namaqualand. It is the only port on the coast, and is served by 
lighters and tugs. There is a railway, 120 miles long, which 
runs east and south-east. For this enterprise credit is due to 
the Cape Copper Company, Limited, one of the early pioneers. 

Namaqualand would never have been heard of had it not been 
for a few pioneers who were prospecting for minerals, and whose 
operations extended from Port Nolloth, north, south, and east 
of the Orange River. These enterprises were not attended with 
much success for man}' years, although copper stains were 
abundantly found in the various rocks — grey granite and schists. 

The population consisted of bushmen and hottentots, and the 
difficulty in rinding labour, transport, water, etc., was no doubt 
a great drawback to persistent and methodical prospecting at 
any depth. However, the result was that two of the richest 
mines for copper were finally discovered. 

The O'Okiep which in the 10 years from 1883 to 1904 produced 
534,626 tons of copper ore containing an average of 20*2 per cent, 
copper. This mine was discovered, it is said, by a bullock 
cartwheel disturbing 1 the surface of a hill, and the mineral found. 
Falling into good hands the surrounding district was exploited 
so successfully that in a few years not only was it a great mine, 
but prospecting was vigorously advanced. 

In the neighbourhood are such mines as Spectakel, Nababeep, 
and O'Okiep East, which were also opened up with good results. 

Spectakel in the same 10 years (1883 to 1904) brought to the 
surface 19,636 tons of very high-class ore yielding an average of 
31*85 per cent, copper; Nababeep 114,332 tons with an average 
percentage of 6T6 copper; and O'Okiep East 19,022 tons, giving 
an average yield of 5 per cent, copper. 

The Namaqua Copper Company, Limited, also proved the 
value of Namaqualand as a copper producing district, for in 
Tweefontein 138,683 tons containing 25'4 per cent, copper was 
produced in the same 10 years. The Flat Mine 5,000 tons of 20 
per cent, copper, and the Hester Maria 3,500 tons of 20 per cent, 
copper. 

Some of these properties, such as O'Okiep are not now 
producing as much ore as formerly, but the ore in O'Okiep is 
being used as a flux for smelting. 



H i r \ \ ACTION fin WOH l II "i ENGLAND IN8TITVT1 I Vol I ••■ 

Outside "i ili'' e two propertie little "i rio work mi t< 
dt pro pecting 111 the l.ii!'« ii " i known .> Little Namaqualand 
lias I -••.•ii accomplished. Near the Orange Etivei i »i i he oorth-e I 
corner * \\ < • prospecte yielded .1 considerable quantity ol nigh 

de copper, i.e. t The Numees and Kodas Mine-. Adits and 

levels have 1 driven and sunk, bul owing to wanl oi bigfa 

technical knowledge, capital, and transport facilities, the in: 
have in'i been proceeded with. The transport overland would 
be H)ii miles partly over sand-dunes, or by way oi the Orange 
River which Is 6 miles awaj . and has insufficient depth oi wi 
,ii most seasons. This has been the difficulty; bui the ore is ol 
very high grade, bornite, chalcocite (copper glance), malachite, 
and chalcopyrite. A.s soon as reliable ore is opened up the 
( io\ eminent propose to Facilitate the transport by a railway. 

Prof. A. \V. Rogers in his presidential address to the 
Geological Society of South Africa in 1916 upon " The Nature 
of the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand, ,,# stated that the 
copper-bearing rocks of Namaqualand fall into two sharply 
defined groups — (1) those which occur in veins of quartz, 
carbonates, felspar, and chlorite; and (2) those associated with 
the igneous intrusions in gneiss. The first group is found in the 
northern portion, hut has not been much exploited, and has not 
so far yielded a large output of copper. Gneiss is so far the 
chief copper yielding deposit. 

With regard to the financial prospects and the development 
of copper miuing in Namaqualand it may be pointed out that the 
Cape Copper Company, Limited, and the Namaqua Copper Com- 
pany, Limited, have paid dividends annually since their forma- 
tion, and the Cape Government agreed in 1907 to purchase the 
total railways, wharf, steamers, and docks, at the Cape Copper 
Company's valuation, viz., £330.000, and to continue to con- 
struct lines to all parts of the cupriferous zone which lie within 
about 100 miles of Port Xolloth, so as to give other facilities for 
opening up what they considered a highly valuable base metal 
area. 

In conclusion he believed Namaqualand, with the assistance 
which is now forthcoming from the South African Government, 
will prove to be one of the largest and most successful copper- 
fields in the British Empire, and this should be a matter of great 
interest to the smelters in the Xorth of England, as the ore can 
now be shipped direct from Port Nolloth to Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
and Swansea, the high grade of ore making it possible to pay 
transport to the smelters in England, whilst at the same time 
yielding a very handsome profit to the miners. 



* Proceedings of the Geological Society of South Africa. 1916, vol. xix., page xxi. 



1917-1918.] HALLIDAY THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

October 13th, 1917. 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, President, in the Chair. 



THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS. 



By MARK HALLIDAY, B.Sc. 



An analysis of the flow of water in syphons, simple and compound, 
suggested itself to the writer after the perusal of the discussion of 
Mr. George R. Nicholson's paper on " The Horsley and Nicholson 
Automatic Compound Syphon."* 

Consider first the simple syphon shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1, 
which is arranged to syphon water from the tank A over the point 
B to the tank C. 




Fig. 1. — Single Syphon shown Diagrammatically. 

Let H x = Static head in tank A above datum. 
H 2 = „ „ at point B „ „ 

H 3 = „ „ in tank C „ „ 

p t = Pressure in pipe at entrance A. 
P> = „ „ point B. 

Pz = „ „ exit C. 

Vi = Velocity of water at entrance to pipe at A. 

v 2 = „ „ in pipe at point B. 

v 3 = „ „ „ „ exit G. 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 99. 

VOL. LXVIII ltl7-1918. 



2 E 



10 I i: \ . KTION i 1 1 1 NORTH Ol KXOLAXD INSTITUTE. Vo\ 

Then by Bernouilli' ' beorem — 



// 



/' 

' t '</ 



// ; friction head from .1 bo B 

1 I iii 



11 ,:>i 



IY1\ -1>I 



+ 



A I 



(1) 



(2), 



(3); 



I flip 
The friction-head, in Ee : )(ij for round pipes. . . 

where / co-enicieni of friction, 
I = Length of pipe, in feel . 

v = velocity of w;ttcr. in feet per Becond, and 
d = diameter of pipe, in feet. 
Transposing equation (1) gives 

// TJ _ JL 1±- ti *f ' 

11 " llx ~ 62*4 2p 62*4 " 2g~ 2gd 

where /, is the length of pipe from A to B, the loss at entry to the 

pipe being neglected. 

Also, if the pipes are of equal diameter throughout, v, = v.. 

In order to obtain the maximum velocity at point B, p.> = 0. 

n-*.-*.-&-M|r <*>; 

but —^ = head of water, in feet, equivalent to atmospheric pressure, 
or, say, 34 feet. 



Then Hi - H x = 34 
Let #, - H t = = A, 

Then 



.4/W. 



2^ 



(5) 

(6) 



Also let H x - H 3 = K (8) 



P* 



V 



A -r = U feet 



62-4 62-4 

And i\ = v 3 if the pipes are of equal diameter. 
From equation (1) — 

H ^ H ^~2gT 

Z 2 being the length of pipe from A to C. 

/2p^ 
V 4 



(9) 



Then 



m 



2gdh 3 2gd (34-/* 2 ) 



or 



h. U-h, 



ifl 



(10), 

(11) 
(12) 

(13); 
(14) 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS 



11 



Unless this relationship holds, the syphon will not work continu- 
ously without a regulating- valve. It will be noted that h 2 equally as 
much as h A governs the discharge. If A r , is excessive, then v 3 tends to 
become larger than v 2) and cavitation in the pipes will result. 

This explains the statement made by so many that some 
syphons work better when the valve at the delivery end is partly 
closed. This must necessarily be the case, as the valve must be 
regulated until (v 3 X area at C) = (v., x area at B). 

The same reasoning when applied to the Nicholson compound 
syphon results in the following deductions : — 



^JJ 




Fig. 2. — Amended Diagrammatic Arrangement of Syphon. 
Fig. 2 shows the diagrammatic arrangement of the syphon ; H s , 

T9-I' an( ^ v ' 3 are ^ e s ^ a ^ c ' pressure, and velocity energies per pound 

' of water respectively at the air-inlet N of the compound syphon. 
Then if the air-inlet and trap N, S, N is fixed in a position according 

to the relationship in equation (14), viz., such that j = — y- (14), 

the compound syphon will discharge as much water as any simple 
syphon. 

It has been assumed throughout that/, the co-efficient of friction, 
is the same for the whole length of pipe considered ; also, in order 
to simplify the argument, that p, = 0. 

For a maximum discharge this would be so, but the analysis 
would hold equally well if p 2 had a value of a few feet. 

In that case the figure could be inserted to slightly modify the 
result in equation (14). 



The President (Mr. John Simpson) said that the paper was 
a very close analysis of the working of a syphon, but he was in- 
clined to think that practical men would not go so closely into 
the matter, but would rather be tempted to put the syphon in 
and test it then. 



I •• u,. \i hi,-. rHE NORTH OF ] i I I ' J J . Vol. ll 

Mi i r,. .\ii in o.n (Newca tie ujion Tyne) asked what the 

. 1 1 1 1 In 1 1 mean I bj " cavitation. 

Mr < . i Dpi i R. Nichoj ion (Darlington) said thai he v. on Id 
like Me. I l.i 1 1 itl.i \ to enlarge on the poinl raised bj Mi. Atkins 
Wherever b simple syphon was worked on a long length 
(, pipe line, a considerable amouni oi friction occurred; 
and when an extensive length oi pipe « 1 1 « • j * ] >«-* 1 ;i considerable 
depl li l.rlf.w i he l<-\ el oi \ be w atei • I ' he intake, I he 
velocity ;M the outlei would, in accordance with the La* oi gravi- 
tation, be greater than the velocitj ai the intake. Cavitation 
would therefore occur ai the highesi poinl oi the syphon -that 
was, a partial vacuum would be formed, owing to the speed on 
the falling or pulling leg being greater than the speed on the 
intake side. After a time cavitation would occur to such 
extent thai the column of water in the syphon would break into 
two parts, <mc column dropping down each leg oi the syph 
which would then become empty. 

Many syphons worked better with a cock ai the outlet. This 
required careful adjustment and close attention in order to 
the besi results. In the Horsley-Nicholson automatic compound 
syphon cavitation was impossible, and no regulating-cock was 
required. It was self-contained and self-adjusting in every cir- 
cumstance that could arise; it had no mechanical action, being 
controlled entirely by the atmosphere. 

Mr. Mark Halliday (Durham) said that the whole analysis 
pointed to the fact that, unless the relationship in equation (14) 
held good, they must have a throttle outlet. If that were pro- 
vided, and the velocity by the area of pipe at the outlet equalled 
the velocity by the area of pipe at the top of the syphon, cavita- 
tion would not take place. Doubtless there were hundreds of 
syphons working under these conditions without ever breaking 
down. He had occasion to put down a simple syphon a little 
while ago, which delivered quite 1,500 gallons per minute. It 
had now been working nine or ten months, and had never once 
stopped. It had only a lift of a few feet. As to the statement 
that cavitation could not occur with the Horsley-Xicholson 
syphon, he (Mr. Halliday) held that it could. 

Mr. George R. Nicholsox said that cavitation could not 
occur to the extent of breaking up. 

Mr. Halliday said that if the air-trap were fixed in a certain 
position given by equation (14), then the Horsley-Nicholson 
syphon would deliver as much water as any other syphon. In 
the discussion on Mr. Nicholson's paper, it was stated that that 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS. IS 

would not be the case, but if the syphon were designed accord- 
ing to the principle stated, it would be so. 

Mr. Nicholson stated that he had recently received an in- 
quiry from a Lancashire colliery where a simple syphon was work- 
ing. In order to make sure that it was perfectly tight, the pipes 
had been taken off and relaid three times. A valve had been put 
on the outlet, and it was stated that wdien it was left at full bore 
— it had an excessively long leg — it broke up after working three 
or four hours; but, after they had put a cock on and re-adjusted 
it, the syphon sometimes worked for several days. 

Mr. Mark Ford (Washington) said that syphons in mines 
gave rise to much bother. He would like Mr. Halliday's opinion 
as to whether that was because mine water contained air and gas, 
and that the reduced pressure at the top of the syphon caused the 
air and gas to collect at the top of the pipe. 

Mr. Mark Hallidat replied that this might be the cause if 
air accumulated at the top of the syphon. When once that 
pressure reached a certain figure, the syphon would stop work. 

Mr. Ford asked whether the pressure of the water would be 
reduced at that point, and whether the tendency would be for 
the water to give up its air or gas. 

Mr. Halliday replied that this would be the case. 

The President said that he had seen gas collect at the 
head of the syphon, and if the plug were opened the gas could be 
lighted. He had experienced much trouble many years ago 
owing to the water containing this excess of gas. Doubtless the 
trouble could be got rid of by regulating the outlet, so as to keep 
the gas out in a great measure. 

Mr. Ford said he doubted very much whether it was possible 
to prevent the accumulation of gas at the top. 

Mr. Halliday said that if there were considerable quantities 
of gas in solution in the water to be syphoned, when the syphon- 
ing commenced, the gas was naturally given off at the highest 
point of the syphon. Could Mr. Nicholson say how the gas 
could be got rid of from his syphon? 

Mr. Nicholson replied that a T-piece was fitted at the inlet 
end of the Horsley-Nicholson syphon, and this prevented atmo- 
spheric air from entering it. He quite admitted that gas in 
solution might be in the water. As the water passed through, 
the gas formed a small air-lock in the first instance, and that air- 



J I ii i ii i or i ii 111 i i ii i \ i i i i i i Vol. I 



lock w b can led i brou ''I ca 1 1 1 idge. '1 be me 

oil in 111. ill globuli mi throughout the pipe, and, after ;» 

time, these globule became detached from the side oi the pipe 
and rose to the top; but, ii there was any flow oi a1 all, 

these globules <li<l nol adhere to the side, bul were carried 
through. A.A soon as the water al the intal hed a height 

equal i<> the air-pocket, the Latter was carried off in ;i cartridge 
and emptied itself. The syphon would have to stand a consider- 
able time before enough gas was generated from the watei to 
break ii up. In practice Ik- thought the amount of gas generated 

in the pipe was very small. 

Mr. Halliday said thai tlie gas in solution mighl amount to 

•'{ \)cv cenl . by volume. 



1917-1918.] RECEPTION BY LORD MAYOR OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 15 



THE INSTITUTION <>F MINING ENGINEERS, 



TWENTY:- EIGHTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Lecture Theatre of The North of England Institute of 

Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

September 14th, 1917. 



.Mr. WALLACE THORNEYCROFT, President, in the Chair. 



RECEPTION BY THE LORD MAYOR OF NEWCASTLE- 
UPON-TYNE. 

The Loud Mayor of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Coun- 
cillor George Lunn) said that it was his pleasing duty to 
offer to the members a civic welcome to the city. In 
Newcastle they did not forget how much that city and 
district depended upon the prosperity of the mining industry. 
Newcastle was the commercial centre of the coalfields of North- 
umberland and Durham. Their shopkeepers, shipowners, coal- 
exporters, and brokers by the score on Newcastle quayside 
recognized very fully how much their individual prosperity was 
bound up with the prosperity of the great mining industry. Their 
river was known in poetry as " Coaly Tyne." The futility of 
44 carrying coals to Newcastle " had become part of the national 
proverbial philosophy. In Newcastle, therefore, there could be 
no doubt as to the cordiality of the welcome he was privileged to 
extend to them. If that city was largely dependent upon the 
prosperity of the mining industry, the mining industry was 
equally very largely dependent on the profession of the mining 



engineer 



The mining industry, like every other branch of trade and 
commerce, was at present dominated by the grim realities of the 
world war. If, however, the war-clouds had cast their shadow 
over that gathering, there was a silver lining. Their members 
had contributed largely to the war forces fighting at home and 
abroad in order to maintain the honour of the British flag. They 
were sharing in the work of the Ministry of Munitions, and were 
placing all their expert knowledge, obtained in scientific re- 
search, at the disposal of those who were seeking to combat the 
fiendishness of the Hun. They had their Roll of Honour. The 
mining engineers had won for themselves immortal renown on 
every sector of Britain's " far-flung battle line.'' They were the 
pioneers of all the offensives that had brought honour to British 

3 E 



VOL. I.XVIII.- 1917-1918. 



H M n<j i ii i ..I- 1 ii ni i s«.i \ \ i» i 1 1 1 1 1 1 Vol. li 

uriij the tunnelling which theii in embers supervised the 

hat tie oi M i ue and \mr> Kidge were gloriout \ H 

1 1 u \ . 'I lie in i n i ■ in< 'i pi epii i ed i he pti w hich 

i In- In I.., win id,, unci i he minei - including 

Northumberland and Durham helped t«> write the *tory. I 
miner* from those northeru counties had gone in then 
thouHunds, and Greai Britain and hei Allies owed an unpayable 
debl <>t gratitude to those sons oi the coalfields, those heroe 
the underworld. II<- hoped thai the meeting would fulfil th< 
liighesl expectations. All trusted that, I annual 

meeting, the war clouds would be dispelled l>\ the peace 

prefaced bj the winds oi victory, and that the mining profi 
would tlifii be able to resume in norma] career. 



Dr. \\ . II. 1 1 \i)n\\ (Principal, Armstrong ( lollege, .\ c\ 
upon-Tyne) said he was glad oi the opportunity oi sup] 
menting, with an academic welcome, the civic welcome of the 
Lord Mayor. Ee did no1 think thai there could be any more 
appropriate occasion on which the head oi a greai municipality 
could join hands with those cloistered and secluded researchers 
by whom the more scientific work in thai city was being carried 
on. The Lord Mayor had spoken especially of tl ices which 

the Institution had rendered to the country, and of the particu- 
lar appropriateness of thai meeting in the metropolis oi the 
North-East. T!io speaker would like to say that, although eveiy 
greai institution had its own interests and it-, own problems, he 
did not think thai there was one which touched the welfare 
the community at more vital points than did The Institution of 
Mining Engineers. Not only was there the scientific ^ide of 
the provision of the most urgent necessity of life cur material 
civilization without coal would he unthinkable —but there was 
all that great side of the work which had to do with the preven- 
tion of accidents — and one could not over-estimate or over- 
state the importance of thai : and they had before them some of 
the mosl serious, mosl difficult, and most urgent of those great 
economic problems which would have to be laced in the indus- 
trial reconstruction which was to come. The welfare of England 
depended very largely indeed upon the deliberations of mining 
engineers and upon the conclusions to which they came. There- 
fore, in the name of an educational institution in that city, lie 
had greai pleasure in bidding them welcome. 

Mr. John Simpson (President, The Xorth of England Insti- 
tute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers) offered, on behalf of 
the members of his Institute, a very cordial welcome to those 
presenl at the meeting. He regretted that, on the present 
occasion, owing to the Mar. a greai many of their members Mere 



1917-1918.] DECEPTION J5Y LORD MAYOR OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 17 

unable to attend, and that it had not been possible to provide 
their usual programme of hospitality. He hoped, however, that 
they would find the papers upon the agenda to be interesting and 
instructive, and that the discussions which would follow would 
be of the greatest value to the members of the Institution. 

The President (Mr. Wallace Thorney croft), in thanking 
the previous speakers for their words of welcome, said that 
the Lord Mayor had pointed out the influence of the war 
upon their deliberations. That was absolutely true : they were 
all strenuously engaged in trying to get the maximum output 
with the minimum number of men, and to produce as much as 
possible of those bye-products which were so essential for explo- 
sives. At the same time, they had to contend with the taking 
away — from the surface, at any rate — of a great number of men. 
They wished to record their appreciation of the services of 
numbers of their own members who were fighting at the front. 
There was one matter in which they needed assistance, and 
perhaps the Lord Mayor might help the Council. This was in 
connexion with students on service — young men who had left at 
a very critical stage of their career. Many of them had volun- 
teered and had some influence in taking to the front, at an early 
stage of the war, men who might not otherwise have volunteered 
so early. These young men were then either at the University 
or serving their apprenticeship. There was thus a break in their 
studies, and the Council of the Institution had endeavoured to 
obtain some concession in the matter of taking their certificates 
as colliery manager-. They were successful in part, but the real 
utility of the concessions was very largely marred by the refusal 
of the authorities to allow the holder of a certificate who had 
been on service, and whose time of taking that certificate was 
delayed by the fact of his being on service, to act as a manager 
until he had completed the statutory term of underground- work 
experience. The Institution held that the practical experience 
such a man was now undergoing, in leading men in the face of 
danger, was a very useful experience for his work in civil life. 
He appealed to all who could help them to tackle their Members 
of Parliament and enable the Institution to obtain what he 
believed to be merely justice for these young men. 

The Lord Mayor had referred to the hope that the next annual 
meeting would be held under the happy circumstances of victory. 
There was no doubt about ultimate victory. It was not in sight 
xei, but it was incumbent upon them to " stick it out " and to do 
their best to bring about that victory as soon as possible. With 
regard to the economic questions referred to by Dr. Hadow, that 
Institution had an unwritten rule that economic questions deal- 
ing with wages were outside their sphere of discussion. That 



I M i ( V| I (I : ■ I I : I 'I I ) I . M I I 

l,i I,,- i ,;• ii i ..i wrong, l»n i i i<!i 111 u pari from pun 

I,.,!, i, I, ., I qui were not d I by 1 In "i . 'I he probn 

i |i;,i had to he den It with in i In Par future with I to 

i he cli i nge i lui i w .i i.i I i rip place i n t be conduct ol .'II ind 
were, ot necessity, vei idernble. Their coal-pits were not 

r,.i\\ theii own. [n whal Ponn ol control t Ij«- \ would be in the 
future, none ol (hem could -.i\ ; but they, as the technical 
ol the industry, would have to continue to do theii best t< i 
the coal as economically and safelj a.* possible, : i r i * I thes< 
the objects thai their Institution had to keep in mind. 'I I 
Charter was granted for " The advancement ol coal and in 
ore mining and allied industries, and the promotion <>t the 
acquisition ol knowledge necessary for the conti I direct 

of mining operations in relation to stratified deposits. 11 
were the objects they bad in view and endeavoured to i out. 

They had that day to discuss n number of papers ot v< ried 

interest. They had to discuss comparisons ol British and 
American coal-mining; the highly-complex questions oi the con- 
stituents of coal : the important matter ol improved lighting by 
the use n! acetylene lamps -the better the lamp the smaller was 
the risk of accidents; the micro-petrology of coal; the higher 
training of colliery mana<~ the economical production and 

utilization of power at collieries; and the economical use of 
timber in coal-mines— a very wide range ol subjects indeed. 

He could only repeat the Institution's thanks to the previous 
speakers for their very hearty welcome, and hope that, when 
the [nstitution next came to Newcastle, they would be stronger 
and have fulfilled the conditions of their Charter more 
completely. 



PRESENTATION OF THE INSTITUTION MEDAL 

The- President said that he had now a pleasing duty 
to perform, namely, to present the Institution Medal to Col. 
William Cuthbert Blackett, T.D. Despite the old saying that 
a prophet is not without honour save in his own country, lie was 
very glad that this meeting was being held in Col. Blackett's 
home district, as. although he was well known as a first-class 
mining engineer over a much wider area, he was certain that his 
colleagues in the North of England would best appreciate the 
great service he had rendered during the last thirty years in con- 
nexion with rescue-work alter some of the devastating accidents 
to which our collieries were subject, and also in the investigations 
that had followed in order to ascertain the cause. 

Col. Blackett had repeatedly risked his own life to save the 
lives of others, and as the result of his investigations he was 
among the first to grasp the true explanation of a dust explosion. 



1917-1918.] PRESENTATION OF INSTITUTION MEDAL. 19 

He had written a number of papers on the subject, and the 
explanation of and deduction from his observations had since 
proved to be correct in the experimental galleries in this country 
and abroad. 

Correct diagnosis was the prelude to cure, and although it 
was too soon to say that we had at our command a certain cure 
for the evil of explosions of coal-dust, great progress had been 
made, and as one of the early investigators they honoured Col. 
Blackett, who had also devoted much time and thought to the 
development of a reliable type of rescue-apparatus. 

Turning now to his activities in other directions, Col. 
Blackett \s exceptional grasp of the conditions of collieries and 
his originality of thought, together with his sound knowledge of 
scientific principles, had naturally led him to devise and work out 
a number of improvements connected with coal-mining, some of 
which had formed the subject-matter of patents. Among these 
might be mentioned s< ckets for winding-ropes, offtake sockets, 
tipplers, coal-washers, and above all the face-conveyors with 
which his name was so prominently connected. He was the first 
to produce a practical underground conveyor and to show that its 
use under favourable conditions, especially in thin seams, so 
greatly reduced the cost and difficulties of working the latter 
that there were few coalfields in the country in which thin seams 
were worked where face-conveyors were not found. 

For many years back when any subject had been under dis- 
cussion in connexion with legislation bearing upon coal-mining, 
and in particular during the passage of the Coal Mines Act of 
1911, and subsequent arbitrations, Col. Blackett had been called 
upon to advise or give evidence, and his experience and ability, 
his concise expression of opinion, his power of illustration and 
demonstration, and his sense of humour had been greatly 
appreciated. 

Col. Blackett had been a member of The North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers since 1876, and 
was President for the years 1912) to 1914, when war broke out, 
and was then called out for military service. He had been active 
in the service of his country ever since that time, he held the 
Territorial Decoration, and was at present the Colonel command- 
ing the Durham County Volunteer Regiment. 

He had been awarded the Royal Humane Society's Medal for 
saving life, and had received the Greenwell Medal of the North 
of England Institute in 1906. The University of Durham had 
awarded him the honorary degree of Master of Science in 1914 hi 
recognition of his eminent services to mining technology, and he 
now asked the members to endorse the unanimous finding of the 
Council to award to him the Institution Medal. On behalf of 
The Institution of Mining Engineers, he (the President) now 



I'TIO I'll SOU i ii mi KN'(iLANI) IXSTl'ITTK. \ 

handed liim llie Medal u un i knowledgmeiil ol t lie IiirIi ap] 

tlOll l»\ In- •■ill I.m ;• in- < I In I I In t lir In Hi < — I 'in in 1 1 li 

( n | \\ ( |',i m 1. 1 i i ., nl i li.ii . \\ lien lie left dome thai 
i, ,1,1 n ii, w : Fe Ii.hI asked h ini w he1 liei lie w ould not b< 

much overcome by the presentation, and lie had replied that he 
did nni think so. He was afraid, however, that he did feel a 
little overcome, and he was certain thai hi* response would be 
totalh inadequate. He wu* uevei more surprised tlian when he 
heard thai he was to be the recipient ot the Vledal. It teemed to 
| m ,i ii,;, i there \M'\f so verj main men men in the Sort! 
England, i<>«; who had equal claims upon the Medal, and he 
rould only imagine that his name occurred because the t ouncil 
wished to sho\* some honour to the neighbourliood whicl 
were visiting. Il<- hoped that, when they thoughl ol the thi 
distinguished men who had received earliei presentations of that 
Medal- thej were presenl that day, with the exception ot Dr. 
Haldane, who had been called away suddenly to France they 
would nol iliink ilial the honour had fallen into a lower stratum. 
lie was pleased al the honour, as everyone would know, and it' 
the grace of his expression was not all they might expect, he 
hoped thai everyone Mould believe in its depth and sincerity. He 
hoped to In 1 able, before long, to show that Medal to his son fat 
present a prisoner of war in Germany), and it after the war his 
son carried out his pre-war intentions to go on with mining 
engineering ol which there might be some doubt, owing to the 
passage of time — he hoped that the fact that his father had 
received tin 4 Medal would be an incentive to him to try to win it 
in the future. Whether his son went in for mining or not, at 
least lie would have Landed down to him in the future the Medal 
which his father had had the honour to receive. 

Dr. W. N\ Atkinso.v (Cardiff) asked permission personally to 
return thanks for the Medal which was presented to him at the 
last annual meeting. He was extremely sorry that the state of 
liis health then prevented him from attending and returning" his 
thanks in person. He need only say that he appreciated the hon- 
our very highly, and that he hoped that it would prove an incen- 
tive to himself and others to do what they could to prevent ex- 
plosions and reduce the loss of life in mines There was still 
much work to he done. for. although the influence of coal-dust in 
these disasters had been under discussion and investigation for 
the past forty years, there were still differences of opinion on some 
points, particularly as to the true interpretation of some of the 
indications observed in explosions and. also, as to the best means 
to be taken for preventing such disasters. They were still with- 
out any effective regulations for dealing with the danger, and he 



1917-1918.] INST. M. ¥,. — ANNUAL REPORT 01" COUNCIL, L916-1917. 21 

was afraid that there were hundreds of pits only waiting for the 
initial flash to cause a widespread disaster. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPOET OF THE 
COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 

The Council submit their twenty-eighth Annual Report, and 
announce that the number of members on the register on July 
31st, 1917, is 2,933, exclusive of those members on active service 
whose names have not been returned by their Institure. 

The War. 

At the commencement of the fourth year of the war the 
number of members serving with His Majesty's forces is about 
400. 

Since the last Report the following have been reported 
killed:— Captains J). M. Chambers and M. H. Wilkinson, 
M.O.; Lieutenants C. J. Cadman, M.C., and P. J. Bates; 
2nd Lieutenant G. J. IT. Ashwin ; and Sergeant F. M. Calder, 
M.C. 

The following have died of wounds: — Lieutenant H. C. F. 
Jeffcoek; and 2nd Lieutenants R. Thomson and F. B. Wilson. 

Lance-Corporal Albert W. Wexham and Private W. Wood- 
man, two members of the office staff, have also fallen in the w<ar. 

The Council offer their sympathy to the relatives in their 
bereavement, and beg to record their high appreciation of the 
gallantry and devotion of those who have laid down their lives 
for their country. 

The names of the following members have appeared in the 
list of wounded during the year: — Captains T. W. Dobinson, 
Stanley B. Kay, A. R. Lidgey, R. H. Piggford, 2nd Lieu- 
tenants A. L. Mann, H. A. Hewitt, A. E. Kaye, J. L. Kershaw, 
R. J. Plummer, and A. Yea don. 

The Council wish them a speedy recovery. 

During the year the following rewards and distinctions have 
been conferred for gallantry in the field: — Companion of the 
Order of St. Michael and St. George: Lieut. -Colonel 
R. P. Leach and Lieut.-Colonel R. E. Martin; Distinguished 
Service Order: Majors M. G. Christie and H. M. Hance ; 
Military Cross: Majors M. G. Christie and H. M. Hance, Cap- 
tains R. W. Anderson, F. I. L. Ditmas, H. Hannay, A. Kirkley, 
P. Kirkup, Jun., C. E. Pumphrey, H. Scholes, M. H. 
Wilkinson, and R. Yates, Lieutenant A. C. Rankin, and 2nd 
Lieutenants H. A. Hewitt, W. W. Varvill, and R. C. Wain. 

Mentioned in Despatches : Lieut.-Colonel Harry Rhodes, 
Captains T. W. Dobinson, A. R. Lidgey, and B. H. Pickering, 
2nd Lieutenants K. M. Guthrie and F. M. AYeeks. 



CTIO? I II I ORTII 01 I ' •■ I • hi I I I l I I . Vol. Inin 

III • i .1 1 ii In i ion ni i lie < niiiM 1 1 ;i r i« i men oi the 

I • 1 1 1 ii I inn :i it offel Pel to th( lltlpflHMl on til - of 

i heir j«. 1 1 1 nti ind <l"'\ otion. 

' Ijij II w \ . 

I ' . Council regrel to record the deatli <»i i he i«>i 
ili. in members during the year: M< Matthew 13. Baird, 

(.. II. IJarraelough, I.'. Boyle, •' . S. Burrow G, 8 Cooper, II 
Dai is, J. A. Dixon, L. R. Fletcher, R. T. Gratton, -I. I'. I: 
Grave, C. A. Harrison, T. L. Home, I I Jobling, -I. ]' 
Kirkup, -I. II. Merivale, .1. P. K . Millei R. Oshima, II 
Pilkington, 1''. II. (i. Price, R. A. Rutherford, -I. R. Shaw, and 
W. I'. Walker. 

Among the names are the following members and past 
members <>! the Council:- Messrs. L. R. Fletcher, T. 
Jobling, J. P. Kirkup, J. II. Merivale, and II. Pilkington. The 
Council regrel the loss of so ma iy of their colleagues, who by 
their devotion to the [nstitution contributed go much to its 
welfare. They would specially refer to the great loss the [n 
tution has suffered through the death <>t Mr. J. II. Merivale. 
Shortly before his death he accepted the responsible office of 
Chairman of the Finance and Publications Committee. In that 
office, as well as in the Council, his sound practical advice and 
judgment, together with his untiring energy and devotion to the 
[nstitution interests, were always at the disposal of the Council, 
who feel most deeply the serious loss the Institution has suffered 
by his death . 

Distinctions Conferred on Members. 

The Council congratulate Sir Robert Hadfield on having 
the honour of Baronetcy conferred on him by H.AF. The King. 

President. 

The Council have pleasure in announcing that Air. Wallace 
Thorneycroft has consented to accept their nomination for the 
office of President for the ensuing year, and congratulate the 
Institution on his acceptance of the nomination. 

1 institution Medal. 

The Institution Medal has been awarded to Colonel William 
Cuthbert Blackett, T.D.. for his eminent services to the science 
and practice of coal-mining. 

Honorary. Members. 

The following honorary members Lave been elected during 
the vear : — Mr. llun-h Johnstone and Dr. W. N. Atkinson on 



1917-11)18.] INST. M. E. — ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 23 

their retirement as H.M. Divisional Inspectors of Mines ; and Mr. 
Eobert McLaren on his retirement as H.M. Senior Inspector of 
Mines. 

Institution Represezs tati ves . 

The Institution representatives on the following bodies and 
societies remain the same as for last year: — 

The Governing Body of the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, The Advisory Committee appointed by the Royal 
Society to administer the Tyndal Bequest, The Advisory Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research, The Conference on the 
Standardization of Steel Wire Ropes, and the Professional 
Classes War Relief Council. 

The following alterations have been made : — 

The Board of Governors of the Cornish Societies and Art 
Foundations: Prof. J. Cadman, C.M.G., D.Sc, in place of Mr. 
Hugh Johnstone. 

The Institution has ceased to be an affiliated society of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The British Association Committee on Fuel Economy has 
practically ceased to exist. Its work has been undertaken by the 
Committee on Fuel Research, with Sir George Beilby, F.R.S., as 
Chairman, and Prof. A. W. Bone, F.R.S., as Scientific 
Adviser. 

General Meetings . 

The twenty-seventh Annual General Meeting was held at 
, Glasgow on September 14th and 15th, 1916, and a General 
Meeting in London on June 15th, 191 T. 

Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. 

The Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 
have made a grant of £350 towards the first year's expenses of a 
research into " The Control of Atmospheric Conditions in Hot 
and Deep Mines." A sub-committee, consisting of Prof. J. 
Cadman, C.M.G. (Convener), Dr. J. S. Haldane, F.R.S., and 
Messrs. J. T. Browne, C. A. Carlow, John Gerrard, G. P. 
11} slop, R. Arthur Thomas, and Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, has 
been appointed, and is proceeding with the investigation. 

The Council have also made application for a grant in aid of 
a research into " The Destruction of Pit-timber, and its Pre- 
vention." 

One of the conditions made in connexion with grants in aid 
of such investigations is that a portion of the cost shall be borne 
by the industry benefiting* by such research. A full report on 
the subject was prepared by a special committee, and was 
adopted by the Council at their meeting on June 15th last. 



'I i i \ . UTIO I H I SORTII 01 i > I • M i ■ I I I i I I in 

It was then derided t<< Invite tin- South Wale* Institute of 
Kngineci i" n ociute themselve with tin- Institution in an 
nppeal to the Mining \ aciation of Great Britain for fund 

The < 'ounri I are :• lad to report t Im t this invital ion ha 
iccepted, nnd that the South Wales [nstitute al En( 
prepared to co operate and ussoeiate themselves with I he [nstitu- 
tioti ni Mining Engineers in their appeal. 

The matter is now in the hands oi the Executive Council of 
the Mining Association oi Great Britain. 

Mining Sti dents <>\ Servk 

The efforts oi the Committee appointed to consider the posi- 
tion oi mining students serving with the colours rds the 
examination for certificates of proficiency on their return from 
active service have been partially successful. Statutory Rules 
.Hid Orders have been issued granting privileges bo far as the 
writ ten and oral examinations are concerned, but no concessions 
are allowed with respect to the statutory time required to be 
spent in gaining practical experience. The certificate is with- 
held until this period is completed, although the candidate may 
have passed the examination. The Council acknowledge the 
privileges that have been granted, but regret that these should 
be made practically inoperative by refusal to errant any conces- 
sion in regard to service. 

The Committee arc continuing its efforts to accomplish this 
object. 

Department of Mines and Minerals. 

A joint memorial on behalf of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers, the Iron and Steel Institute, the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy, and the Institute of Metals was 
addressed to the Chairman of the Advisory Board for Scientific 
and Indus! rial Research, urging the organization of a Central 
Department of Mines and Minerals. An Inter-departmental 
Committee has been appointed to prepare a scheme for the estab- 
lishment in London of such a department. 

Reciprocal Recognition of Mining Engineers in Great 

Britain and Russia. 

In response to a request from the Board of Trade that the 
Council should express their opinion as to the desirability of 
inducing the Russian Government to recognize engineering 
degrees and diplomas granted by competent authorities in Great 
Britain in return for reciprocal recognition of Russian degrees 
and diplomas in the United Kingdom, they have replied that in 
the Council's opinion the effect of University degrees and 
diplomas should be made reciprocal so far as the Government < 
of both countries are concerned. 



1917-1918.] inst. m. e. — annual report of council, 191g-1917. 25 

Board of Scientific Societies. 

The names of the following members were submitted to give 
evidence before the Government Committee on Science in the 
Educational System of Great Britain : — Colonel W. C. Blackett, 
T.D., Messrs. F. Coulson, M. Deacon, T. Y. Greener, S. Hare, 
W. Pickup, L. Ridsdale, G. Spencer, G. Blake Walker, Profs. 
D. Burns, J. Cadmsn, C.M.G., F. W. Hardwick, C. Latham, 
and U. Louis. 

Alien Memukks. 

The Council have approved and will propose to the members 
for their approval the following addition to the Bye-laws : - 

" In the event of a state of war existing between the United Kingdom 
and any other country or State, all Honorary Members, Members, Associate 
Members, Associates, or Students who shall be subjects of such enemy 
country or state, shall forthwith cease to be Honorary Members, Members, 
Associate Members, Associates, or Students of the Institution, but they may 
be eligible for re-election after the Avar in the usual manner." 

Library. 

During the year forty-three volumes have been added to the 
Library, which now contains 2, GOT volumes. 

Publications. 

Six Presidential Addresses, thirty papers, and fourteen 
abstracts have been printed in Volumes LIT. and LIU. of the 
Transactions. 

A Reference Committee of Excerpts has been appointed to 
examine and report on papers for insertion in the Transactions. 

Mr. R. W. Dron has been appointed Chairman of the 
Finance and Publications Committee in succession to the late 
Mr. J. H. Merivale. 

Finances. 

The Capital Funds of the Institution, which formerly were 
invested in the names of the Trustees, have now been trans- 
ferred into the name of the Institution. The Statement of 
Accounts herewith submitted shows the ordinary income for 
the year ended July 31st, 1917, to have been £4,478 14s. 8d., as 
compared with £4,642 18s. 6d. for the previous year. The 
expenditure amounted to £3,633 10s. 2d., as compared with 
£4,776 17s. 6d. for the year 1915-1916. 

The balance of assets over liabilities, exclusive of the Capital 
Fund and of the value of the stock of Transactions, but inclusive 
of the value of furniture and fixtures (after allowing for depre- 
ciation), now stands at £3,639 4s. 10d., as against £2,799 0s. 4d. 
for the previous year. 



■ , i . i ill NORTH OJ I ■ .1 I i mm. Vol. I 

g> t I 111. I l;l. I .III 

BAB 

July Slit, I'ji . ' 

de] 

■•! .lit 



' 



Eoi ' lit: J I 

Manchi and Mining Society -•> 

M idland Couni lea Instil ution ol I ( > 

Midland [q Mining, < ad Mecl 

Engineers 

Mining Institute of Scotland •"• 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mecbani 

En, 191 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining Engineers ... 7 

Bouth Staffordshire and Warwickshire Institute 

Mining Enerineera ... ... ... ••• '5 u 



Noiirfi <t< rati d- 
M anch'est< G< i and Mining Society ... 10 

Mining Institute of Sc ''Hup! 



317 



1 1 



To Subscriptions Eor the year ended July 31st, 1917— 

Federated — 

Manchester Geological and Mining Society ... ... 244 

Midland Counties Institution of Engineers ... ... 170 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, and Median 
Engineers 4U8 

Mining Institute of Scotland 556 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechani 

Engineers 1,069 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining Engineers ... 70 

South Staffordshire and Warwickshire Institute of 

Mining Engineers ... ... ... ... ... 63 



- • 



yon-federated — 
Manchester Geological and Mining Society ... ... 7 10 

Mining I:i>titute of Scotland ... ... ... ... 2 10 



10 



Carried forward £3,468 2 



1917-1918.] INST. M. E. — ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 27 



The Institution op Mining Engineers, 
ended July 31st, 1917. 



dr. 



July 31st, 1917. 

By Printing — 

Transactions — 

Vol. li., parts 4 to 6, printing 391 19 10 
.. ., part 3, plates 35 5 



& s. d. £ s. d. £, s. d. £ s. d 



427 4 10 



., lii., parts 1 to 5, printing 480 18 5 
., „ ., 1 to 5. plates 108 7 



588 19 



„ liii., parts 1 to 3, printing 203 18 5 
.. ,. „ 1 to 3, plates 54 4 6 



List of members, year 1915-1916 

Excerpts, vol. 1. 

» H 

„ lii 

„ Hii 

Proofs of papers for general meetings ... 
Circulars 

,, Address labels 

„ Issuing Transactions, etc 

„ Stationery, etc. 

, Binding — Transactions 
Library ... 
Sundries 

„ Insurance of Transactions, office Btaff, 
furniture, etc. 

.. Postages — Circulars ... 

Corresponden ce 
Transactions ... 



258 2 1 1 
61 2 

8 5 10 
26 13 6 
76 12 9 
16 7 11 



1,335 6 11 



128 i) 

9 3 

41 13 2 

21 4 9 

13 12 

89 19 9 



1,514 3 1 



34 16 9 



39 19 

13 



40 12 
16 2 9 



5 15 7 

32 2 8 

270 14 1 



308 12 4 



455 6 10 



Carried forward 



£2,004 6 - 



l'i'10 i 1 1 I UKTJI Ol i I. LAND J I i I i I I 



\'<-l i 



B>i 



• I WJIII 



•ill Publ 

i 
Manchi : M 

of M . ■ 
Mechfl I 

Mil, v ii i ... 

'] • . and 
Mechanical Ed 

Warwickshire [nsti. 
htte of Minine Ei 



] -.1 ea of Trun - id ions, etc. 

I nstitution of Mining Ei \ 

Manchee M 'y ••■ 

Midland Counties Institution of Engineers ... 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, and 
Mechanical Engine* 

Mining Institute of Scotland ... 

North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Enginei 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining 
Engineers 

- ith Staffordshire and Warwickshire Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers 



: 




> 




> 













1- 




' 












1 1 


16 








i 


I. 


- 









I 




i 


6 10 


1 




. 


gg 






2 ; 


19 








::i 


5 


10 






>; 


12 


6 






16 


1 1 

4 


2 



17 " 
22 13 10 



34 7 1 s 



To Advertisements — 

List of members, year 1915-1916 
Transactions ... 

,, Address labels ... 

,, Interest on bank deposit account 

., Income from investments (less tax) ... 

,, Income-tax refunded ... 

,, Lettii mnci I Chamber 

,. Research Fund — Grant from Government 



16 















187 


17 


5 

4o'-{ 


17 












7 

45 

522 

171 


1 
8 

19 
4 


6 
4 
4 
6 
1,1 ' 

1 
350 


11 



1 

6 




£5,401 7 



1917-1918.] INST. M. E. ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 29 



The Institution of Mining Engineers. — Continued. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 

By Reporting of general meetings ... 

,, Expenses of general and other meetings 

„ Incidental expenses 

,, Salaries, wages, auditing, etc. 

,, Indexing Transactions, vols. li. and lii. 

,, Travelling expenses — 

Hon. Secretary ... ... ... ... 27 15 

Secretary ... ... ... ... ... 35 10 2 

,, Institution Medal ... ... 

,, Advertisement commission — 

List of members, year 1915-1916 ... 4 

Transactions ... ... ... ... 96 19 4 

„ Abstracts of foreign papers, vol. lii. 

,, Rent, rates, and taxes 

„ Cleaning, lighting, etc. 

„ Repairs, etc. 

,, Telephone rent, telegraphic address, etc. 

,, Transfer of Investments ... 

,, Balance made up as follows — 

Balance at bank, current account 

,, ,, deposit account 

„ .. research account 

,, of petty cash account ... 



s d. £ s. d. 

2,001 6 8 



9 17 4 

10 1 2 

33 11 

1,198 1 6 

35 



63 11 2 



1,350 



2 5 fi 



100 19 4 

9 3 

384 5 

24 11 9 

12 7 

9 19 4 

19 13 5 



112 



4 39 2 1 



245 16 

800 

350 

99 6 4 
1,495 



We have examined the above account of receipts and payments, 
with the books and vouchers relating thereto, and certify that in 
our opinion it is correct. 

John G. Benson & Sons, 

('mastered Accountants. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

August 28th, 1917. 



£5,401 7 



MM SOUTH Ol I 'II. in 

BALi 



TLinbilttics. 

.July 31 ' 191 i 

Bund litoi 

\ I • ■ 

Pi 111' ill'/, .' I'll! ' i | 

Post ■ Transact 

meinbei ■ I 

I tl'll'X ! - lil. ... 

Renl i !. ei ; 1917, 

to Julj Blst, I917J ... 
Adjustment 



I ■ 

17 1 

36 18 2 

- 11 



nment Research Fund — 

Amount of Grant to 1 xpended on lie 

•1 of Atmosp] r Conditions in Hot and 
... 
Ralance of assets over liabilities, exclusive of the value 

of the stock of Transactions, etc. — £ b. d. 

A. al July 31st, 1916 >9 4 

Add Surplus, as per incomc-and-expen- 

ditnre account ... ... ,.. ... 840 4 6 



Add Capita 'it — 

\< at July 31st, 1916:— 



3.639 4 10 
15,030 3 7 



- 10 11 



ii 



18,669 B 5 



We have examined the above balance-sheet, with the 

books and vouchers relating thereto, and certify that 
in our opinion it exhibits a correct view of the affairs 
of the Institution. We have verified the securities 
representing the investments of the Institution. 

John G. Benson & Sons, 

Chartered Accountants. 

Newcasl le-upon-Tyne, 

Aug it 28th. 1917. 



£19.400 6 4 



1917-1DIS.J INST. M. E. — ANNUAL KEPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 



31 



Mining Engineers. 
July 31st. 1917. 



'Besets. 

July 31st, 1917. 

Balance at bank, current account ... 

„ ,, deposit account 

,, .. research account ... 

,, of petty cash account 

Investments — 

Tyne Improvement Commission ... ... 

£845 6s. 6d. Queensland 3|-per-cent. stock at cost 

The value of the above two investment? at 
July 31st, 1917. was £1,817 2s. 

Capital Fund Account Investments, as per schedule 

The value of the Capital Fund investments at 
July 31st. 1917, was £11,560. 

Interest on investments accrued to July 31st, 1917 
Subscriptions for the year ended July 31st, 1916 — ■ 
Non- Federated — 
Manchester Geological Society ... 
Subscriptions for the year ended July 31st, 1917, as per 
guarantee — 
Federated — 
Manchester Geological and Mining Society 
Midland Counties Institution of Engineers 
Mining Institute of Scotland 
North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining Engineers ... 
South Staffordshire and Warwickshire Institute of 
Mining Engineers 

Local Publications and Authors' Copies, unpaid — 

The Institution of Mining Engineers .., 

Transactions Sold, unpaid— 

The Institution of Mining Engineers 
Manchester Geological Society ... 

Midland Counties Institute ... ... 

Mining Institute of Scotland 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers ... ... ... 

North Staffordshire Institute of Mining Engineers ... 
South Staffordshire and "Warwickshire Institute of 

Mining Engineers 

Advertisements, unpaid (less commission) 
furniture and fixtures as at July 31st, 1916 

Less depreciation at 1\ per cent, on first cost ... 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 

215 16 

800 

350 

99 6 4 
1,495 2 4 



1,200 
800 



2.000 



15,030 3 7 



263 6 7 



10 



410 

70 

10 

131 

30 

33 



5 4 3 

4 2 

4 3 

1 1 

1 

2 2 

1 9 4 



230 2 

37 6 3 



315 



15 12 5 



15 2 10 
72 13 8 



192 13 11 



£19,400 



VOL. T.XVIII.— 1017-191-;. 



4 E 



. . I • I I I I > I I 'I I I I I . \ - , I J X V I I I 

J ll > I • ' ; ; ; , 
2>[ . I I •• I'll DM AOOOI FT 

, ■!. i ■ <\ 

l'o Print 

M" III 
l\it i mated liability to oomp 

mc bei 210 1 1 

1,057 I M 
in. and liii. 10 8 

Hiatal liabil 
vol. liii. ... ... 

1 1 :>. 1 1 



l'i oofs ol p.* i 9 

Circulars ... ... ... li 13 •_• 



1,2! 

„ Postages 'J!.') Ifl 6 

Estimated liability to complete vol. liii. and list 

of members ... ... ... ... ... 57 U 

272 10 

Issuing Trm, etc., and printing addret ... 34 10 r » 

Stationery ... f< r » 

Binding ... ... 40 12 

Insurance of Tra », furniture, ami office slat? ... 16 2 9 

Reporting of general meetings ... ... ... ... 9 17 4 

Expenses of general and other meetings ... ... ... 10 1 2 

Incidental expenses ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 11 

Salaries, wages, auditing, et ... ... ... ... 1,198 1 6 

Indexing Transactions, vols. lii. and liii. ... ... ... 3f> 

Travelling expenses ... ... ... ... 63 11 2 

Institution medal for the year 1915-1916 ... 'J 5 

Advertisement commission ... ... ... ... ... 90 17 1 

Abstracts of foreign papers in vol. lii. ... ... ... ... 9 3 

Depreciation of furniture ... ... ... ... ... 37 6 3 

Rent, rates, and taxes, cleaning, lighting, etc. ... ... ... 408 16 9 

Repairs, etc. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 7 

Telephone rent, telegraphic address, etc. ... .... 9 19 4 

Transfer of investments ... ... ... ... ... 19135 

Adjustment of excerpts (estimated) ... ... ... ... 61811 

Amount under-estimated for printing and issuing the concluding 

parts of the Transactions for the year 1915-1916 ... 22 6 2 

3,633 10 2 

,, Surplus ... 840 4 6 



£4,473 14 S 



1917-1918. J INST. M. E. ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 33 

Mining Engineers. 

for the Year ended July 31st, 1917- <&V. 



By Calls on members, paid July 31st, 1917 
,, ,, ,, guaranteed, but not paid 

,, Calls on non-federated members for year 1915-1916 
Due, but not paid ... 

,, Local publications and authors' copies — 

Paid July 31st, 1917 

Due, but not paid 



,, Sales of Trcmsaclions, etc.— 
Paid, July 31st, 1917 
Due, but not paid ... 

,, Advertisements ... 

,, Address labels ... 

,, Interest on bank deposit account 

,, Income from investments 

,, Reclaimed income-tax ... 

,, Letting of Council Chamber ... 



£ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d 


2,590 











315 















2,905 





o 






1 10 











10 















2 


o 





77 7 


3 








15 12 


5 












92 


19 


g 


317 1 


8 




15 2 


10 












362 
363 


4 

8 


6 

4 










7 


1 


6 






4.") 


8 


4 






522 


19 


4 






171 


4 


6 






1 


s 


6 



£4,473 14 » 



rim 



IK NOKTII OK 1 (.1 I) 1 IN M 



i . • ■ Kith 

■ inland i ■ 

£1,000 - | 1940 I960 

£1,000 N- w Zealand L-per-c* 

£1,000 Soul ■ I ■ io I960 

£1,000 V 

£ i ,(M" I hern Rail ■ 

k... 
£1,000 Londoi ern Rail* aj l i 

pi i k, 1881 

£2,000 V 1 1 h East ei d R lilw 

10 Norl ii I '.i ■ way Bdii 

cent . pi i k ... 

£2,000 London & North- Western Railway 3*per-cent. p'-rpetual 
ilrbt-Mi urc stock 



£2,000 Midland Railway consolidal 

preference stock ... 
£ 1,000 Great Western Railway consolidated 5-per-cent. preference 

stock 



£16,000 at a cost of 





I 

I 11 
979 13 11 

975 17 

75 17 
I 

2,145 

1,576 1 4 

1,235 10 'J 

1,184 11 11 

t: 15,030 3 7 



(The value of the above investments at July 31st , 1917. was £ll,560i 



1917-1918] INST. M. E. — ANNUAL 



REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 



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I kCTIO i ii i '.i; i n mi i i,la I) 1 i i i ' i i Vol. la 

KLEC l [OH 01 01 I' [( EH L91" L9J 
The election of officers for the i p 1917-1918 wa announced, 

■ .1 li.W 

I'lM 

M c \\ 1 

\'m i I'm i Dl 

Mr .1 \mi . I; M f I 

M • Q 3 I Mi- ChaRLI ' BALI LaACfl 

Ool William Ctjthbxbi Blacked Sir W. i> Lloyd 

Mr FrANE IN. Mr. DAVIS M um< ICOWAT. 

Mr CHARLES ChETWYND BlLISOE Mr W'ii.i.mm PlOKVP. 

Mi- .ion mm) Mr Franz Bo 

Mi- |?HOMAa STOTJNG GREENES Mr. Am - in 

Mr. John Gregort Mr Georgi Spencer 

A i hi L'ORS. 

Messrs. John (i. Benson & Sons, Chartered Accountants, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, were re-elected the auditors for the year 

1017-1918. 



KXKMY ALIEN MEMBERS 

The President proposed that, in accordance with the resolu- 
tion come to unanimously by the Council, the following Bye- 
law be added to the Institution's Bye-laws, and submitted to the 
Lords of His Majesty's Privy Council for its allowance : — 

" In the event of a state of war existing 1 between the United Kingdom and 
any other country or State, all Honorary Members. Members, Associate 
Members, Associates, or Students, who shall be subjects of such enemy 
country or State, shall forthwith cease to be Honorary Members, Member?, 
Associate Members, Associates, or Students of the Institution, but they 
may be eligible for re-election after the war in the usual manner." 

Mr. John Simpson seconded the motion, which was carried 
nem. con. 



1917-1918 J GRAHAM— OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 37 



THE OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL.— PART I, 



By J. IVON GRAHAM, B.A., B.Sc., and JAMES HILL, M.Sc, 
Doncaster Coal Owners' Research Laboratory. 



Introduction. — As part of the general study of the 
spontaneous combustion of coal, previous researches carried 
out at this laboratory have dealt mainly with the 
problem of the absorption of oxygen by samples from 
different seams and different parts of the same seam, 
and quantitative measurements under varying conditions 
have been made. The heating effect of this absorption and the 
quantitative determination of the gaseous oxidation products 
have also been measured. Very little is, however, so far known 
as to the nature of the substance or substances present in coal 
responsible for this oxidation. This is not to be wondered at, 
considering the complex nature of the coal conglomerate and the 
difficulty that has been experienced in obtaining tangible results 
by the ordinary methods of chemical attack. 

The methods hitherto employed in the investigation of the 
nature of the constituents of coal have followed two main lines — 

(1) The extraction of coal by solvents, and 

(2) The distillation of coal under varying conditions of tem- 
perature and pressure. 

Both these methods have led to valuable results being 
obtained, and a considerable amount of light being thrown on 
the question of the composition of coal. 

The pioneer experiments in connexion with the extraction of 
coal were carried out by Prof. P. Phillips Bedson and his col- 
laborators about twenty years ago, and some of the results of 
their interesting investigations were communicated in a paper 
read before The North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers,* in which the superiority of pyridine over 
other solvents was clearly demonstrated. 

More recently Dr. R. V. Wheeler and his co-workersf at the 
Government Experimental Station at Eskmeals have carried out 
a large number of experiments on the extraction of coal with 
solvents, and as a result of their investigations conclude that 
the coal conglomerate may be resolved by means of pyridine and 
chloroform into two distinct portions — (1) that portion soluble 
in both pyridine and chloroform, which they term the resinic 

* "The Solvent Action of Pyridine on Certain Coals," by T. Baker, B.Sc, 
Trans, hist. M. E., 1900-1901. vol. xx., page 159. 

f Trans. Gkem. Soc, 1913, vol. ciii., page 1704; 1915, vol. cvii., page 1318; 
1916, vol. cix., page 707- 



I ;i , ., (.LAM) 1 IIMI 

i !,;,! i ,, , 1 1 [on i UHoluhle in « hlorotoi ui unci only 
olublc in pyridii i w bich the} tei m th< a llulo 
I :,, tate thai th* foi in. i 
,,i. • foi in "i o> id w I'i'li i i lieinii 

. ,| plate. A ' terature oi th< 

also i he impression i hal the pyi idii i iv\ from coal is 

n adilj oxidizable. There ap •' , - little 

w.,\ oi definil inn. 'ni.il evi< and 

as the extract ion in <•• : ' "''' ""• 

u m li (mi 1 due precaul ioi tken to prevent oxidation - 

cowl, there is qo doubl thai q i onsiderable quantil 
musl have been absorbed during extraction. It seemed strongly 
desirable, th< thai the extraction i I with pyrid 

should be perfoi med in an ii mosph< d thai 

tive oxidizability oi the extracl and residue, ed wit! 

thai <»t the coal befi i atinenl with pyridine, should 

thoroughly examined. 

Most workers are agreed thai a certain amounl oi combii 
tion of tlif pyridine with the coal substance occurs during i 
traction, from the Pad that, on analysis, both I and 

residue contain more nitrogen than the coal before extractii 
despite every efforl to remove all trace oi pyridine. As 

med probable thai this combination would occur less readily 
at low temperatures than ai high, the authors decided to carr\ 
out, in the firsl plac< - oi extractions oi coal with pyridine 

at the lowest temperature consistenl with a satisfactory exti 
tion, and in an inert atmosphere. The following method 
extraction has therefore been employed, and the relative 
oxidizability of the differenl portions carefully determined 
the manner subsequently described. 

Method of Extraction. — Fig. 1 shows the general arrange- 
ment of the extraction apparatus. This consists simply 

a Soxhlel extraction apparatus, suitably modified - 
as to allow the extraction to be carried out at a low 
pressure in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The extraction vesse 
li. of about 250 cubic centimetres capacity, is fitted to the litre 
flask ,1 by a ground-glass joint, the worm condenser C being 
connected to B in a like manner. A is placed in an electric 
heater, packed with asbestos, the temperature of which can be 
regulated. The top of C is closed with a rubber bung carrying* a 
tube, which is sealed on to a manometer tube D, and a tap E. 
the latter being further connected to a three-way tap F. by 
which communication may be made to a water suction-pump or 
to i]i^ nitrogen supply. The two ground-glass joints and the 
rubber joint at the top of C are fitted with mercury seals to 
render them perfectly airtight. Some difficulty was at firsl ex- 



1917-1918.1 GRAHAM OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 



39 



perienced in devising' a suitable arrangement for containing the 
coal in the extraction vessel, it being impossible to use an ordi- 
nary paper thimble, owing to the narrow neck of the extractor. 







Jf WATER 
*^SUPPLY 




E 



FCf 



3— >TO PUMP 



^ 



TO NfTROCEN 



Fig. 1. — Coal Extraction Apparatus. 



A piece of filter-paper, placed at the bottom of the extraction 
chamber and covered with a pad of glass-wool, was tried, a plug 
of glass-wool being also placed in the end of the syphon tube. 



Id i if \ \ \« mm\ i ii i SOETH "i KNGLAN'J) i '■ l"ITl PI Vol hcriii. 

Inii iln .1 1 1 .Mir '•incut 1 1 nl M<i prevent p;irti< lea oi coal from be 

. [ed <»\ ei into i lie flask dui ing i he ■;. plion ing 
pad ot n fibre, well pressed down and im i with 

j»\ rid ine, \\ n placed i n t he hoi bora oi « he ex ' i actoi . 
satisfactory results. \ further difficulty wa* inel with 
the fad t hal t he i oal w elled to n marked d< ked 

together on coming into contacl with pyridine, *o thai «ome i 
perience was necessary before if was discovered how much coal 
the apparatus would deal with, and how to p it 

caking. Two experiments maj be mentioned here, showing the 
aviditj with which coal takes up pyridine. En one i ome 

finely-ground dried coal was placed on .1 flock glass in a vacuum 
desiccator over pyridine: it was found thai the coal absorbed so 
much pyridine thai it swelled up and crepl ovei the edge ol the 
clock glass. In the other case, a sample <>t dry coal-dust, ground 
to pass a sieve having 200 meshes to the linear inch, was placed in 
a glass bottle and exposed to pyridine vapour at a temperature 
of M° Cent. It was found that the coal absorbed fully its own 
weight of pyridine, although the vapour pressure of pyridine 
this temperature is only approximately equal to 30 millimetres of 
mercury. It was eventually found that the coal did not cake if it 
was thoroughly soaked with, pyridine on first being- placed in the 
extractor, and if it was not ground to too great a degree of fine- 
ness. Coal ground to pass a 90-mesh sieve was found to 
work satisfactorily, but anything finer than this was not per- 
missible when using as much as 100 grammes of coal-dust. It 
was thought possible that the rubber bung at the top of C might 
be acted on by pyridine vapour, but very little action took place, 
if any at all. The coal, together with some pyridine, having 
been placed in the extractor, the latter fitted to the flask A 
(which contained the bulk of the pyridine) and the condenser C, 
and connected to the gauge as shown in Fig. 1. the apparatus 
was first exhausted as completely as possible by the water suc- 
tion-pump, then connected by the three-way tap to the nitro- 
gen supply, and filled with nitrogen, which was allowed to pass 
through alkaline pyrogallic acid, so as to absorb any trace of 
oxygen that might be present. This process of exhaustion and 
washing out with nitrogen was repeated a second time. The 
nitrogen was then pumped out and the extraction carried on at a 
pressure of about 00 millimetres (at which pressure the boiling- 
point of pyridine is about 55° Cent.) for a period of about three 
weeks. In this way oxygen was totally excluded from the ex- 
traction apparatus, and as far as possible all subsequent opera- 
tions were carried on in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The coal 
used for extraction in each case was Barnsley Softs dried in 
vacuo at 100° Cent. Redistilled pyridine boiling between 112° 
and 117° Cent, was employed. The process of extraction was 



1917-1918.] GRAHAM — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 11 

carried on until the pyridine coming away from the coal was 
almost colourless. The temperature of the coal during extrac- 
tion was approximately 40° Cent. 

In the first extraction, 150 grammes of coal, ground to pass 
through a 10-mesh sieve, was extracted with 450 cubic centi- 
metres of pyridine for four weeks, the extract obtained amount- 
ing to 10 per cent, of the original coal. In the second extraction 
100 grammes of coal, ground to pass through a 30-mesh sieve, was 
extracted with 500 cubic centimetres of pyridine for three weeks, 
15 per cent, of extract being obtained. In the third extraction, 
100 grammes of coal, ground to pass through a 90-mesh 
sieve, was extracted with G50 cubic centimetres of pyridine 
for IT days, 10 per cent, of extract being obtained; the residue 
from this extraction was subsequently further extracted with 500 
cubic centimetres of pyridine, an extra 4 per cent, of extract 
resulting. 

After the extraction was finished, the residue, in position in 
the extractor, was heated in vacuo in an electric bath, and as 
much pyridine as possible distilled off. It was then easily 
removed from the extraction vessel, quickly ground up to a fine 
dust, placed in a flask, and heated for a period of several days on 
the water-bath in a current of nitrogen. In this way it was 
obtained free from all but a very small amount of pyridine. 

The extract from the first extraction was heated in vacuo in 
an electric bath, so as to distil off some of the pyridine, and the 
remaining solution was then poured into cold (previously boiled) 
water containing enough hydrochloric acid to neutralize all the 
pyridine. The extract was thus precipitated as a brown powder, 
which was quickly filtered off, well washed with cold (previously 
boiled) water, and dried in a current of nitrogen at 100° Cent, in 
an electric heater. In subsequent extractions, the whole of 
the pyridine solution was poured into the acid solution without 
previous distillation, this method of treatment being found to 
be quicker and quite as satisfactory. The extract thus obtained 
appears to be completely free from pyridine. 

As thus obtained, the extract was found to be a very light, 
dry, chocolate-brown powder. The residue was a dull greyish- 
black powder, somewhat similar in appearance to finely-ground 
coke. 

The Absorption of Oxygen. — The oxidation of the original 
coal, and of the portions soluble and insoluble respectively in 
pyridine, has been carried out at both 30° and 90° Cent., 
measurements of the absorption being made at the latter tempera- 
ture, both in air and in an atmosphere containing approximately 
90 per cent, of oxygen. 

For the oxidation in a current of air, the method described 



ctio riu i ii '.i i n«.i \M» i •. 1 1 1 1 1 1 

l»\ Mi I I \\ i n in 1 1 1 i h |\i 1 1 I . iii i Ik mi ' I be 

Absorption oi Oxygen bj Coal," iibsequentl} u -•-< 1 ii 

the w in L ,ii ilii- I :i 1 1 n i .1 1 n i •, Mi, the oxidation oi coal, ha 
In en nil ployed. 

The results obtained, showing the relation : 
(»i oxidation and time oi exposure to the air-current, for the 
: ! . pxti ii i . ii ii d res id ue, .1 re g 1 veu 1 n I ;< ble I . 

The above method oi oxidation 1-. howev* r, 01 Factory 

when 1 1 is con ven ienl to employ noi Less tha n 1 00 grain 1 the 

materia] undei 1 lamination lor oxidatioi 
oi)° Cent., although onlj about a tenth quani I 

required when the oxidation is carried out ai 90° Cent. 

Since the quantitj oi extract obtained from the coal amoui 
to only aboui L5 grammes it being found expediei 
reasons already mentioned, noi to use more than inn grammes 
of line coal in the Soxhlei extraction apparatus ;i different 
method oi oxidation has been adopted. The apparatus employed 
- shown in Fig. 2, and is similar in some respects to thai ui 
by Mr. Winmill to measure the total absorption of oxygen by 
Barnsley Hard Coal. The dried sample oi coal, exi or 

residue is weighed into a smal] flask .1. The hitter is quickly 
sealed on to the remainder of the apparatus at '/, and then com- 
pletely evacuated, the tap b turned, and the apparatus then fixed 
in position so that A is completely immersed in the thermostat 
working at 30° or 90° Cent., as the case might he. 

All the gas present in the apparatus can be pumped out 
and accurately measured by means of the measuring vessel M 
(the volume of which from the tap rf to the graduation mark m had 
been previously determined) and the mercury reservoir //. After 
measurement, the gas withdrawn from the apparatus can be 
passed through the three- way tap e to a sample tube for ^u 1 
quent analysis. The vessel M is a No used for admitting a 
measured quantity of oxygen sample to the apparatus. M is 
surrounded by a water-jacket, the temperature of which is noted 
when pumping out or admitting gas to the apparatus. 

The tap c is connected to a glass reservoir R, containing con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. By employing a horizontal reservoir 
of this type the difference in pressure in A when the reservoir 
is full of oxygen and when empty is very small. 

A< it was found thai the gases in A and 7? would uot 
mix thoroughly by diffusion alone, the syphon arrangement 
depicted in Fig. 2 was devised. This consists of a wide-mouthed 
glass bottle S fitted with a rubber buna", through which pass three 
glass tubes. Two of these are about | inch in diameter and 
about 23 feet high — one straight, open at the top and bottom, 

* Trans, hist M. K, 1913-1914, vol. xlvi., page 563. 



1917-1918.] GRAHAM — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 



43 



and reaching to within an inch of the bottom of - the bottle — the 
other reaching to half an inch of the latter and bent at the top to 
form a syphon tube, the end of which leads into a sink. The 



TOTM> 




Fig. 2. — Oxidation Apparatus. 



third tube through the rubber bung is connected to R 1 . A gentle 
continuous stream of water is allowed to run down the tube t, 
and as soon as the level in S reaches the bottom of this tube, the 
pressure in S (and also in R l ) begins to rise above atmospheric. 



II ii'\\ \« im\v iiii SORT II 01 i VGLAXO LNMT1I n Vol ll 

' I 1 1 1 - level "I su I |'li "i i i' in i' I iii /•' i consequently depr< ed, ui 
n>. J! quantity ui the sample in R \ forced th rough the conn< 

i n in I . Wheu the watei level in / rises above t }i «• bend 
ui us, the water, oi coui e yphont rapidly o ei from S into the 
sink, until finally air rushes down t and the pr< and 

in //' again become atmospheric. The levehs of the sulphui 
acid in R iiiid R ] consequently readjust themselves, and b nnall 
quantity oi gas passes back from the flask .1 into the oir. 

The result of analysing samples taken direct from .1 and from R 
showed thai this method oi stirring up thi between .1 and 

R is \ ci \ effective. The average pressure in .1 and R is, of com 
increased l>\ ihis method, and consequently the partial pressure 
ui the oxygen in the oxidizing atmosphere is correspondingly 
altered. As the conditions are, however, the same for all the 
samples examined, this difference has no effect on the compara- 
tive results obtained tor the differeni samples. 

Having completely pumped oui all the gas from .1 and clo 
the tap b, the connexions // to c and R were washed out with the 
oxygen sample, the portion c to r (graduation mark) being left 
filled with the oxygen sample. The tap c was then closed, and 
the connexions between b, c, and <1 w r ere completely evacuated. 
.1/ was then filled with the oxygen sample to the graduation mark, 
i lie pressure of the sample measured on the gauge G, and the tem- 
perature oi the water-jacket noted. The oxygen sample was 
then transferred to R and the tap <1 closed : 6 was opened and the 
oxygen admitted into the flask . 1. When levelling the sulphuric 
acid in R to the mark r, the " syphon mixer " was always turned 
off so thai the acid was levelled with the pressure in R equal to 
atmospheric. After the admission of the oxygen sample to R 
and .1. the water-stream down / was again turned on and the 
syphon allowed to work continuously while oxidation was going 
on. After a definite period of time, the gas in R was withdrawn, 
the sulphuric acid in R being brought to the mark r, the tap c 
(dosed, and the remainder of the gas in A and connexions 
pumped out. measured, and analysed. A fresh measured quantity 
oJ oxygen sample was again admitted as before, and the oxida- 
tion allowed to proceed for a second period. 

Knowing the volume of oxygen sample added, the percentage 
oi oxygen in this sample, and also the volume of gases pumped 
out and the oxygen content of the latter, the amount of oxygen 
absorbed by the material in A was readily ascertained. From 
these results the average rate of absorption per definite weight per 
hour was calculated. This, then, was the average rate of absorp- 
tion after a time given by the number of hours from the com- 
mencement of oxidation plus half the number of hours of the 
period of oxidation. These calculated results are given in the 
filth and sixth columns of Tables TT. to TIT. (c) inclusive. 



1917-1918. J GRAHAM OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS ()!•' COAL 



45 



In the case of coal the absorption has been calculated for 100 
grammes, and in the case of the extract and residue for the 
number of grammes equal to the percentage of extract and 
residue respectively. 

It is evident that in these experiments the oxidation has been 
carried out on the dried sample in a dry oxidizing atmosphere. 

Table I. — Baenslby Softs ground to pass a 10-M.esh Sieve. — 
Gave 10 per cent. Extract. 

Oxidation in air, after grinding coal, extract, and residue to pas* through a 

00-mesh sieve 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Cent. 



Coal. Extract. i Residue. 


Rate of Rate of 

, ., , absorption . ,. , absorption 
After hours. per 100 graimne , A ! ter hours. per 10 pa^^ 

per hour. per hour. 


Kate of 
. ., , absorption 
After hours. ,, e r 90 grammes 
per hour. 


1-25 
4-75 
13-75 
18-75 
26-25 
43-75 
69-75 


Cubic centi- Cubic centi- 
metres at metres at 
N.T.P. N.T.P. 
1550 1-25 21 
751 5-5] 1-3 
41-65 18-75 0-87 
35-45 25-75 0-81 
30-0 — — 
24-45 50-55 0-57 
18-0 — 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
1-50 145 6 
5-75 71-7 
18-75 38-8 
25-75 29-7 
39-75 25-6 
50-55 20-7 
55 20-0 
690 16-0 



Analyses : 


— Calculated 


to Ash and Moistuke 


Free 


Sample. 


Carbon . . 




Coal. Extract. 
79-34 86-79 




llesidue. 
76-25 


Hydrogen 




4-84 6-23 




4-41 


Nitrogen 




1-68 2-02* 




2-51* 


Oxygen 




13 20 3-64 




15-80 


Sulphur . . 




0-94 1-32 




103 


Ash 




155 028 




1-50 


Volatile matter 




35-45 62-90 




37-63 




* Contain a little pyridine. 







Table II.— Oxidation of Dried Coal— as used for Second Extraction, 

POWDERED TO PASS THROUGH A 60-MESH SlEVE. — GAVE 15 PER CENT. EXTRACT. 

Oxidizing atmosphere contained approximately 90 per cent, oxygen. 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . 90° Cent. 



Volume of 
oxygen 
added. 


1 

\ olume of 

oxygen 

pumped out. 


Volume of 

oxygen 
absorbed 
per 8'422 

grammes. 


Period 

of 

oxidation. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed 

1 per 100 grammes 

per hour. 


After hours. 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 

N.T.P. 
106-3 


i Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
700 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
36-3 


Hours. 
1-22 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 

N.T.P. 
354 


0-6 


74-4 


42-55 


31-85 


2-37 


160 


2-4 


81-35 


49-7 


31-65 


3-75 


1000 


5-5 


85-9 


560 


29-9 


5-33 


66-6 


100 


102-5 


49-9 


52-6 


120 


520 


18-66 


7115 


43-6 


27-55 


8-0 


40-5 


28-66 


102-0 


47-8 


54-2 


18-0 


35-7 


41-66 


87-5 


481 

i 


39-4 


24 


19-5 

! 


62-66 



\ I I I " \ ■ I I I I . • i I • I I I < I I I \ < . I \ \ I j I I II I I I V ( 



\ ■ . i , i Calculai \ 1 1 

on 
Hydi 
Nil rog< n . . 14 1 

12*37 

Nulphur 117 



• 






TaBLI II (a) OXIDATIO : I: A' 1 I BOM 8 I POWD1 

■ 

Oxidizing atmosphere tied approximately 90 p< 

femperal are of oxidation . . it. 



Volume of 
\> gen 
added 


ime "f 
oxygen 
pumped "ut 


\ olume of 

1 by 

674' 


Pei 
of 
oxidation. 


\ Cli: 

j.er 15 gra 

our. 


m. 


« "ubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P 

54-6 


Cubic centi- 
me! i - 

\ T.I' 

50-55 


Cubic cent! 

metres at 
\ IT 
t-05 


Ho 

2 35 


riti- 
N T.P. 


117 


56-9 


P3-6 


13-3 


9-7 


3*0 




57-55 


38-55 


19-0 


[4-2 




19-2 


57 *5 


30-6 


26*9 


L9-8 


3-0 






30-4 




26-9 


2] 


59*5 



Analyses: Calculated ro \sb ^nd Moistube Free Sample. 

< "arlion 
Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 
Oxygen . . 
Sulphur 



1-42 

1 -46 



Ash 

Volatile matter 



0-95 
58-95 



Table [1.(6). — Oxidation of Dried Residue from Second Extraction: all 

POWDERED TO TASS THROUGH A 60-MeSH SlEVE. 

Oxidizing temperature contained approximately 90 per cent, oxygen. 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . 90' Cent. 



Volume of 
oxygen 
added. 


Volume of 

oxygen 
pumped out. 


Volume of 
oxygen 

absorbed by 
13'331 grammes. 


Period 

of 
"xMation. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed 

per 85 grammes 

per hour. 


After hours. 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
60-4 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
13t) 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 

46-8 


Eours. 
0-83 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 

N.T.P. 
358-0 


0-42 


58-95 


14-2 


44*75 


1-75 


163-0 


1-70 


59-45 


15-0 


44-45 


2-5 


113-4 


3-83 


55-6 


16-7 


38-9 


30 


82-55 


6-58 


60-35 


19-1 


41-25 


4-5 


58-35 


10-33 


69-8 


12-7 


171 


5-42 


55*45 


15-33 


58-9 


23-95 


34-95 


5*0 


44-55 


20-5 


56-3 


26-8 


29-5 


6-5 


28-95 


26-25 


83-95 


351 


48-85 


12*0 


25-95 


35-5 


67-75 


28-75 


29-0 


8-0 


23-10 


45-5 


680 


26-80 


41-2 


13-42 


19-6 


56-25 



1917-1918.] GRAHAM — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OP COAL 



Analyses : —Calculated to Ash and Moisture Free Sample. 



Carbon 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Sulphur 



Ash 

Volatile matter 



74-37 
4-60 
2-06* 

17-87 
110 



2-40 
4010 



* Contains some pyridine. 



Table III. — Oxidation of Dried Coal a.s used for Third Extraction; 
all ground to pass through a 60-Mesh Sieve. 
Oxidizing atmosphere contained approximately 70 per cent, oxygen. 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . 30° Cent. 







Volume of 




Volume of 




Volume of 


Volume of 


oxygen 


Period 


oxygen 




oxygen 


oxygen 


absorbed by 


of 


absorbed per 


After hours. 


added. 


pumped out. 


39 946 grammes 


oxidation. 


100 grammes 








of Coal. 




per hour. 




Cubic centi- 


Cubic centi- 


Cubic centi- 




Cubic centi- 




metres at 


metres at 


metres at 


Hours. 


metres at 




N T.P. 


N.T.P. 


N.T.P. 




N.T.P. 




68-05 


41-6 


26-45 


4-5 


14-72 


2-25 


90-75 


49-4 


41-35 


14-66 


7-06 


11-83 


110-2 


51-85 


58-35 


36-33 


4 02 


37-33 


90-5 


42-55 


47-95 


45-5 


2-64 


78-25 


62-9 


46-65 


16-25 


17-25 


2-36 


109-66 



Table III. (a).— Oxidation of Dried Extract from Third Extraction, 10 per 
cent. Extracted from Coal; all ground to pass through 

a 60-Mesh Sieve. 
Oxidizing atmosphere contained approximately 70 percent, oxygon. 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . 30° Cent. 



Volume of 
oxygen 
added. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

pumped out. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed per 

6"294 grammes. 


Period 

of 

oxidation. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed per 

10 grammes 

per hour. 


After hours. 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
41-85 
65-25 
40-75 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
40-65 
61 15 
37-00 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 

1-20 

41 

3-75 


Hours 

45 

52 
62-5 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
0-42 
012 
0-09 


2-25 
30-5 

87-8 



Table 111. (b). — Oxidation of Dried Residue I. from Third Extraction, after 
10 per cext. Extracted; all ground to pass through a 60-Mesh Sieve. 
Oxidizing atmosphere contained approximately 70 per cent, oxygen. 
Temperature of oxidation . . . . . . 30° Cent. 



Volume of 
oxygen 
added. 


, Volume of 
oxygen 
pumped out. 

1 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed by 

30732 grammes 

residue. 


Period 

of 

oxidation. 


Volume of 

oxygen 

absorbed per 

90 grammes 

per hour. 


After hours. 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
66-80 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
39-9 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
26-9 


Hours. 
413 


Cubic centi- 
metres at 
N.T.P. 
19-06 


2-06 


71-40 


50-3 


21-1 


7-08 


8-73 


7-66 


84-25 


52-25 


32 


17-5 


5-36 


20-0 


81-85 


55-7 


2615 


18-75 


4-08 


38-1 


78-85 


52-55 


26-3 


262 


2-95 


60-55 



VOL. L.WIII. _lfU7-lfll> 



5 E 



1- 



l i; \ \ \( I |u\ i ii |. Mil- i n i .1 i i . I \ \ h I •-. I I I i I I 



V«.l , 



I Mi i i 1 1 1 ( ). Oxidation op K i i due II. from Third E i icnow, aftkb 14 1 
< i i Extracted j in I d pi i piirouoh \ 60-Mi 

i: i ii. stained fcfoi 1 1 i-i . 

ell/in ' .i t mo phore oontainod 

1 pi |h i ,ii in. «,f oxidal ion . . . . • ■ fti 



Volume of 
oxygen 
added 



centl 
metres nl 
\ T.P 
59-45 

SHIM 

61-80 

85-SG 
59-46 



\ olume of 
oi j Ken 
pumpi 



i tabic centi- 
metres at 

\ T P. 

38-0 
33-7 
38 
38-65 

41 



Volume of 




' 


ten 
■ i bed by 


lod 
of 
latlon 


rued 


i ublc centl 

in.-t i 
vi r 
2 1 1 - 


ii' an 
3-0 


metre* at 

I'M) 


46-7 


22 


11*9 


23-8 


24 




27-2 


47 


3-24 


18-35 


41-0 


2-50 



After • 



14 
37-0 

72 u 
116-5 



Sample contained L-95 per rent, of moisture al the end oi the oxidatio 
orient. 

Analyses: Calculated to Ash and Moisture Free Sample. 



< ;u bon 
Hydrogen 
Nitrogen . 
Oxygen . 
Sulphur- . 



Coal. 

7 »:»:: 


Extract. 
80-90 


ddne 1 

• 72 


5-46 


5-90 


5-41 


1-G7 


1 -62 


L-80 


12-38 




12-96 


0-90 


1-86 


111 


2-92 






35-85 


59-65 


38-95 



Ash 

Volatile matter 



Properties of Extract. — As already mentioned, this consisted 
of a Light chocolate-brown powder, which on gently warming 
darkened and appeared to melt. It was partially soluble in 
caustic soda, but practically insoluble in strong ammonia. On 
grinding up in an agate mortar, a peculiar crackling sound waa 
usually produced; the material adhered to the fingers very 
readily, and in general appeared to be possessed of resinous 
properties. < hi extraction with chloroform for 48 hours, a highly 
fluorescent solution was obtained. On evaporating the 
chloroform solution and thoroughly drying the extract, it wa> 
found that from 35 to 40 per cent, of the original pyridine 
extract was soluble in chloroform. The dried chloroform extract 
softened when placed in a steam-oven. The ultimate analyses 
oi the pyridine extract showed an increase in the carbon and 
hydrogen, and also in the sulphur, as compared with the original 
coal. The extract was very rich in volatile matter, and gave 
only a slight amount of ash on burning. It will be noticed that 
the nitrogen was practically the same as that in the untreated 

coal. 



Properties of Residue Insoluble in Pyridine. — This black 
coke-like substance retained the pyridine exceedingly 
tenaciously, and, as the analyses show, the nitrogen content was 
always higher than that of the original coal. Whether this was 



1917-1918.] GRAHAM — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL 



49 



due to incomplete removal of the pyridine as suck, or to some 
definite combination of the pyridine with the coal substance, is a 
question that for the present remains unanswered. The ultimate 
analyses showed that the residue contained slightly less carbon 
and hydrogen than the original coal. 

The curves given in Figs. 3, 4, and 5 are drawn from the 
results given in the fifth and sixth columns of Tables II. to III 
(c) inclusive. A study of these demonstrates very clearly, on the 



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one hand, that the extract in every case shows practically no 
absorption of oxygen, and on the other that a weight of the 
residue equal in quantity to that present in 100 grammes of the 
original coal shows practically the same absorption as the 100 
grammes of coal. This is true for oxidation at 30° as well as at 
90° Cent, and for oxidation in air and in an atmosphere contain- 
ing approximately TO (at 30° Cent.) and 00 Cat 90° Cent.) per 
cent, of oxyffen. 



..'i I'RA.N '.'M in ii • ; i •. i ii 

III "i Resid ae II at 30° ( !en t. i ace to 

be an exception, in thai it appears to oxidize m< pe readily 
Ihe original coal. This residue, howe er, w&t no! complete 
dried before oxidation, and even after I I 6 hours exposure to 
dry atmosphere in the oxidation apparatus -till contained I 
per cent, ol moisture. Tin- oxidation curve if therefore 

not si ml I \ <■ pa i.i ble with i lie ol ber CU1 

;il 30° Cent. Shut i i has been shown l-\ one oi the authors 4 thai 





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moisture considerably accelerates the rate of oxidation of coal, 
ihe presence of moisture in the case of Residue IT. is. therefore, 
the most probable explanation of the increased absorption of 
oxygen over that of the original coal. 

'I ne portion of the coal substance soluble in pyridine at about 
40° Cent, cannot, therefore, be responsible for the spontaneous 
combustion of coal ; the substance or substances causing the 
latter must be insoluble in this solvent. 



Trans. Inst. M. E., 1914-1915, vol. xlviii., page 521. 



1917-1918.] GRAHAM — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 



51 



These results are very remarkable, and appear to be consider- 
ably at variance with the opinion of the other investigators 
alluded to at the beginning- of this paper. 

The interesting fact that photo-chemical action is exerted by 
coal on a sensitized plate was first recorded by W. J. Russell.* 
Clark and Wheeler have shown that in the case of their extraction 
with pyridine and chloroform of a sample of coal from the Silk- 
stone Seam, the portion soluble in both these solvents has a much 
more pronounced effect upon a photographic plate than the 













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original coal, and that the residue insoluble in these solvents has 
practically no action. Since the authors' experiments have, 
however, definitely shown that, in the case of the extract obtained 
from Barnsley Softs under the conditions already described, 
practically no oxidation occurs, and since the extract appears to 
be very similar in other respects to that of Clark and Wheeler, 
it was decided to test on a sensitized plate the action of the coal, 
extract and residue obtained in the authors' experiments. A 



* Proc. Roy. Soc, 1908, vol. lxxx., page 376. 



B2 I i: \ \ UTJON IIM OKTII Ol I N'-l \M» I IITI'TK \ 








Fig. 6.— Coal. 



K\ TRACT. 



Residik. 



iii;i 1 1 (| ii;i 1 1 1 1 1 \ i . i |i|u d\ i in . I !•) ■. II'.' ;■ i . i in in.' / hi 

placed en ,i plate, side bj side with equal quantities ol the 
original coal and the residue aftei extraction, the plate be 
i lie M carefully wrapped up, placed in a light-tight bos and ' • 
;i I ;i tempera ture oi I" >0 ( ent. foi a period oi a bou i 
The result obtained after development is shown h I 6. 

Il is very striking", since H \niII be seen thai tin 
produced very little action on the sensitized film, whilst the coal 
and the residue l><»tli show a marked effect. A repetition ol I 
test gave the same effect. This resull suggested I possibil- 

ities, so that further experiments were tried in the same dii 
tion, and reproductions of the negatives are given in Pigs. 7 
and 9. It seemed possible thai the photographic effects \ 

produced by 
some specific 
substance, which 
was present in 
the extract of 
('lark an d 
Wheeler, but 
not in that ob- 
tained by the 
authors, since 
not only was 
the temperature 
of extraction 
higher than that 
used in the 
extractions de- 
scribed in this 
paper, but al^o 
no precautions 
were apparently 
taken to pre- 
vent oxidation 
occurring during the extraction process. Further tests were 
therefore made, with the results shown in Fig. T. R 1 is the 
residue after oxidation in air at 90° Cent, for eight days; R 2 is 
a portion of R 1 , which has been further extracted with pyridine 
for 48 hours at 30° Cent. ; R 3 is a portion of R 2 which has been 
yet further extracted with pyridine for 48 hours at 100° Cent. 

In each case 0'2 gramme was employed. It will be observed 
that R 3 has had the greatest action and R l the least. Thi^ 
showed definitely that the cause of photo-chemical action in the 
case of Barnsley Softs is not extracted by pyridine. It was 
still possible that this action might be due to oxidation. If, 




Fig. 7.-R 1 . 



W. 



R 3 . 



11)17-1918. j GRAHAM OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL 



53 





Fig. 8.— Anthra- 
cite. 



Lignite. 



however, this effect is directly connected with the main oxidation 
shown by coals in general, it seemed reasonable to suppose that 
lignite, a highly oxidizable substance, should affect a photo- 
graphic plate to a much greater degree than anthracite, for 
example, which is almost unoxidizable at low temperatures. 
Fig. <S shows the comparative effects of fresh, unoxidized 
samples of anthracite, lignite, and Barnsley Soft coal. 11 will 
be seen that lignite gave practically no effect, whilst anthracite 
approximated to the Barnsley Softs. It seemed clear, therefore, 
that this photo-chemical action had little to do with the property 
of oxygen absorption — at all events, in so far as the main oxida- 
tion is concerned. 

Fig. 9 is interesting, since it shows that the property of 
affecting a sen- 
sitized plate i^ 
destroyed when 
the coal is par- 
tially or com- 
pletely coked. 
This plate gives 
the effects pro- 
duced by A, 
Barnsley Softs ; 
B, Barnsley 
Softs partially 
coked at a dull 
red heat; and 
0, Barnsley 
Softs completely 
coked. 

Work on the 
extraction of 
coals by pyri- 
dine and other 
solvents, with 
special reference 
to oxidation, is 
being continued. 

A solvent which, from tentative experiments, appears to 
promise well, is found in ortho-chlorophenol. One of the chief 
advantages of this solvent is the fact that its presence can be 
easily detected. 

The authors clearly recognize that the work described in this 
paper forms only a very small portion of that necessary before a 
thorough knowledge is obtained of the substances in coal respon- 
sible for the absorption of oxygen. It appears to them, however, 
that the results obtained are of sufficient interest to warrant 
publication at this stage. They believe that investigations 




Barnsley 

Softs. 





Fig. 9.— (.4) 

Barnsley 

Softs. 



{B) Barnsley 
Softs, 
Partially 
Coked. 



[G) Barnsley 
Softs, 
Completely 
Coked. 
































ii. i • T I < j i 1 1 1 \ M i | i 1 1 1 1 1 i . \ ( . i \ \ i > i ' i i i i M Vol. J 

• .1 1 1 icd mi i iim these 1 1 n«'- In hi It I also help conHiderablj m extend 
ing our Know ledge o\ the tin lure ol coal, and, b} so do 

in. 1 1 i'i 1,1 1 1 \ in i In- < li'\ rliijiiiii-ii t of pro* or a iw 

utilization o\ tjie national coal sjuppl 



The Pimm ni-.N i (Mr. W r allace Thorneycroft) said be would 
like Mr. Graham to tell them a Little more aboul the photographic 
slides. What was the cause of the action of the Coal on the 
photographic plates? 

Dr. R. V. Wiiii 111: (Eskmeals) wrote that he was strongly 
of opinion that researches regarding the composition of coal 
formed the only satisfactory means of elucidating the problem of 
the spontaneous combustion of coal, and he cong ral ulated Messi s. 
Qraham and Jlill on breaking away from the hackneyed absorp- 
tion experiments upon which so much time had been spent by 
previous investigators. 

The important tact demonstrated in the present paper 
was that the rapidly oxidizable constituent- of a coal 
were contained in the portion that was insoluble in 
pyridine. This fact was established by Mr. C. B. 

Piatt at the Home Office Experimental Station in 1913. 
The results of Mr. Plait's experiments were communicated to the 
Spontaneous Combustion Committee, and the details would no 
doubt be published in due course. Briefly, they showed that of 
the three portions into which a coal could be separated by the 
solvent action of pyridine and chloroform, two only, namely, the 
portion insoluble in pyridine and the portion soluble in pyridine 
but insoluble in chloroform, contained compounds capable of 
rapid self-heating-. The portion soluble both in pyridine and in 
chloroform, although very inflammable when raised to a 
sufficiently high temperature, did not self-heat. 

He (Dr. Wheeler) was unable to understand the results 
obtained by Messrs. Graham and Hill with regard to the action 
of coal, pyridine extract, and residue on a photographic plate. 
He could hardly believe that Barnsley Softs differed from other 
coals so widely in constitution as to yield, by treatment with 
pyridine, compounds the effect of which on a photographic plate 
was just the reverse of that of the compounds obtained from other 
bituminous coals. The experiments of Mr. Piatt and himself 
were not confined to Silkstone coal. He was, however, making- 
experiments with Barnsley Softs, and would communicate the 
results to the authors. If he remembered rightly, Russell ob- 
tained his best coal pictures with lignites and practically no 
images with anthracites, results which Messrs. Graham and Hill 
had also reversed. It would he of interest to know the brand of 



\ 

1017-1918.] DISCUSSION — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 55 



photographic plate used ; also whether, in the experiments as to 

the comparative densities of the images given by " extract " and 

residue," the deposits of powder were placed on the same plate. 

Col. Blackett (Sacriston) asked what explanation could be 
given of the influence of the material on the plate. The photo- 
graphic plate was usually considered to be affected by light. Was 
the effect on the plates in this instance due to light, or heat, or 
chemical action ? 

Mr. (i. Stencer (West Hallam) asked whether it was 
suspected that radio-activity was a contributory cause of 
spontaneous combustion. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener (South Moor) said that the practical ques- 
tion which they would like answered was the effect these experi- 
ments and their results had upon the spontaneous combustion of 
coal in mines. Personally, he did not understand what bearing 
the results obtained had upon that subject. 

Mr. J. Ivon Graham (Doncaster Laboratory) said that he was 
sorry he could not give them a definite explanation of the cause 
of the photo-chemical action. He wished he knew the cause. 
Dr. Wheeler had definitely stated that it was considered to be due 
to an oxidation process going on, but whether that oxidation pro- 
cess caused ultra-violet rays to be set free the speaker did not 
know. When he and his colleague obtained results showing that 
their extract, which they would call the " resinous material," did 
not oxidize, they adopted, in view of Dr. Wheeler's definite state- 
ment, the photographic method to see whether their extract 
differed in any way from Dr. Wheeler's, and that was the main 
reason for exhibiting the lantern-slides that had been shown. 
Their extract certainly did not exhibit that photo-chemical effect. 
Their extraction was carried out under rather different conditions 
from those of Dr. Wheeler — at the lowest temperature possible — 
whereas Dr. Wheeler's experiments appear to have been 
carried out at the boiling-point of pyridine, which under atmo- 
spheric pressure boiled at about 115° Cent. Mr. Hill and he 
thought that, possibly, they had not extracted their coal suffi- 
ciently and had left those substances which caused photo-chem- 
ical action in their residue. That was the reason for the second 
slide, showing three different residues after a further extraction 
with pyridine, but still their residue gave a photographic effect, 
if anything rather more marked. He thought Dr. Wheeler was 
rather in error when lie referred to Dr. Russell's paper respect- 
ing the lignite, for, so far as he (the speaker) remembered, Dr. 
Russell found that the lignite did not affect the photographic 
plate, and that anthracite did— and that was the result which 






i i- UTIONK I'HKNOHTII OKKXCSLAND 15 IT1TTI 

il,,.\ them luiri obtained A n matter ol fact, ' 

had mil hud ili«' opportunity t>i coiigulting \h B ll's 
paper until al lei thej bad done theii • ■■■ pel in 
I,,, I ii,,.\ found thai Dr. Russell bad oined mi 

more coals tban thej had given bim credil for, and lignit 
anthracite ivere amongsl them. Dr. Russell also found thai di ■•■ 
r ,,;,| was rather more active than moist, and thai this action 
on the photographic plate was iiol produced when the plai 
kepi in an atmosphere oi carbon dioxide instead ol o 
experiments were just carried '"it in the normal laboratoi 
tie was sorry thai thej could ool saj whether the effecl on the 
plate was due to radio-activity, to ultra-violet rays, or what. D 
Russell Pound that, when he placed pome resin in a right-angled 
tube and passed a current of air over it, he gol the effecl on 
photographic plate. It looked as it some vapour or something • 
was being given off and affected the plate. The speaker thoughl 
that, with radio-active minerals, they got much the same effect. 
Dr. Wheeler's results would rather lead one to tliink that it was 
the resinous materia] thai oxidized, and thai that oxidation pro- 
duced photo-chemical action; but they found that the resinoufi 
material they got did not oxidize, and that the photo-chemical 
action was confined to the residue. Then they examined the 
lignite, which oxidized at a tremendous rate as compared with 
other coals, and it did not produce any photo-chemical action. 
The coals used by Dr. Wheeler and themselves were certainly 
different. The one was a coking coal and theirs was not. Tin- 
difference might be due just to the difference in coal, but Dr. 
AVheeler did not think so. 

Mr. Greener said that Barnsley Softs were surely coking 
coal . 

Mr. Graham replied that the sample used was a very poor 
coking coal. Previous workers had shown that, on strongly 
coking coal, they obtained up to 25 or 30 per cent, extraction. 
Dr. AVheeler got up to 35 and 38 per cent, extraction by pyridine. 
The object of the authors' investigations was to try to find 
that substance or those substances in coal that under- 
went oxidation, with the idea of ascertaining the cause 
of spontaneous combustion. If the cause could be satis- 
factorily ascertained, he thought it would be a great help in 
practical work. He thought, also, that work on the lines des- 
cribed would certainly help in establishing what the constitution 
of coal actually was. They were, he suggested, all agreed that 
the more they knew of the chemical action of coal and its con- 
stitution, the more they would be assisted in the future develop- 
ment of various processes. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 57 

Mr. Philip Kirkuf (Birtley) asked whether iron pyrites had 
had anything to do with the sample of coal under discussion. 
Iron pyrites was liable to oxidation, and had been the cause of 
many cases of spontaneous combustion. The authors had alto- 
gether omitted any allusion to the sulphur in the coal as a pos- 
sible factor in the absorption of oxygen. He would suggest that 
this was very important in regard to spontaneous combustion. 
There often existed pockets containing both free and combined 
sulphur, either as inorganic or organic compounds, and it was 
possible that whilst working a seam some of the organic sulphur 
compounds might ox'dize, cause a rise in temperature, and so 
commence a gob-fire. It was well known that phosphides, if 
present, would on exposure to a damp atmosphere immediately 
liberate phosphine, a spontaneously inflammable gas. 

Another point was the nature of the coal most liable to spon- 
taneous combustion. According to Messrs. Graham and Hill, 
coal which yielded the largest quantity of insoluble eomponenls 
would absorb the greater amount of oxygen. Now gas-coal 
would be more soluble than steam-coal, and he believed that this 
was the case, as Northumberland coal, which was almost entirely 
steam-coal, was more liable to spontaneous combustion than the 
gas-coal found in Durham. 

Again, large percentages of moisture present naturally in 
coal (4*6 per cent.) might cause chemical action of the various 
mineral constituents to take place in pockets, and hence cause 
fires. 

Mr. GrKAHAM replied that the point as to the photo-chemical 
action being caused by pyrites had been eliminated, because 
there was practically no pyrites present in the coal examined or 
in the anthracite. 

Prof. L. T. O'Siiea (University of Sheffield) said that the re- 
sults obtained by the authors as to the constituents of coal were 
somewhat startling. Up to the present, he thought it had been 
generally accepted that the bodies which were liable to oxidize 
in coal were the resinic, and that the others were indifferent to 
oxidation, but the results which Messrs. Graham and Hill had 
obtained were of considerable importance, and he thought that 
such researches would probably prove more far-reaching than was 
evident at present. Examination of bodies of that character 
might lead — and, perhaps, sooner than they expected — to the 
determination of the cause of the difference between a non-caking 
and a caking coal. They might, therefore, look upon researches 
of that character as of considerable importance, because, if they 
could once establish the cause of that difference, then, probably, 
they would be able to work on some scientific basis in using non- 



5H riCAN M'TIOS niKXOHTII (IK KM. LAN I n n 

caking coal Eoi coking purpu i A1 pre hh! the) bad onl) 

;i haphazard \\.i> ol trying, bj methods oi mixtures, irhai coals 
could !"• mixed together to produce metallurgical c< 
were apt to saj thai onlj practical exp< could t<*il tl 

vvhal the mixtures diould be. It, however, thej could once de- 
termine whixi caused the difference, then thej would be abl< 
saj after .1 laboratory examination of the coal that, by mixing 
certain coals together, thej could gei metallurgical coke, and, in 
the future, thej mighi be able to use thai non-caking slack which, 
;ii times, formed such a drug on the market. 1 1 wan an important 
question in the coal economy oi the country. Although be bad 
noi anj definite results to offer in confirmation oi Mr. Graham's 
remarks, he was attempting, before the present actual pressure 
of work came upon him a> a result of the war, similar experi- 
ments on aon-caking coal. and. to a certain extent, he could 
confirm the statemeni thai the solubility oi a aon-caking coal in 
pyridine was smaller than \)r. Wheeler had found in the 
caking coal. He hoped that the time might npt be very far ofl 
when he could resume that work. 

Col. BLACKETT asked tor a definition of the word 
'" oxidizable." 

Mr. Graham replied that an oxidizable substance meant one 
which would absorb oxygen, the oxygen so absorbed entering into 
chemical combination with the substance. 

Mr. K. W. Dron (Glasgow) said that the author- bad stated 
that, " since it has been shown .... that moisture considerably 
accelerates the rate of oxidation of coal, the presence of moisture 
in the case of Residue II. is, therefore, the most probable ex- 
planation of the increased absorption of oxygen over that of the 
original coal.'' He had observed a report of a Commission 
appointed by the Australian Government to deal with tlie ques- 
tion of spontaneous combustion of coal on board ship. They 
erected two bins, one filled with dry coal and the other saturated 
with water. The coal in the dry bin heated up. and in >ix weeks 
was practically on fire. In the case of the wet bin, there was no 
increase in Temperature in three months. Was there some 

special way in which the moisture must be present to affect the 
liability oi spontaneous combustion ? 

Col. Blackett said that they had been told that the authors 
had not found the resinous part of coal oxidizable. A^ a practical 
man. he knew that, if he subjected a piece of resin to sufficient 
heat, it would combine with oxygen and become oxidizable. When 
anyone spoke of the oxidizable contents of coal, he imagined that 
all, excepting the ash. was oxidizable, and if one experimenter 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAT.. 59 

found that his resinous extract was not oxidizable under certain 
conditions, and another found the extract oxidizable under 
slightly different conditions, it did not help him to have them 
arguing 1 about the matter so long as the conditions were not 
identical. 

Prof. O'Shea thought that Col. Blackett was perfectly right 
with regard to his idea of the term " oxidizable." Every sub- 
stance which would combine with oxygen might be looked upon 
as oxidizable. In chemistry, however, the term " oxidizable ' 
had been generally confined to those substances which combined 
with oxygen before a certain temperature was reached. Bodies 
which were oxidizable at the temperatures at which they 
ignited were not called oxidizable but combustible bodies. The 
tercn as used in that discussion meant substances which would 
combine with oxygen at a temperature below that at which they 
would ignite. The resinous constituents of coal, if heated up to 
a certain temperature, would take fire and were, therefore, 
oxidizable in the broad sense of that term. 

Mr. W. H. Chambers (Eotherham ) said that they who 
worked in deep mines that were liable to underground fires were 
very much interested in the investigations of chemists to assist 
them in arriving at the causes of Ihc healing that preceded active 
combustion. It was in 1910 that 1 lie collieries with which he was 
connected became so dangerous. They had for 30 years been sub- 
ject to outbreaks of underground fires. They had on an average 
two per year, and it was well known that the cause was oxidation 
of the whole or of part of the constituents of the coal ; also that 
when the coal began to oxidize, it would heat and that, when it 
began to heat, oxidation proceeded more rapidly until the coal 
reached a state of incandescence. It was to assist those at his col- 
lieries to find out the circumstances and conditions that prevailed 
to cause these fires that in 1910 he approached (through the late 
Mr. W. H. Pickering) the late Mr. Fryar and the late Sir 
Arthur Markham, as he thought that if they were to find out 
what was really the cause of the fires, it was desirable to embrace 
a larger area than that covered by the collieries lie controlled. 
At his collieries there were two pits contiguous to one another; 
in one hies occurred on the east side — which was nearer the other 
pit — but no fires occurred on the west side. In the other pit, how- 
ever, no fires occurred on the west, namely, in the workings near- 
est to where fires were frequent in the old pit, but the fires 
occurred at the other side. It was to cover a bigger area that he 
approached these gentlemen to try to investigate the cause of the 
fires occurring in one section of one pit and not in another. They 
arranged to employ a chemist, the first being Dr. Harger, from 
Liverpool University, who assisted them then. Very much had 






»0 I i: \ \s \( I |(»\ , | ||| Mil' | || <i| | •,<. I \ N 1 1 | \ N | | | I I I Vol. lj 

been evolved t'roni that 1 1 1 - 1 Investigation. Thej liad 
udvjtnced thai thej bad aow commenced to mal 
lulu the constituent* oi coal and their behaviour undei certain 
conditions which seemed more to tiffed the economic use to which 
coal could be put than ■ > - isl them In the original idea ol | 
venting actions thai caused underground fires- I a fortunately, 
an explosion bad occurred al the Cadebj Collierj In L912, and 
this had Interfered with the progress thai they had hoped to 
make In the direction for which their inv< tions were insti- 

tuted, and he bad other matters to think about, which had pre- 
vented liim from continuing the Investigation. During that 
interval, Dr. Haldane was appointed bj the Committee oi 
the Doncaster area and followed up the investigations as to the 
constituents of coal, etc. Thai was ndl whal the speaker wanted 
;it thai time. He wanted to know the analysis oi the air, and 
what was coming off from dangerous areas or areas thai might 
become dangerous. In this respecl al his collieries they had 
been very successful, because since thai explosion they had had 
no underground fires whatever, and for five years they had been 
quite free. Thai was due to the assistance oi a chemist who 
analysed the atmosphere in the neighbourhood oi what might be 
dangerous areas. Samples were taken every day, and if an 
increase of carbon dioxide came off, steps were taken to deal with 
it either by excluding air which was causing 1 lie heating, or by 
opening the area out so that the ventilation would carry off the 
heat that was generated, in order thai active combustion inio-ht 
not ensue, lie was not a chemist, and he could not quite grasp 
what was the object of these analyses and investigations and 
photo processes that were going on. They all knew that there 
was something in the coal that did heat. It mighi be very useful, 
in an economic way, to conduct the investigations he had just 
mentioned; but he did not think that these were g-oinpr to assist 
them in the primary object of preventing underground fires. He 
failed to find that these had assisted them in that way at all. 
The work was extremely useful, and he did not disparage these 
investigations in any May. but he thought that they had fjon^ 
beyond the province of mining engineers. 

Dr. Henry Brjggs (Edinburgh) wrote that a possible expla- 
nation of the facts related by the authors, in respect of both 
photo-chemical activity and susceptibility to oxidation, was 
that there was a substance in coal — possibly radio-active, but 
certainly powerful as an ionizing agent or catalyst — which was 
largely responsible for setting up low-temperature oxidation. 
Apparently this substance was left in the insoluble residue in 
the authors' experiments, with the result that that residue had 
had its chemical activities stimulated: while under the higher 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 61 

temperature used in Clark and Wheeler's experiments the sub- 
stance was dissolved by the pyridine, and therefore made its 
appearance in the extract. This, at any rate, would furnish an 
explanation of the violent differences in the observations of these 
workers. 

If the results of further experiment should increase the proba- 
bility of its existence, it would certainly lie worth while trying 
to separate this ionizer. Perhaps one could then claim that 
the virus which gave rise to spontaneous heating in coal had 
been isolated. 

The President, in closing the discussion, said that the paper 
was one of which the practical value was, perhaps, not very 
apparent, but that his own feeling was that in time they would all 
appreciate the fact that these papers from the Doncaster Labora- 
tory were very valuable contributions to the literature of coal. 

Mr. Graham subsequently wrote, with reference to Dr. 
Wheeler's communication, that he Mas glad to hear that Mr. 
Piatt's results agreed with those obtained by the authors of the 
paper. They (Messrs. Graham and Hill) were quite unaware 
that such work had been done at Eskmeals, and considered it a 
matter for regret that, although the work w;is carried out in 
1918. the results had not yet been published — not only so thai 
Mr. Piatt might have had full credit for his work, but also 
because the general concensus of opinion, up to the present time, 
appeared to favour the view that the resinous constituents of coal 
were responsible for the absorption of oxygen and consequent 
heating effect. For example, one found in Prof. T. B. Porter's 
recently-published volume on the '* Weathering of Coal,"* the 
following statements : — 

" These resin bodies and their derivatives, the humus bodies, are believed 
by many authorities to play a major part in the spontaneous combustion of 
coal." 

"There are two classes of these bodies 

(a) nnsaponifiable by alkali, not oxidizable by warm air, and 
insoluble in pyridine ; 

(b) soluble in pyridine, saponifiable by alkali, and oxidizable to 

humus bodies by warm air." 

And again — 

"It can be readily understood that bituminous coals containing large 
quantities of easily attacked resin bodies are the one- which generally heat 
most readily." 

Similar statements were found elsewhere in the literature of 
this subject. Their research was therefore started to investigate 
this question thoroughly. 

* "An Investigation of the Coals of Canada, with Reference to their Economic 
Qualities"; Extra Volume Supplementary Report No. 83: "Weathering of 
Coal," by J. R. Porter, E.M., Ph.D.. D. Seepage 6. 



f$2 I i: \ \ mm. I ii I \ni' i ii <n |.\(.|. \ \ n I •. I I I i I I 

Will, i < • . 1 1 < I to l)r, Wheeler's reim ncerning the photo 

graphic results obtained hj them, the plate? employed • 
quartei -plate !'''•• al Sl > ncl ird Exti Ru pid, and i he depi 
p.oal extraH unci residue in approximately equal quantitn 
placed side bj side on the same plate. Since the meeting in 
September he had had the opportunity oi discussing the mattei 
with Dr. Wheeler, who had senl the authors the following i 
1 1 ii i in (U|hii .i i urn 111 the discussion : 

Mi I' V. Tideawel] has experimented \\itli the sample B 

Softs vmi were good enough to send, and confin 
pyridine extrad affects a photographic plate in the d 
residue insoluble in pyridine affects the plate strongly. 

The mode of extraction, and treatment generally, of Banish 
as far as possible, identical with that previously adopted for Silkstoi 

< I h< I in ill -. 

This difference in behaviour between Barnslej ad Altoft- silk ' 

coal is surprising, and an explanation can only be obtained by 
experiments., wliich. since the exact cause of the action of coal on a pi 
graphic plate is no1 known, may take a long 

1 should like to take this opportunity of removing .1 misapprehension 
on youi [rut .1- to my views respecting the relativ< oi oxidation of 

pyridine extract and residue of coal, due, I believe, to Mr. 3 nd I 

having referred to the action of the substances on a photographic plafc 
.in "oxidizing" action. A- a matter of fact, we employed the action on a 
photographic plate simply a> a mean- of demonstrating the difference in 
character between the several groups of compounds into which coal can be 
divided by the solvent action of pyridine and chloroform, -without holding' any 
strong views as to what the action was. Indeed. Russell, who studied the 
subject so closely, was not at all satisfied with 1 lie explanation for the 
action that he at one time advanced and which led him to speak of it as an 
". oxidation effect." 

Iii the discussion a great deal of attention had, unfortunately, 
been directed to the slides shown at the meeting, and now repro- 
duced as Figs, 6 to 9. He used the word " unfortunately," for 
lie rather thought that some of the members had concluded that 
these photographs were the main results of the research-work 
described in the paper, whereas they were only given to illus- 
trate two definite points. The photographic method had been 
used by Dr. Wheeler and his collaborators as a means of dis- 
tinguishing the different groups of compounds in the coal con- 
glomerate. Mr. ITill and he. therefore, only adopted the same 
method in order to compare their extract with that obtained by 
Dr. Wheeler. The outstanding feature which the authors wished 
to bring before the member- was the fact, clearly shown by their 
experiments, that the portion of Barnsley Soft coal soluble in 
pyridine at moderately low temperatures, and possessing proper- 
ties ordinarily associated with resinous materials, was not respon- 
sible for the spontaneous combustion of this coal. 

He would just refer briefly to a point in Dr. Wheeler's letter. 
Their " misapprehension " was not due alone to the statement 
quoted, 1 »ut also to the following paragraph that occurred in 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION OXIDIZABLE CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 63 

Messrs. Jones and Wheeler's paper in " The Composition of Coal, 
Part III." (Trans. Chem. Sac, 1915, vol. cvii., page 1323) : — 

" experiments which need not be described here have shown, oxygen is 

rapidly absorbed by each of the three portions (a), (b), and (c) — most readily 
by portion (c)." 

The portion (V?) referred to that part insoluble in pyridine, 
(b) to that portion soluble in pyridine, but insoluble in chloro- 
form, and (c) to that soluble in both pyridine and chloroform. 

Mr. Kirkup had raised the old question of pyrites. He (Mr. 
Graham) quite agreed that iron pyrites had been the cause of a 
great many cases of spontaneous combustion. But they were 
also faced with the problem that coal — apart from any pyrites 
whatsoever — underwent oxidation, and consequent heating — 
some coals much more than others. 

The explanation of this latter problem was what they were 
endeavouring to ascertain. In their researches they therefore 
examined samples of a coal known to heat up rapidly in the 
absence of pyrites, and the results so far obtained had been 
recorded in their paper. Mr. Kirkup had referred to the 
influence of organic sulphur compounds in starting spontaneous 
combustion, and had suggested that upon these compounds might 
lie the responsibility. As far as they had gone, however, it 
rather looked as if the organic sulphur compounds had very little 
to do with the cause of oxidation, for this reason — they found 
that their pyridine extract was rather richer in sulphur than 
the residue ; whereas it was the residue that still contained the 
substance or substances responsible for spontaneous combustion. 

He did not quite agree with Mr. Kirkup's interpretation of 
their results. They could not say that the coal which yielded 
the largest amount of insoluble components would absorb the 
greater amount of oxygen. Anthracite, for example, gave 
practically no extract with pyridine, whereas it only absorbed 
(chemically) a relatively small quantity of oxygen. However, 
the fact that the more soluble coal showed less liability to fire 
confirmed .their results : since if the pyridine soluble substances 
■ — the so-called " resinous " material — contained readily oxidiz- 
able compounds, one would expect that the coal which yielded 
the largest amount of extract would fire most readily, whereas 
the contrary appeared to be the actual fact. 

Mr. Dron had referred to the Australian Royal Commission's 
bin experiments. In those experiments they were not dealing 
with moist and dry coal in the sense in which the terms had been 
used in the paper. The bins really contained wet coal, and coal 
to which no water had been added, but which would nevertheless 
still contain a small percentage of moisture. The writers' 

experiments referred to were concerned with the effect of moisture 
upon the rate of oxidation, and were carried out with coal free 



YOL. LXVIII.— 1917-1918 



6 E 



• '.I TRANSACTION THE NORTH 01 ENGLAND INSTITUTE. Vol Lxriii 

from pyritec (a) completely dried, the oxidation I rried 

out 111 b current oi dry air; Bind (6) containing approximator, 
percent, of moisture, the oxidation being carried ou1 in a current 
ot nioisi air. The results <>f these experiments had beei 
stated, and had been confirmed by the work ol Prof. Porter and 
Ins collaborators in Canada. In tin* above cases, the distinction 
w;i- reallj between wet, moist, and drj coal (in the chemical 
sensi 

Some oi the points raised by Dr. Briggs had already kx 
dealt with in flic letter from \)r. Wheeler, who had confirmed 
the difference between 1Im» extraction o£ Silkstone and B 

i 

coal — in so \i\r as the active photo-chemical substance wai 
concerned. 



li. 17-1918.] DEAN — AMERI CAN NOTES. 65 



AMERICAN NOTES 



By SAMUEL DEAN. 



Introduction. — As American coal-mining methods and condi- 
tions have already been thoroughly discussed in the Transactions , 
it is somewhat difficult to write anything that is entirely new ; 
nevertheless, the writer is of opinion that there is scope for 
British mining engineers to compare results and report progress 
now that American methods are gaining in popularity through- 
out the British Empire. The remarks of American mining men 
have piedominated in the discussions of the writer's previous 
papers on these methods.* 

Mr. F. C. Schwedtman, of the National City Bank of New 
York, contends that what has become known as the " war 
after the war " will be " not so much an economic war between 
countries as a war within countries themselves against waste, 
extravagance, obsolete methods, class prejudices, and economic 
ignorance." The objects against which this internal war will be 
directed are worn-out educational theories, waste in the most pre- 
cious of national resources — men and women — waste in distribu- 
tion, national and individual extravagance, and neglect of the 
farm. 

Mr. Schwedtman does not believe that competition between 
America and Europe after the war will become the bitter struggle 
that some writers have predicted, but will be the sharp 
struggle within ourselves, because we shall emerge from 
the present war handicapped by extremely high wages and high 
costs of production, accentuated by habits of national extrava- 
gance. 

The American employer still continues to demand even 
greater production per man. As the war progresses, the labour 
shortage is becoming more acute. Labour's demands for in- 
creased wages are making dangerous inroads on profits. It is 
doubtless true that during the past thirty years the majority of 
employers have bent all their energy towards the development of 
new machines. Competition has been based largely on machin- 
ery. Labour has been counted as a fixed quantity. The mistake 
has been in not realizing fully the undeveloped ability and power 
of men. 

* "Modern American Coal-mining Methods, with Some Comparisons,' Trans. 
Inst. M. E., 1915-1916, vol. 1., pages 179 and 388; and vol. li., pages 35-60, 
340-350, and 386-387. 



86 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IK nhii \ ... 

One ran compare the attention given to anj important ; 
of mechanism to thai received bj the av< Each 

piece is constantly oiled and cared for. Technical <-xj>' I '<rk 
continually on problems to increase the ontpul of machine 

Thousands of employers pay Little or do attention to the health 
of their employees. In mining villages in the western pari of 
America good drinking-water is Frequently not obtainable, and 
residents live largely on canned food. Stomach sickness It 
ceedingly prevalent, and there is much Loss of time and low effi- 
ciency on that account. Advice or treatment obtained from Local 
village doctors is generally of little value. 

Life-insurance companies have long advocated tin- importance 
of periodica] medical examination of persons not considered sick, 
and have even urged that provision should be made by the Si 
for the free examination of persons unable to bear the ne< 
expense. The time may come when the value of a human 1 i f • 
the State will be appreciated sufficiently by legislators to lead 
them to provide laboratories and corps of experts for the 
examination of indigent citizens. 

The universal cry at present is for more workmen on the one 
hand and for more wages on the other. It is agreed that, if a 
great industrial conflict is to be avoided after the world war is 
over, both capital and labour must see the situation in its true 
light. The interests of both are identical, and neither can suc- 
ceed permanently without the other. The only chance for either 
lies in securing greater production per man. 

The Bonus System. — The paying of bonuses to workmen has, 
for several years, produced remarkable results in factories and 
steel-works. Mr. Charles M. Schwab in a little book entitled 
Succeeding With What You Have has explained the wondeirul 
success of his bonus methods at Bethlehem. Only recently, 
however, has the system been tried, to any extent, in connexion 
with the coal-mining industry. The following method has 1. 
in operation at the mines belonging to a coal-mining company in 
Colorado since January 1st, 1917 : — 

The bonus is paid to employees, both miners and company 
men (day-wage men and salaried officials), on each fortnightly 
pay-roll, for an increase in the average tons of coal produced per 
day for each miner on the pay-roll. 



Methods of arriving at the Bonus. 



Bonus 



The average for each miner 
on the pay-roll, for each day 
the mine worked, for the four 
months period ending November 
30th, 1916, was ... 5*45 tons. 



to each 
miner 
on his 
total 
tonnage 



to each 
company 
man on 
his total 
earnings. 



Tons. 


Cents (|d. ). 


P«r cent. 


5-55 to 5-74 


1 


1 


575 ,, 594 


2 


2 


5-95 ,, 6-14 


3 


3 


6-15 ,, 634 


4 


4 


635 ,, 654 


5 


5 


655 ,, 674 


6 


6 



1917-1918.] DEAN AMERICAN NOTES. 67 



Bonus shown opposite each item 5*75 ,, 5*94 2 2 

will apply when the average for 
each miner on the pay-roll for 
each day the mine works is : — 

Method of Computing the Bonus. — (1) A count was made of 
the miners or hewers who worked two days or more during each 
half -month pay-roll. An average of these eight periods gave the 
average number of men employed during the four months. 

(2) A count was made of the number of days the mine worked, 
excluding Sundays. 

(3) The production of the mine was taken for the four 
months, after deducting all company coal and coal produced on 
Sundays. 

(4) After multiplying the average number of miners on the 
roll by the number of days worked, this product was divided into 
the production for the four months, the result being the average 
tonnage for each miner on the pay-roll for each day that the mine 
worked. 

As will be observed, an increase in cents per ton applies to 
each miner and an increase in percentage to each company man 
for an increase average production for each miner. The bonus 
applies to all workmen and officials, whether employed under- 
ground or on the surface, with the exception of the mine superin- 
tendent. 

The employers pointed out that several times during the four- 
month period a considerable tonnage had been produced in ex- 
cess of the average, and it therefore put the bonus within reach 
of the men if they did no better than they had done during some 
of these periods. They further pointed out that on account of 
the average being based on the average number of men on the 
pay-roll (not on the men producing coal daily, as was the usual 
method), and being further based on the number of days worked 
by the mine, there would be a possibility for the men to increase 
the output per miner from three directions, namely : (1) if the 
miner worked more days per week ; (2) if his efficiency could be 
increased and he sent out more coal when he did work ; and (3) 
by the smooth and continuous operation of the mine, which en- 
abled the company men to assist in the increase in output; by 
additional care, etc., towards preventing accidents to machinery 
or tracks, and the avoidance of any interruptions that might 
interfere with the production. It was assumed that the company 
men would look after this latter part of the business, and no 
delays or stoppages of any nature, outside of full day, were con- 
sidered in arriving at the average for each miner, and would not 
be considered in arriving at the average for computing the bonus. 



OH TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH 01 RNGLAND IS I I I ' I I . ; Vol lw m 

prevent, as far as possible, absenteeism. Assuming that 
certain mine there arc 340 miners and fillers employed and that 
300 of these men work, on an average, everj daj : Li the avei 
production per man per jhifl is 7 tons, the average fox all men 
(m hums and fillers) on I lif pay-roll i- only 6* 1 7 tons, so thai i ; . 
men who arc mi it led to the bonug are prevented from receiving it 
by < he men who arc idle. 

Contrary to an opinion which is quite prevalent, there 
attitude among miners in districts in America in which unions 
exist that causes Ihem to attempt to limit the earnings of their 
fellow miners. Prohibiting" hewers from entering their pis 
on idle days often results in as much inconvenience as preventing 
them from driving a main slope or an advance heading thai is 
much needed. When widening an entry for the purpose of mak- 
ing a parting- the mine foreman, in order to rush the job through, 
will frequently arrange that the men doing this work shall have a 
constant supply of empty cars available, and as full price is paid 
for the coal hewed off the side, and it is very easily mined, the 
men could earn from £3 to £4 a day. But if they should do so 
they would be fined by their organization for accepting more cars 
than the other miners. 

In one instance the men who loaded too much coal at a new 
parting were compelled to remain idle for two days, because the 
labour agreement prevented the mine foreman from employing 
new men in their places. 

The great lack of co-operation between the union miner and 
the employer is shown by the frequency with which the miners 
lie idle in a body at every possible excuse. During the busy 
•season, 300 miners were idle one day on account of the death of a 
man who had belonged to the union three years previously. Only 
five of the three hundred attended the funeral ; the rest merely 
loafed. To a certain extent the tendency of the United Mine 
"Workers of America is towards a dead level of equality. 

Large-capacity Mine-cars. — The writer does not propose to 
argue the car-capacity question in this paper, because he has pre- 
viously done his best to show that the principal reason why 
America led in production per man was on account of the size of 
the mine-cars used. Any member who has read the paper in 
question, and studied the comments of Canadian and American 
mining men on the same subject, and yet still believes that the 
size of the car is the last consideration, must be singularly diffi- 
cult to convince. 

Mr. Rowland B. Gascoyne, of Johannesburg, in a communi- 
cation which he forwarded to Coal Age, evidently referred to the 
writer's paper (" Modern Coal-mining Methods, with Some 
Comparisons ") when he stated that some attention had recently 



1917-1918.] DEAN AMERICAN NOTES. 69 

The principal object of the introduction of this system was to 
been attracted to the high efficiency existing with regard to the 
average production per person employed at collieries in the 
United States as compared with those in Great Britain and the 
over-seas Dominions. Mr. Gascoyne endeavoured to show, by 
quoting some figures from the Annual Report of the Inspector of 
Mines for the Middleburg District of the Transvaal, that: (1) 
the thickness of the seam was the most important factor govern- 
ing results ; (2) hardness of the coal and character of the roof 
came next ; (3) inclination of the seam followed ; and (4) under 
normal mining conditions the size of the mine car came last. 

In order to show the fallacy of Mr. Gascoyne's reasoning, the 
writer will compare the respective results under heads 1 and 3. 
Assuming a seam to be 12 feet thick, lying level, and another 
seam only half that thickness, but pitching at an angle of 30 
degrees : it is safe to say that the output per man would be 50 
per cent, more in the 6-foot seam than in the 12-foot seam, be- 
cause the coal would fall away from the face in the breasts driven 
up the pitch, and would be loaded atthe neck of the shoots into 
large cars attached to locomotives on the levels below. Putters or 
drivers would not be necessary. The hewer would not have to 
shovel coal into cars. He would be independent of delays and 
stoppages, because he would have a large area of shoot to fill, 
which would become a reservoir of coal drawn oif at the bottom in 
quantities governed by the car capacity and haulage speed. 

Mr. Gascoyne did not describe the methods of haulag'e in 
South Africa or the type of mine-car. In new mining countries 
where the coal-seams lie level, or nearly so, and are of consider- 
able thickness, as found in the Transvaal and India, the latest 
American methods could be employed with abundant success. 

Scientific Colliery Management. — In the year 1902 Mr. Olney, 
"the late United States Secretary of State, in his address at the 
banquet given in Boston to Prince Henry of Prussia, whom the 
Kaiser had sent as commercial envoy to the United States, spoke 
as follows : — 

" We are now entering upon a contest for industrial supremacy , the 
most intense and arduous the world has ever seen. Fortunate will it be if this 
contest does not, like so many others, degenerate into grim-visaged war with 
all its unutterable brutalities and horrors." 

Mr. Olney spoke with remarkable frankness and almost pro- 
phetic insight, and one can say to-day that the industrial contest, 
after the war, will be more intense and arduous than it has ever 
been. 

" Scientific management " and " efficiency methods " are now 
considered necessary in all factories and workshops of any im- 
portance in America, but they are only employed by a few of the 
modern coal-mining concerns. There is nothing new about 
scientific management, which embraces time-and-motion studies, 



70 i im \ Miios- rHE NORTH 01 ENGLAND I!H i I I i I I . [ Vol . Ixviii. 

profit sharing, bonuses, etc., I>ut it i- ufficiently aen to afford 
the " old timei " the opportunity of proclaiming thai il eannoi be 
app] ied <<> coal-m ld i ng. 

Mi. A. J. Keel bas dealt with the question, and \>;i- poii 
oui thai the Laying of a room switch on an entry is an oft-repeated 
operation and bo worth considering. How Long does i\ tak< 
track-layer and helper to Lay one? Some manaj aay know. 
How Long ought il to lake them <o Lay one'.' Probably 
managers or under-managers know, because the conditions are 
variable. The men may have to cut a rail to admit the frog, or 
they may not; they may have to carry their- tools half a mile to 
the job, or may not; they may have to waii for materials to be 
delivered, or may not. It is a question open for discussion 
whether laying" a room switch is a standard operation or not. 
Mr. Reef describes a standard operation as follow-: 

" The first step in labour-saving management is to make it one. Lay the 
main-line track so that the joints will come right for the room frogs. This 
will of itself partly standardize the laying of the entry track. Give the track- 
layer a schedule, when he reports for orders in the morning, to cover his work 
for the day, so that there is a minimum of moving between jobs. 

" Knowing how much moving there is to be done, a definite time allowance 
for it can be made. See to it that the extra driver on the preceding day or 
night-shift has hauled to the same schedule of places the track materials 
needed at each. Then so far as the variables mentioned are concerned, the 
laying of that room switch is a standard operation. 

" Then begin a time-and-motion study and decide and formulate in writ- 
ing the best method of doing it. Determine a reasonable time to do it by 
this method; teach your track-layer the method until it becomes a habit. 
Make out a schedule for him for the day based on this determined time, and 
the moves to be made, and, by means of a bonus payment for performance 
according to schedule, keep him up to such performance. 

" An attendant and incidental advantage is here manifest. The workman, 
of course, cannot expect to equal that schedule and obtain his bonus unless 
conditions are up to standard, and a spur to the management to keep them so 
is thereby automatically provided." 

Time-and-motion studies could be made of all the different 
phases of datal work and standard times determined from which 
schedules of daily tasks could be made up and bonus rates 
arranged. 

Mr. R. Dawson Hall bas pointed out that the value of team 
work is undoubtedly not sufficiently realized to-day by a large 
number of general managers or mining agents. There are mana- 
gers and under-managers who spend many years of their lives 
expecting nothing but unpleasantness and complaints. The idea 
of co-operation is not sufficiently inculcated. It can be observed 
in different parts of the world bow invariably the influence, either 
for good or bad, of the man in principal authority affects every 
man on the pay-roll, even down to the trapper-boy. 

Demands upon us are greater to-day than they have ever been. 
We have no more time or energy than our forefathers, and to 



1917-1918] DEAN AMERICAN NOTES. 71 

meet demands we must take short cuts. Personal efficiency is 
considered to be physical and mental ability that finds and takes 
the best, easiest, and quickest way to the objects desired. 

Room- and- Pillar Mining Methods. — The room-and-pillar 
method of mining is the most economical in America, or, to be 
more explicit, coal can be produced at less cost by that method 
than by any other. 

The writer has never seen an explanation of the reason why 
the bord-and-pillar system is used in the County of Durham in 
preference to longwall. Longwall is universally employed in 
some parts of England regardless of conditions. In many in- 
stances in America where longwall has been tried the dead-work 
cost has been prohibitive, and much difficulty has been exper- 
ienced in holding the roof behind the faces. In the majority 
of room-and-pillar mines the cost of deadwork is small, the roads, 
do not have to be continually brushed or ripped, the cost of pack- 
building is avoided, chocks are not necessary, and as 95 per cent, 
of the coal can be recovered in such mines, it is difficult to under- 
stand why the longwall method is employed in certain countries 
or districts. The packing of the goaf, as generally done in long- 
wall mines, does not prevent damage to the surface. One can see 
— say, in the neighbourhood of Wigan — where large areas have 
subsided and artificial lakes have been formed. 

The writer earnestly suggests a discussion of longwall versus 
room-and-pillar working. He has for many years endeavoured to 
obtain intelligent comparisons of the two methods from mining 
engineers of some eminence, but so far without success. Room- 
and-pillar methods are generally employed in Australia, Africa, 
and Canada, and the discussion will be valuable to members resi- 
dent in those countries. 

When working coal on the lower side of the shaft, or from the 
outcrop, by the room-and-pillar method, a pair of slopes are 
driven down directly on the full dip of the seam. The main hoist- 
ing slope is generally about 10 feet wide inside the timbers, and 
the track is laid a little either to the right or to the left of the 
centre-line, so as to allow clearance for a travelling-way on one 
side (in some States the law demands a separate travelling-way 
that is not used for haulage purposes). At certain intervals, 
usually about every 1,200 feet, pairs of level headings or entries 
are turned off from the main slope to the right or left. At inter- 
vals of 600 to 1,000 feet, pairs of cross-entries are driven up the 
pitch off the level entries, and the rooms are turned both to the 
right and the left of the cross-entries. The pairs of level entries 
and cross-entries are usually 9 feet wide, with a 50-foot pillar 
between them. 

Room widths, and the thickness of the pillar between rooms, 



7 % 1 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IPi riTUTE. V<A. 1 

\ai\ considerably, these dimension! I" aed by local < 

fcom ami the results oi experiment! by the more modern type oi 
mine manager. In the pa I the pill [uently too imall 

and Large areas of coal were losl through " weight," ' creep, 

[ueeze." The prime object of leaving small pillar- b tween 
rooms was the mistaken Dotion thai expense n Fed !>.'• re- 

ducing the Length of the narrow crosscuts or breakthroughs pro- 
vided Eor ventilation and lor- the driving of which yardage baa 
generally to be paid. Frequently lack oi face-supervision allowe 
the miner lo drive the room too wide, thus reducing the width of 
the pillar. Generally the thicker the seam and the greatei its 
depth, the wider must be the pillars and the Less the room widths; 
certain coals, however, deteriorate when exposed, and the pillars 
leit must be larger than with harder coal-. 

It is very common to turn the rooms off the cross-entries at 
" 45-foot centres "; the room " necks " are driven in 15 to 30 
feet, and then the room is widened out to 18 feet. This ie 
pillar between the room 27 feet wide and a large pillar to pro- 
tect the entry. 

There is a formula — based on the thickness of the seam, the 
depth from the surface, and the crushing strength of the coal — for 
the purpose of computing the desirable pillar thickness, but. as 
in the case of many other formula?, the writer has never heard 
of anyone using it. Some concerns aim to extract a third of the 
available coal in the first or whole working. 

The out-bye rib of the room is continued straight up to the 
face and the room is widened on its in-bye side. The track in the 
room is laid along the straight rib. The work of extracting the 
pillars begins as soon as the rooms are driven to their destination, 
a distance of 300 to 500 feet. When rooms are driven over 300 feet 
in length, the width of the pillar must be increased in proportion, 
and the work of recovering the pillar-coal is facilitated by " split- 
ting " the pillar, beginning at the far end. The writer has seen 
large areas of pillar-coal in 6-foot seams recovered without loss : 
and packing, chock-building, or other deadwork has not been 
necessary under roofs that are exceedingly dangerous and cause 
much loss of valuable coal where the correct method is not em- 
ployed. As Mr. Sam Mavor has stated, " the goodness or bad- 
ness of a roof is generally the measure of the skill with which it 
is managed." 

It is imperative that each pillar face should be kept an equal 
and proper distance in advance of its neighbour, that the work 
of pillar-extraction should begin at the proper time and be not 
delayed, and that the rate of retreat in the pillars should be in 
correct relation to the rate of advance in the whole workings. 

The officials of the mines of the United States Coal & Coke 
Company in West Virginia have perhaps employed the most 



1917-1918] DEAN AMERICAN NOTES. 73 

scientific methods of colliery management in America, and have 
carried out different series of time studies extending over long 
periods. They threw to the winds all old " practical ' : ideas 
that had come down from the past, and broke entirely new 
ground. They made thousands of observations of motions, which 
were checked, tabulated, and plotted, and drew numerous plans 
or projections of different panel methods. They decided upon 
the most economical width for rooms. They concentrated the 
lay-outs of the mine workings in order to reduce the expenditure 
of labour to a minimum. If a driver is " gathering " with a mule 
— that is, " mule-putting " coal from the coal-face to the flat 
or parting — they know, taking into account the distance and 
gradients of the roads over which he travels, what standard quan- 
tity of coal he should deliver to the flat per shift. They also 
know what two men should be able to do if they are gathering 
with a storage-battery locomotive (electric storage-battery loco- 
motives are now used in gassy mines in Pennsylvania, and have 
the approval of the State Mine Inspectors where safety-lamps are 
used exclusively). 

They have covered all the motions that are made from the 
coal-face, along the haulage-roads, and until the coal is delivered 
into the railway-cars. Published figures from one of their mines 
show that fillers spent 47 per cent, of their time loading coal and 
12 per cent, waiting for empties ; further, that fillers had fre- 
quently loaded 35 short tons per man per 8-hour shift, and that 
the average per filler for one year was 16 tons per shift in a seam 
approximately 6 feet thick. 

These officials strive constantly to prevent lost motion and to 
discover the " easiest way " for each employe to do his work. 
They do not permit the mine foremen and labourers to deviate 
from the plans, projections, and written instructions that have 
been worked out for their aid. Their plotted charts and curves 
show 100 per cent, efficiency in comparison with actual results. 

It should be noted that the wider the room the greater is 
the efficiency of the shortwall machine, because the number of 
Sittings necessary to produce a given quantity of coal is governed 
by the width of the room. Wider rooms, with double tracks, 
permit of greater concentration, allowing two, three, or four 
fillers to work in a room and enabling the drivers to supply empty 
cars at regular intervals. 

Some Comparisons. — (1) Miners and other workers are housed 
better in Germany than in America, but the output per man and 
earnings are far higher in the latter country than in the former. 

(2) When the Prussian Minister of Commerce visited the 
United States some years ago, he reported that Americans were 
" very careless about the life and health of the working-classes." 



74 i i: \ \ \<ii'.. THE NORTH 01 I QLA D IN riTUTE, V-.I Iwni 

There is a marked tendency towardi a Large redaction is the 
accidenl rate in all indu ti ed mainly by the 

voluminous amount oi criticism, bnt fche country 
careless about fche health oi its workei 

(3) A mericaD exporters of coal ;irc handicapped because 
fche tonnage oi American vessels no** engaged in ov< 
is less than it was a hundred ago. The very near future 

is expected to see a v&si improvement in this direction. 

(I) As fche result oi scientific management applied fco manu- 
facture, salesmanship, and administration, Germany has made 
greater proportionate gains in wealth than any other country 
except the United States. 

(5) German prosperity has been built up on principles in 
many respects quite the opposite of those generally held in 
America. 

(6) The American Government intervenes in business to 
prevent combination and restore competition. 

(7) The German Government intervenes to prevent competi- 
tion and restore combination. 

(8) Socialists in Germany favour the formation of syndicates 
because these make conditions of employment more stable, in- 
crease wages, and the number of men employed by expanding 
the industry. 

(9) There is a difference between the American trust and 
the Germany syndicate. The syndicate or cartel does not destroy 
or absorb small producers. 

(10) In America protective tariffs are attacked on the ground 
that they favour the formation of trusts. In Germany they are 
advocated for the same reason. 

(II) The German boy goes to school 240 days in the year; the 
American school year contains about 180 days. 

(12) The numerous technical and commercial schools in 
Germany have few counterparts in America. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. Edwin E. Slosson, M.S., 
Ph.D., for some of the information in the above twelve compari- 
sons. 



Mr. Sam Mayor (Glasgow) said that he did not believe in a 
general bonus being paid on the total output. It seemed to him 
that a bonus, to be effective as an incentive to work, should give 
the worker, as directly and as quickly as possible, the reward of 
his efforts. He had no hesitation in saying that the deferred 
bonus did not give a due return on the expenditure in respect to 
it. What seemed to him to be the greatest need in this country 
was to induce the men, by some means, to do their best. He had 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN NOTES. 75 

had the experience during the war of running a factory with 
between 400 and 500 women, and the output had been, beyond 
all comparison, greater than it would have been with men in 
their present temper. The women were doing their best in their 
part of the works, but the men were not doing their best in the 
other part of the works. What employers must try to do was to 
enlist co-operation of their employes in increasing the output and 
in reducing the times of work. He had occasion a few weeks ago 
to speak to a group of his own men, most of whom had been in 
the employ of the firm for many years as fitters. He pointed out 
to them that not one of them had ever given him a single sugges- 
tion which would in any way facilitate the progress of their work 
and reduce the time for carrying it out. For that attitude of 
mind, employers themselves must take a large share of the 
responsibility. It was quite certain that many things must have 
suggested themselves to such men which would have been of 
value to the employer, and it would have been to his advantage to 
have made it worth while to the men to make known their sug- 
gestions. 

As to the comparisons made between America and Germany, 
so far as his observation went the scientific administration in 
Germany had not increased their output of coal. He had no 
hesitation in saying that in Westphalia, in seams of correspon- 
ding thickness, the output per man at the face was less than in 
this country. He spoke of the output per man " at the face," 
because, of course, there was a great deal of time spent in German 
mines in solid packing and in guarding against gas. 

Mr. Dean reaffirmed the view that the principal reason for 
the relatively large output of coal per man in the United States 
was that high-capacity mine-cars were used. While the high 
capacity of cars which the conditions in American mines 
permitted was doubtless a contributory factor, it seemed to him 
that there were two factors of greater importance — first, the 
thickness and accessibility of the coal-seams, and, second, the 
fact that 50 per cent, of the bituminous coal was machine-mined. 

In 1891, when about 5 per cent, of the bituminous coal was 
machine-mined, the annual output per man in America of all coal 
was 435 tons; whereas in 1913, when over 50 per cent, of the 
bituminous coal was machine-mined, the output per man of all 
coal was 760 tons, an increase of over 50 per cent. 

Mr. Dean's opinion that the large size of the mine-cars used 
was the principal factor in increasing the output was not sup- 
ported by his own evidence. On two of the four tables given in 
the paper Mr. Dean had stated the output by machine and the 
previous output by hand ; in one case the output per man was 
increased from 2J to 5 tons per shift, and in the other case from 5 
to 8 tons per shift. Would Mr. Dean not agree that the high- 



7<i TRANSACTION ["HE NORTH OF ] D I • riTUTE. Vol. l.wm 

capacity mine-car owed iti advantages in greai measure to th<- 
Large and concentrated yield oi coal produced by the machin 

Regarding the use of roller bearings, il mighl be pointed out 
that the very extensive use oi these in America and ( >^ the 
Continent w&s a direcl consequence of the adoption of Locomol 
for haulage. Tin- importance, where Locomotives were used, of 
reducing rolling friction t<> tin- minimum waf obvious, [n the 
case of rope baulage, driven by stationary motor- in 
which surplus power could easily be provided, the reduc- 
tion of rolling friction was of much Less importance. There 
was Little doubt, bowever, thai roller bearings mighl be adopted 
with much advantage in this country; incidentally they would 

facilitate man-handling of tram- at arid near- the face. 

Mr. Dean was to be congratulated upon having elicited 

extremely illuminating' contributions to the discussion from tie- 
United States, especially those relating to the economic and social 
conditions and to the higher standard of organization whicb 
attended the increased use of machinery. 

Col. W. C. Blackett (Sacriston) said thai one point that 

struck him in connexion with the paper was the absolute futility 
of writing about general principles when one did not know the 
comparative conditions. It was perfectly impossible to reply 
to Mr. Dean when one was ignorant of the conditions under 
which he was expressing his views. In one place, Mr. Dean 
compared a 12-foot seam with a 6-foot seam. In this country, 
our comparisons would probably he let ween a 2f and a 3J-foot 
seam. Take, for example, the question of bord-and-pillar work- 
ing. At the collieries with which he was mostly concerned they 
adopted, from time to time, in a seam — which did not vary from 
6 to 12 feet, but from, probably, 2 feet to 2 feet 8 inche- — 
the longwall system of working, and if it were discovered that 
that method was not so suitable as the bord-and-pillar method, 
the system was changed over to that latter method of working. 
or vice versa. In the Xorth of Englond they did not 
bind themselves to one system of working their mines 
in the same seam, but varied their system in order to 
obtain the most economical results. They could not com- 
pare the two systems until nil the conditions of the seam> 
were thoroughly understood and the results obtained proved 
economic;} 1 by practical demonstration. Waste in the bord- 
and-pillar method of working might render it unsuitable in 
certain places but not in others. "With regard to co-operation 
with the workmen, he held very strongly indeed that they should 
co-operate with their workmen, and their mining operations 
should be carried on entirely in that spirit, and that the sooner 
it was done the better. The reason whv thev were not fully co- 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN NOTES. 7? 

operating with their workmen was that they started, generations 
back, on a wrong principle. They had bred their miners, 
brought them up, and educated and trained them on a wrong 
system. They had taught their workmen to believe that the 
best way of paying them was to base results on selling prices. 
No more mischievous thing could ever have been started. The 
result was that any means that could be used to increase the sell- 
ing price had been a good enough weapon for the workman. The 
miner thought, in consequence of what he had been taught of the 
relation between supply and demand, that, if he could limit the 
supply in any way at all, the demand would go up and wages 
would go up also. On the other hand, if he had all along been 
accustomed to the idea that the better he did for the mine-owners 
the better he would do for himself, they would have co-operative 
workmen and better results. It was not the fault of the present 
worker or the present owner, but the fault of a system that had 
been established many years ago and had not yet been abolished. 

Mr. Simon Tate (Trimdon Grange) said speaking generally he 
thought the paper covered too much ground, and did not enter 
sufficiently into detail to enable one to discuss it properly; he 
would, however, discuss one or two points. 

Mr. Dean had stated that the American employer was fortun- 
ate if he succeeded in obtaining a response to his demand for a 
greater production per man. In England, employers had to be 
satisfied with what labour they could get. It was not the employer 
but the workman who demanded the highest possible remunera- 
tion for the minimum amount of work, and in this he had been 
encouraged by the necessities of the present political situation 
and the state of war in which we were engaged. The need for 
more workmen even at higher wages was not confined to America, 
but was probably felt as acutely in this country as anywhere else 
in the world. 

With regard to the bonus system, the ability of the employers 
in America to introduce a bonus system at their collieries was a 
sure indication that the miners' associations of that country had 
not yet reached the stage of resisting innovations for the improve- 
ment of output when proposed by the owners of collieries, as 
they did in this country. Mr. Dean had remarked that one of the 
results of unions of workmen in districts where they existed was 
to limit the earnings of the miners. It was the speaker's experi- 
ence that as the power of the unions increased the output per man 
decreased, and America would find this to be the case. One of 
the principles which seemed to operate — not always openly, but 
none the less surely — was the restriction of labour. This was 
sought for and obtained by various methods, amongst which was 
the shortening of the working hours, the payment of full wages 



<H rRANSACTIOXS THE NORTH OF RXGLANJ) IXSTITUTK. | Vol I ■■. 

for less Labour, as een 03 the re nil oi the Minimum W \< t. 

and obstruction to the introduction oi mach inery lor coal g 

Willi reaped to the room and-pillar method! Mr. h 
apparently considered thai thh method was the ideal systen 
working. 1 1»- 1 Mr. Tate) had aoi had an opportunity oi per onalh 
Inspecting the working of the American method oi room-and- 
pillar, hut from an inspection oi Buch plans oi American mines 
as he bad seen, there musi be a Large amouni oi waste in < 
ing the pillars, even when carried oui under the mosi favourable 
conditions. With the unlimited resourc< I in America 

this might noi be of serious consequence, bui in this counl 
especially in the northern districi where the coalfield was Limited, 
il would be a national crime to adopi a system which would be 
so wasteful as the room-and-pillar system appeared to be. Was 
Mr. Dean quite certain thai 95 per cent, of the coal was obtained 
out of these American mines? 

Mr. Dean had quoted Mr. Sam Mavor as stating thai the 
goodness or badness of a roof was generally the measure of the 
skill with which it was managed. He (Mr. Tate) thought this 
was a very doubtful statement. No amount of skill could bridge 
the difference between a very bad roof and a very good one 

Many would agree with Mr. Dean that large mine-cars would 
be advantageous to this country, but it must not be overlooked 
that many shafts were not large enough to permit the use of 
large cars. Two of the speaker's own shafts, where they were 
drawing 1,000 tons a day, were too narrow to admit these large 
cars. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) said the unfortunate circumstance 
about pits was that they were not like gasworks — they did not 
always make money. They could not have co-operation with the 
workmen unless they were always making money. Unless they 
kept the control of the pits in their own hands, he thought the 
coal-trade would go back and not forward. 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College, Xewcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that the paper was difficult to discuss, as it was 
too discursive, covered too wide a ground, and neglected 
details. On the question of mine-cars, Mr. Dean had 
forgotten to mention that the great majority of the pits of 
which he wrote were day-drift pits where there was no 
trouble in getting the cars in. Mr. Dean had compared German 
conditions with those in America. Those who were familiar with 
American coal-mining knew that the American was in the min- 
ority in American pits. The larger number of their labourers 
were Hungarians, Poles, etc., men of all nationalities, swept up 
from all countries because they could not earn a living in their 
own. Mr. Dean was dealing with a very inferior class of 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN NOTES. 7!> 

men and thought that the right way to treat all coal- miners was 
as machines. In this country we had a set of miners who, what- 
ever their defects — mainly defects of their qualities — would think 
for themselves and have a certain amount of independence of 
spirit. They could not work Englishmen as they would Germans, 
Hungarians, or Poles. That essential difference was seen very 
strongly when Mr. Dean actually compared the way in which 
employers (whom he blamed in the matter) treated machinery 
and labour respectively. Mr. Dean quite forgot that the machin- 
ery had not got a brain, and could not think or act for itself, 
whereas the workman could. The proper way was not to treat a 
man like a machine, hut to educate him and let him think and 
act for himself. The speaker maintained that Mr. Dean was 
looking at the matter entirely from the wrong point of view, 
since lie was not looking at the class of man in this country, hut 
at a class of man who, probably, was not much better than a 
machine, and had to he so treated. 

Lieut. -Col. Harry Rhodes (Kotherham) said that in dealing 
with the question of longwall versus room-and-pillar working, 
Mr. Dean had stated that " the packing of the goaf, as generally 
done in the longwall system, does not prevent damage to the sur- 
face." The speaker was of opinion that mining engineers in 
general never claimed that packing of the goaf in longwall would 
prevent damage to the surface, and he would he glad to know 
what authority Mr. Dean was quoting when he claimed as an 
advantage of longwall that packing prevented damage to the 

surface. 

> 

Mr. G. L. Kerr (Glasgow) asked what Mr. Dean meant when 
he stated that " labour was a fixed quantity.'' Did he mean 
itbat the amount of men to do the labour was a fixed quantity, or 
that the quantity produced by the labour was fixed? If the 
latter, he was probably right, as it had been a fixed idea in this 
country for many years with the miners' leaders that a fixed 
quantity — and that not a high one — should be produced by the 
individual miner: in other words, the day's work was fixed, 
irrespective of the conditions, and no miner dare exceed that 
amount, even if lie were able and willing to do so. The policy 
of the miners' leaders was to fix a standard wage for a standard 
output lor every man, irrespective of his ability. Mr. Dean 
further stated that " the interests of both [labour and capital] are 
identical, and neither can succeed permanently without the 
other." That statement might be true, but did either side believe 
it P Some of the miners' unions in certain parts of the country 
did not believe it, as they had got the idea, and did not hide it, 
that they would get on quite comfortably without the mine- 
owner. 



VOL. LXV1II._1917.191S. 



7 E 



, i [( . i i i i . i| i : i (j | I) ] l i l ' I I in 

1 1 was quite n w el I I no^ n fad i hal i bere ertain mining 

1 1 |.i i k i - in tlii oountrj w 1 1 ii 1 1 hi (I made ii a el policy to reduce 
the outpul i" the very lowest limits, for the higln possible, 

in on In in rendei the 111 1 hf u n profit a hie to the pi 
with the objecl <>i forcing the State to take them o rhe 

Si, i te in i" Ii t imi hi Mm- or so len ienl b n emplo; 

these miners imagined. The} had evident!} a share oi union 
rules and regulations in the American mine* Mi In i bad 

[riven illustrations of bow the miners th< empted to limit 

the earnings of their fellow miners, and how the day's outpul 
was restricted. An almost similar illustration came andei the 
speaker's notice sonic years ago when visiting certain workings 
in company with one oi II. M. [nspectors oi Mum--. On arriving 
;ii ;i haulage siding, which had many emptj tubs standing in it. 
and in addition a number of miners' drawers sitting idle, 
the [nspector asked them why they were sitting there, and tl 
replied thai they were waiting for their turn. The Enspectoi 
asked why, as there were plenty of empty tubs for ;ill ot them 
The drawers then explained thai the miners had a rule thai a 
drawer was only to take his " hen " or turn, no matter when he 
arrived with his loaded tub, or how many empties were waiting. 
lie (Mr. Kerr) afterwards found thai the miners' union had 
actually rules printed and circulated among the miner- and 
drawers regulating, and limiting, the day's work. 

He did not altogether agree with the reason given by the 
writer of the paper for the increased production per man in 
America, namely, tin 4 use of large mine-ear- The increased 
outpul per man had been largely brought aboul by the extended 
use of machinery, especially coal-cutting machinery. In 188T 
the output of coal in America was 413 tons per person employed, 
but in 1911 it had been raised to 600 tons per person: whilst in 
Britain, in the same period, the output per person had declined 
from 312 to 252 tons per year. If we were to increase our output 
in this country, we would also have to employ machinery more 
extensively than in the past. There was much that could be 
said for and againsl the use of large mine-cars, but for the 
majority of British mines the speaker was of the opinion that 
a moderately sized tub, holding, say, 10 to 12 or 15 cwts. of coal, 
was preferable to large tubs or cars holding '2 or 3 tons. A tub 
that could be handled easily by a lad or young man was the 
most economical type of tub. 

It should be remembered, too, that the regulations as to the 
Use of locomotives underground in America were far less 
stringent than here. The speaker had been informed that it was 
quite common practice in American mines to lead bare cables 
along the roadways for conveying power (on the overhead prin- 
ciple) to the locomotives hauling the cars. Even if there were 






1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN NOTES. 81 

mines in Britain where such locomotives could be used, the use of 
bare cables for power was strictly prohibited, and, the speaker 
thought, rightly so. 

Mr. Dean had made some daring assertions with regard to 
the methods of working in this country. He stated that he " had 
never seen an explanation why the bord-and-pillar system was 
used in the county of Durham in preference to longwall " ; and, 
again, " longwall is universally employed in some parts of 
England regardless of conditions." The speaker thought that 
Mr. Dean was wrong in both assertions. Longwall was worked 
in Durham where the conditions were suitable and required that 
system, and lie (Mr. Kerr) did not think that there were many 
parts in England where longwall was employed regardless of 
conditions. The speaker undertook to show Mr. Dean, the next 
time lie visited this country, mines where longwall was practised 
almost to perfection, and with the highest results. As to the 
room-and-pillar system which Mr. Dean advocated, that was 
simply the old room-and-rance method that was in vogue in Scot- 
land fifty years ago. Mr. Dean was speaking of seams 6 to 12 
feet thick, thicknesses which were, unfortunately, uncommon in 
most British mines, and there could be no discussion as to the 
respectively merits of room and pillar and longwall in working 
seams 1J to 2o- feet thick. In such circumstances there was 
only one method, and that was longwall. He (Mr. Kerr) would 
be very much interested to see a large car, holding 5 or 6 tons, 
taken into a 2-foot seam. 

In discussing methods of working, Mr. Dean had omitted to 
state that the loss of life in American mines was 3'30 per 1,000 
persons employed, as compared with 1*25 per 1,000 persons 
employed in British mines. That would prove whether room- 
and-pillar was a safer method than longwall. The speaker 
thought it was very much less safe, but in America the same 
value was obviously not attached to safety as in this country. 

Mr. H. F. Bulman (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that Mr. 
Dean had raised the question of the relative merits of longwall 
versus room-and-pillar working, and had stated that in America 
coal could be produced at less cost by the latter method. The 
reason given, namely, that " in the majority of room-and- 
pillar mines, the cost of deadwork is small, the roads do not 
have to be continually brushed or ripped/' etc., appeared to attri- 
bute the smaller cost to the thickness of the seams, which was 
such that it was not necessary to remove the stone in the roof 
or floor in order to increase the height of the roads. In thin 
seams worked on bord and pillar where the height had to be 
obtained by ripping all the roads, the longwall method admitted 
of some saving in stone work. But the room-and-pillar method 



I'll ANN ACTION NIK NORTH OK KM' I NTl'Tl 

ulucli Mr. I )< i n described eemed to !"• w] ommoc 

known here as " single-stall . n.u r . and wi th< ame 

,is i he hoi 'I n nd pi I Im mel hod ol i he North i Eng hind. Tl • 
were however both <ystemf oi pillar a« distinguished 

I mill InliLTW III I . 

It was interesting to note in a recenf papei read I 
Mining [nstitute of Scotland* thai in working thin &ean 
Scottish collierj a system of pillar working had been found to 
more econom ica I i ha n longwall . 

[t was generally admitted that the longwa II system of working 
allowed a larger proportion of the seam to 1 md 

coa I , especia lly in t hin hard sea ms. 

Mr. Dean stated thai 95 per cent, ol the coal could 
recovered in American room-and-pillar mines, but the experience 
in England was thai a larger proportion of the entire seam •• 
got by longwall than by any other method. 

The county of Durham was a great coke and gas-coal district. 
Many of the seams were worked for the manufacture of coke or 
of gas, and for these purposes large coal was not wanted, and 
this accounted to a large extenl Por the prevalence of bord-and- 
pillar working there. The reason why the bord-and-pillar method 
was initiated and practised for many centuries in the northern 
coalfield and longwall in the Midlands was not evident: indeed, 
there seemed to be no scientific reason for the two customs. 

Tt was probable that the longwall method was suggested by 
the system of working metalliferous lodes. Probably some 
colliery manager in Shropshire, where longwall was said to have 
beeu first practised, had had previous experience in metal-mine-. 

Changes were generally due to economic causes. In many 
cases the longwall method was found to cost less for -tone work ; 
and to give a larger proportion of round coal, and an increased 
output per hewer per shift. 

There were always difficulties in changing a long-established 
system in which officials and workmen had been trained. The 
successful working of any system depended essentially on the 
men who worked it. 

There was no doubt that the longwall system was carried out- 
most efficiently in those Midland districts where it had been 
practised for generations, just as the best examples of bord-and- 
pillar working would be found in the northern district. 

Mr. 8. H. Cashmohe (Tanaworth) wrote that Mr. Dean's 
observations respecting waste, obsolete methods, and ignorance 
presented food for serious thought. He struck an opportune note 
when he called for better attention to the health of our workers, 

* "A Fresh Aspect of Intensive Mining Thin Seams," by George Gibb, 
Trans. Inst. Sf. h\ , 1917-1918, vol. liv., page 28. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN NOTES. 83 

and iii Lis (the writer's) opinion it was desirable that the Institu- 
tion should make recommendations to the Home Office on matters 
affecting the health of the miners. 

Waste pervaded the mining industry at the present time to 
an alarming* extent, and only collective action could hope to deal 
with it. Waste of any kind was an indication of want of both 
efficiency and imagination. As an example, large areas of native 
wood were now being stripped : was re-afforestation proceeding ? 

In order to bring the industry abreast of the times, mines 
should be provided with almost unlimited electrical power, 
capable as it was of long-distance transmission. It would then 
be possible to look forward to the disappearance underground of 
steam and rope-driven pumps and haulages. 

Mr. Dean's remarks upon scientific management should be 
carefully noted. The writer believed that in most departments 
of colliery working in this country sufficient attention was not 
given to detail. 

With regard to methods of working coal, the writer was 
afraid that the British mining industry as a whole had been too 
conservative in the past. This fact accounted for the adoption 
of the longwall system for almost all our seams. Possibly a 
reason for the failure of the bord-and-pillar method in Britain 
was that the British miner was too exacting in the matter of 
yardage prices in the whole or hist working. At the colliery 
with which the writer was connected, he had employed the long- 
wall-retreating method successfully under a bad roof. This 
method had practically all the advantages of the bord-and-pillai 
, system, with a correspondingly less amount of heading or dead 
work. Undoubtedly, the cure for surface subsidence, and the 
high cost of brushing, or road ripping, was hydraulic stowage. 

Mr. Henry T. Wales (Swansea) wrote that it was always 
both useful and interesting for an engineer engaged in any 
branch of work to be told of the methods used and results obtained 
in other countries than his own where the same industry was 
being carried on, so that the information regarding coal-mining 
in America, given by Mr. Dean, should be welcomed. Whilst 
they might not hope to equal the results given by Mr. Dean, they 
could, at any rate, consider whether their own methods were not 
capable of improvement. 

It would be generally admitted that, until quite recently, the 
actual methods of coal-getting in this kingdom showed little 
variation from those which were in use fifty or sixty years ago. 
The scale of underground operations had been considerably 
increased during that period, and many improvements had been 
introduced, with a view to safety and efficiency ; but, at the same 
time, no radical changes had been made on any considerable scale 



* I ir i i<.\ - i n i mi- i i, 1,1 i |> i i i i i i i Vol. I 

111 the actual methods employed foi getting coal. So l< 
hand work was relied on I*' 1 the coal, th< ittle 

i ope for ;i ii \ great i bi I rom i he pracl ice oi 

and the introduction of machinery for the purp< 
cases, not pract ica ble 01 desi rable. 

There was, probably, do industry in which methods oi work- 
ing were so (Irpcndfii t upon the conditions which arose 
coal-mining. From month I" montb in parte of t lie same col] 
conditions might and did change, and the method which was the 
besl ;tl one time mighl have to be Largely modified in a short 
period. 

The changes to which he referred were those imposed 
nature, such as gradient, nature oi the root and floor and of 
cdal, etc., and these affected the seams in many wa 

As changes of this kind occurred in the same colliery, it was 
natural to expect that the various coalfields of the same country 
would differ very widely from each other, as was the ease. It 
followed, therefore, thai the coalfields in this country were in 
many respects entirely different from those in other countries. 
Mr. Dean had emphasized this fact in many very important 
particulars. Without having any personal knowledge of the 
American coalfields, the writer gathered that some of the chief 
differences between the conditions existing in the American and 
British coalfields (he referred chiefly to the South Wales 
coalfield) were to be found in the nature of the roofs, the extent 
to which machinery was used for coal-getting", the use of 
explosives, and the point of view from which the workmen 
regarded their occupation. 

It was quite clear that subsidiary haulage-roads in the mines 
in South Wales could not be maintained sufficiently wide to 
permit the use of mine-cars of the capacity mentioned by Mr. 
Dean. The suggestion that the room-and-pillar method of work- 
ing was preferable to longwall, made it evident that there was a 
great difference in the nature of the roofs. The room-and-pillar 
system prevailed in former times in tbe South Wales district, 
but, during the last sixty years, it bad been gradually replaced 
by longwall, whicli was now almost universal. It had been found 
from experience that the formation of ribs was inadvisable and 
resulted in bad fractures of the roof and consequent falls along 
the lines of the ribs ; every effort was therefore made to avoid 
ribs or to reduce their number. 

Hitherto machinery had been used only on a small scale, and 
had been confined chiefly to undercutting in thin seams. Of 
recent years conveyors had been introduced and their use 
developed. The use of explosives was limited on the ground of 
safety as well as the necessity for producing the greatest propor- 
tion of large or round coal. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN NOTES. 85 

In referring to the relations betwen capital and labour, Mr. 
Dean wrote that ' the interests of both are identical, and 
neither can succeed permanently without the other. The only 
chance for either lies in securing greater production per man." 
In these sentences Mr. Dean touched an aspect of the question 
which was vital to the industry and of the greatest interest to all 
concerned — but, at the same time, it bristled with difficulties. 

It could be taken Jts an axiom that in any industry the 
interests of capital and labour were indentical and mutually 
interdependent. The highest possible prosperity of the industry 
should be the aim of all engaged in it, and it was out of the 
profits produced by the joint efforts of everyone concerned that 
the rewards could be obtained, namely, the interest on the capital 
embarked and w r ages of the workers. Until this view was 
shared by the large majority of persons engaged in an 
industry — whether capitalist, official, or worker — no one 
engaged in it could expect to receive his maximum 
share of the rewards. There were, unfortunately, leaders 
of the workmen, in prominent positions, who denied that 
the interests were mutual, and it was hardly surprising, there- 
fore, if many of the workers accepted this false and pernicious 
view. Neither capital alone, nor labour alone, could make an 
industry prosperous, but their combined and sustained efforts 
could (except under adverse conditions of trade) attain profitable 
results in which all would share in due degree. The ideal to be 
worked for was the highest possible prosperity of the industry, 
and, when this had been attained, the division of the proceeds 
would follow. This division, however, was a matter of quite 
secondary importance. It must be admitted, however, that it 
was perhaps a difficult matter to, at all times, apportion fairly 
the proper shares to capital and labour of the funds obtained 
by their joint efforts, but the workers ran little risk, in these 
days, of receiving less than their due share, supported as they 
were by powerful organizations, the weight of public opinion, 
and Government control. 

At the present moment it was undoubtedly the fact that the 
workers did not make the efforts which might reasonably be 
expected of them, and statistics showed that, during the last 
twenty or thirty years, the output per person employed in coal- 
mining had steadily decreased. This was not due to want of 
capacity of the worker, but to a lack of realization of the essential 
fact that it was really to his interest to give the best support in his 
power to the industry in which he was engaged. 

During recent years the standard of living among workers 
had been considerably raised, and no one would desire to see that 
lessened, but rather that it should further progress. But this 
could only be attained by more regular working and greater 



I i- \ \ iC'L'h I'll I SOUTH Ol I -'• i M ill' m 

rlloii. Low wage were nol essential to tlie prosj>erity oi an 
indusl i \ Itui i.ii Iici i be • ible produci 

w ould mea d propoi i ionallj high ea inn, 

'lli.' tusk oi bringing about ;i realization ol the interdepen 
dence oi capita] and Labour \\;i- aol an <••' \ one, bul ji wai bope 
1 u I to see Ui.it some tin- worke] taking a sound and 

far-seeing \i«'\\ oi the inline position and « 
l) t > Looked to t" poini out in the workers the path which in theii 
t ruesi interesi 1 hej bould tread . 

Mr. .!<>u.\ Gibson (Kilmarnock) wrote thai nine-tenth* 
the whole arl ol management consisted in (1) the handling of 
men. (2) the handling of groups of conditions and eircum«tan< 
mid (3) the handling of material and labour in view o) certain 
financial limitations. Most ol the defects oi managemeni noted 
l>y Mr. Dean might be traced to the fact that hitherto the train- 
ing of captains of industry on both side- of the Atlantic had been 
confined almost entirely to technical matters to the complete 
exclusion of psychological, historical, logical, and economic con- 
siderations. A manager so trained would deviate on the one hand 
to timidity, or on the other to truculence, and would not pursue 
a policy of consistent firmness and kindness. 

He entirely agreed with Mr. Dean that in the past the 
machine had had attention and the man had had little, and, in 
his (the writer's) opinion, the following general principles should 
be the guide in dealing with men. First. Carlyle's dictum should 
be observed: " I shall give you true guidance in return for 
loving obedience." This meant that pains and patience should 
be taken in giving every man instructions regarding his work. 
If this were done, the manager could demand work, not excuses 

The conditions of work should be considered : take for 
instance the most important man in the colliery — the coal-getter. 
(1) Did the work suit this particular man's experience and 
capabilities? (2) Ventilation was an important matter in respect 
to efficiency. The method of dealing with water (if present) was 
another. The supply of tubs was also of extreme importance. 
(8) What of the incentive to the man? He could not imagine 
anything more likely to bring out the best effort than the bonus 
system. He could hardly follow Mr. Dean in his assertion that 
the workmen of Germany were better housed than were those in 
the United States, but if this were so, lie submitted that the 
the higher output per man in the United States was produced, 
in spite of, not because of worse housing. Apart from the greater 
virility resulting from belter housing, it had the effect of tending 
to raise the standard of living, which required higher earnings 
and tended to greater output. (4) Output per man depended to 
some extent on the manager. Less attention had been given to 



1917-1913.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN NOTES. 87 

the psychology of management in Britain than in America. 
It had been fairly well established that a workman was tired 
when he thought he was. It followed then that the leader of 
men who mercilessly worked his men and paid them well — who 
would accept nothing but the best effort — would tune up all 
hands to a high standard. 

Mr. James Ashwortil (Vancouver, B.C.) wrote that Mr. 
Dean deprecated the use of canned foods, but these were indis- 
pensable, and as a matter of economy were frequently cheaper 
than the raw articles, especially in " away-back " camps and 
ranches. Doctors were very scarce and extremely difficult to get 
even for the largest camps, and therefore the health of the camp 
had to depend mostly on homely remedies, but mainly on plenty 
of fresh air and hard work. Accidents were the most difficult to 
deal with, and in such cases reliance had to be placed on men 
with first-aid or ambulance experience. In British Columbia the 
Mines Department employed an expert to visit the mining 
camps and give instruction in first-aid. 

Mr. Dean was lucky to have an average output of 7 tons of 
coal per man employed, but if every filler in a colliery was 
expected to do work equal to the men working in the mines of the 
United States Coal & Coke Company (West Virginia), namely, 
io load 35 short tons per shift of 8 hours, with an average of 16 
tons per shift per annum, in a seam 6 feet thick, it would be 
necessary to engage a race of Samsons. 

There was no doubt that uniformity of design and working 
to set rules tended to reduce the cost of the output ; it was also 
true that the room-and-pillar method of working coals was fre- 
quently cheaper than the longwall system, but it was certainly 
not as safe, and necessitated the use of an immense quantity of 
brattice-cloth. The subject of longwall versus room-and-pillar 
working was a very interesting one, and as a manager must, in 
order to maintain his position, get his coal as cheaply as or 
cheaper than his neighbour, his natural tendency was to adopt 
the method that would give him the cheapest cost-sheet. Having 
arrived at that point, he might, or might not, have to take into 
consideration which method of working would produce the largest 
percentage of round coal, in which case, most probably, the 
longwall system would prove the most satisfactory. In the Crows* 
Nest Pass Coalfield, which was noted for its dangerous " bump 
demonstrations, very large pillars had not proved a preventive 
of such occurrences, even when only 25 per cent, of the seam 
was removed. With regard to accidents to miners, the writer 
believed that the longwall method of working was much safer 
than the pillar-and-stall system. 



i KTIDNS i ' i i < . i ■ i 1 1 ' , i i m . i i » i II TIT] 

Mr. (iioi:i.i S. ttici (Cbiei \liinii'_ r hmgineej <<) tin- I n 
States Bureau <•! Mum-. Wa bington) wrote thai Mr. I 
remarks rega rding American coal-mining wei 

coming Prom .1 man who was brought up In the British coal- 
fields, ;iinl therefoi in the bap] tion oi Looking 
matters from ;i more or less detached standpoint. Mr. Dean bad 
stated thai 

"there U an attitude among miners in the di tricte of America in irhicfa 
anions exisi 1 1 mi causes them bo attempt to limit • their fellow 

ii'im 1 

This statement was denied bj officials oi the miners' unio 
and die writer thought it would perhaps be more exa< 
expressed l>\ stating thai there was an efforl made by the unions 
to level up the earnings of the miners to the highest earnii 
received, and to accomplish tin's by penalizing lee 
mining conditions, such as thinner coal or more faulty condi- 
tions. Thus their efforts had the effeel of constantly raising 
the cost of mining and of making it more difficult to work 
so-railed "deficient'' places or those in which the condition- 
were not the best. It was therefore difficult to try new improved 
methods, which every friend of unionized labour should reg. 
At the present time the scale of prices had increased to such an 
extent that the men made large daily earnings, particularly in 
the Far West, and would not remain at work during the full 
period of eight hours. There was a tendency, therefore, to take 
frequent holidays. 

It was, of course, unfortunate for America that the great 
majority of the miners were aliens, and that a very large num- 
ber could not speak English. This prevented a proper under- 
standing between the employer and the employe, and where 
they were members of a union, as in most parts of the country, 
it prevented a comprehension of the contractual obligation. 
With regard to Mr. Dean's statement that he " has previously 
done his best to show that the principal reason why America 
led in production per man was on account of the size of the mine- 
car used," it might be answered that while undoubtedly the 
size of the car was not the " last consideration," it could surely 
not be regarded as the first consideration. No better demonstra- 
tion could be afforded than in the State of Illinois alone, where 
in the thin-coal longwall district of Northern Illinois the 
output per man was le<s than 3 tons per day. while in the 
" machine mines " in Southern Illinois it was nearly 10 tons per 
man per day. The coal-beds were level in each case ; the mine-cars 
in Southern Illinois averaged 2 short tons (4,000 pounds) ; but 
those of Northern Illinois would average at least 1J tons (2,500 
pounds). These facts indicated that the tonnage output per 
man depended first on the relative ease of getting the coal, and 
that this in turn depended upon the physical conditions which 



1^X7-1918.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN NOTES. 89 

permitted tiie use of mining- machinery and the relative amount 
of dead work which had to be performed. In the Northern 
Illinois field the coal averaged about 3 feet in thickness, with a 
poor roof, so that the walls had to be built and the goaf filkd, 
whereas in Southern Illinois the coal ranged from T to 10 feet in 
thickness, with a very strong roof. 

There was no question that scientific management and 
efficiency methods, which Mr. Dean implied were considered 
necessary in well-organized factories and workshops, could with 
great advantage be applied in coal-mining; but the usual 
answer of the coal-mining operator was that the conditions laid 
down by the unions nullified studies of this character. One of 
the most serious factors at the present time was that, owing to the 
miners at the face making so much money, it was difficult to 
obtain efficient mine labourers. 

With regard to the room-and-pillar mining methods, he 
(Mr. Rice) was prepared to concur with Mr. Dean's statement 
that the first cost was cheapest ; but that it was sufficient from 
the standpoint of conserving the coal was another question. The 
writer did not concede the correctness of the assertion that in a 
large majority of room-and-pillar mines 95 per cent, of the coal 
was or could be recovered. There were certain favourable condi- 
tions (as in the Connellsville district of Pennsylvania) where 
recoveries approaching this percentage were obtained, although 
he questioned whether they readied it; but it was acknowledged 
freely by mining men conversant with various coalfields of the 
country (and the writer was under the impression that Mr. 
Dean's experience had been confined to Colorado) that the loss 
of coal in room-and-pillar work in most districts was very great. 
For example, owing to the very strong roof in Central and 
Southern Illinois, it was practically impossible to take out more 
than 50 to 60 per cent, of the coal without bringing on squeezes ; 
also the surface subsided unevenly, and the surface was more 
valuable than the coal in place. The pillars were rarely 
recovered under these conditions. In the writer's opinion, the 
only proper way to work under such conditions was to go to the 
boundary of the property, or of a large panel (which would be 
the equivalent), and retreat, keeping a straight " face " in order 
to obtain an even subsidence of the surface. 

There were certain mines where the roof was very weak in 
which room-and-pillar work was not found feasible at all, and 
this proved to be the case many years ago in the thin bed of 
Northern Illinois, where the method of 45-degree advancing 
longwall was finally adopted. There was no question but what 
there were many coal-beds in which advancing longwall could 
not be employed on account of roof conditions or lack of packing- 
material; but, on the other hand, there were many other beds 
in the United States which mining engineers had felt should be 



1)0 ii- ('Tin i H i "f i ii " riTl'Tl Vol.lxri 

worked b % \ tlie advancing long wall ysteiu, not with tanding thai 

thecosi per ton Poi production whs Ii becau&e ol the great 

recovery oi coal and the even subsidence oi the roof. Ii I 

surface it sel 1 \\ ; » - verj flat, longwall working '1 tem] 

derangement oi the surface drainage; but ae the long wall I 

advanced, tlie surface was restored to it- formei relative lev* 

although .it .i lower altitude by perhaps hall the thickness ot : 

excavation, M the packing had been well done. If hydraulic 

filling could be carried out, there was practicalrv no subsideni 

Mr. Dean, in his reference to the electric storage-bat1 

locomotive, stated thai these had been approved by the 

Mine Inspector of Pennsylvania for use in gaseous mine-. 'I 

bituminous mining law oi Pennsylvania, L911, Sectioi 6 P 

graph Ti), stated that — 

"Storage battery locomotive shall be used in gaseous mine only when 
1 he boxes containing the cell - and :ill elect rical pai t- are enclosed in flame and 
explosion proof casings." 

It was not understood that those locomotives had been thus 
protected. At all events, none had been tested for permissibility 
by the United States Bureau of Mines. If, therefore, the 
Pennsylvania Inspector had permitted their use, it was probably 

under special conditions. It was undoubtedly a gain for safety 
when the unprotected storage-battery locomotive was used in 
place of the trolley locomotive, provided it was not used beyond 
the point where a trolley wire might be used, as, for instance, on 
the intake of a mine producing' a gas and which was deemed 
gaseous. But on the other hand, if they were used to run to the 
lace of a working-place, or in return airways, which their 
flexibility permitted, and where gas might accumulate if ventila- 
tion were interrupted, then they were a distinct menace, unless 
made explosion proof. So far as the writer was informed, they 
had not yet reached this stage of manufacture in the United 
States. 

Many had thought, because the chances for short-circuiting 
and flashes within the battery itself were remote, that, there- 
tore, there was little danger from the locomotive; but 
it must be pointed out that the principal danger was in 
the motor, where the sparking of the commutator was 
just as likely, or more likely, to occur than it was in a motor 
used for other classes of work, such as in the undercutting 
machine for which certain explosion-proof motors had been 
approved by the Bureau of Mines. It was hoped that in time 
officially approved explosion-proof storage-battery locomotives 
would be placed on the market. Until they were, it was hoped 
that such motors would be used only in non-gaseous places. 

With respect to Mr. Dean's comparison of American mining 
conditions with those in Germany, showing America in not too 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN NOTES. 91 

favourable a light, tlie writer did not know whether Mr. Dean 
was a naturalized American, but as a good American citizen he 
(Mr. Rice) rather resented some of the comparisons, as, for 
instance, the statement that miners and other workers were 
housed better in Germany than in America, without it being 
understood that the earlier mining work in the United States had 
been in more or less shallow beds, rapidly worked out, which 
did not justify any degree of permanency in the so-called camps, 
and the necessity for the tremendous unprecedented development 
of coal-production to supply the national needs. In addition, 
so many of the miners were foreigners, and expected 
to return to their homes with comparative wealth, that they 
often preferred, in order to save, to live in their own self- 
constructed hovels rather than pay a fair rental for better 
houses. These conditions, however, were improving, and as the 
mines were becoming more permanent, many model villages 
were being constructed. The writer's observations on two trips 
to Germany were that the general conditions of the miners' 
safety and living arrangements were by no means ideal there, 
although they had some beautiful industrial villages which visi- 
tors were taken to see. 

He (Mr. Rice) did not think very much consideration should 
be given to Mr. Dean's second comment with regard to the 
reported slighting remark of the Prussian Minister of Com- 
merce, which was, so far as known, a statement not based on an 
investigation. He also wondered whether Mr. Dean was correct 
in the statement that — 

"Socialists in Germany favour the formation of syndicates, because 
these make the conditions of employment more favourable, increase wages, 
and the number of men employed, by expanding the industry." 

The syndicate mines had by no means been free from 
threatened strikes, and often the strong military arm had been 
stretched out to quench such uprisings. 

With regard to Mr. Dean's proposition which implied a 
reflection on the education given in America, and especially his 
statement that technical and commercial schools in Germany 
had few counterparts in America, Americans would not gener- 
ally concede this, except for trade schools. The writer won- 
dered whether Mr. Dean had familiarized himself with the good 
work done by the technical schools conducted in a great many 
cities and by almost every State University, in which citizens 
generally took pride, not to speak of the many high-grade 
endowed technical institutions. 

Mrs. Ellen Dean (Denver. Colorado) wrote that she was 
deeply grieved to inform the members that her son (Mr. Samuel 
Dean) passed away after a long and painful illness on October 
17th, 1917. 



I i: \ \ \i i ion ■ niK NORTH OKI > I> im 11 Vo 

discission OF DR. J. s. HALDANE 8 PAPEB ON 
" 'l II E SP0N1 A NEOUS I [RING 01 C0AL." € 

Mr. J. R. R. Wilson (H.M. [ n spec tor oi Mines, Newcastle 

upon-Tyne) said thai in this valuable paper, which uij 
increased the indebtedness <>i the [nstitution to Dr. Haldane, the 
author had stated thai ** if the coal is liable to heating 
particularly ii H crushes easily, the method of working should 
be such .1- to reduce In ;i minimum the occurrence of crushinj 
And he had pointed out thai there could be no heating without 
oxygen . 

In his paper on '" The Absorption oi Oxygen by Coal," Mi 
Winmil] had given the rate of oxidation oi Barnsley Softs at 
certain collieries in the Doncaster area, and he had labelled tl 
mines . 1 , B, ( ', />, and E. The rate oi oxidation a1 mines I) and 
E was the same, and the analyses of the coals were practically 
the same. Al I> he (Mr. Wilson) believed there had been only 
one gob-fire in the history of the mine, and it v. isily 

accounted for. At E there had been many fires. A reference to 
the Transactions of the [nstitution and to the evidence given 
before the " Departmental Committee on Spontaneous Combus- 
tion of Coal in Mines " gave the methods of working at these 
mines. Ii was to this point only, on the present occasion, that 
he desired to draw attention. 

All these mines were worked by the longwall method. At the 
majority of them the gate-roads were from 22 up to 30 yards 
apart, the gate-packs were 7| to 9 feet in width, and there were 
no intervening gob-packs. At others, the gate-roads were from 
40 yards to 50 yards apart, with gate-packs 6 to 7h feet in width : 
and there were intervening gob-packs, in some eases 12 feet wide, 
so spaced that the waste was only from 4i to 7 yards in width. 
The packs were built up to the Top Coal. 

At the first-mentioned group the roof broke oft' to the gate- 
packs, filled up the gob well above the height of the gate, and 
completely buried the fallen Top Coal, which might not have 
been filled out. The weight was also taken off the face. At the 
second group, the roof could not get down, the gob-spaces were 
not filled, the coal above the packs was crushed, the coal-face was 
crushed, the air got through the gate-packs, and the coal heated. 

In giving evidence before the Departmental Committee 
referred to, a manager of a colliery working the Barnsley Seam 
said he thought that the gob-packs were useful, as they pre- 
vented the fires from spreading throughout the goaf. At this 
colliery they generally put in gob-packs, but not always. They 
never had a fire where there were no gob-packs, and the fires 

* Trans. Inst. M. /«:., 1916-1017, vol. liii , page 194. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION THE SPONTANEOUS FIRING OF COAL. 



93 



which did occur were usually in the Top Coal at the inside of the 
gate-pack or over the first gob-pack. 

At one mine where the gate-roads were 22 yards apart, for 
many years all the coal was riddled in the mine and the small coal 

PLtiN 



COAL 



FACE 



m 

• CATC - - 



SEC 7 ION 








Fig. 1. — Sketch showing System of Working which Prkvents Air 

GETTING THROUCH THE GaTE-FACKS. 



- PL /IN 



C O rf L 



r # c £ 




GATE 




SECTION 




Fig. 2. -Sketch showing System of Working which Allows Air 

To (iET THROUGH THE GATE-PACKS. 



was thrown into the gob : despite this and an amount of Top 
Coal left, there never was a gob-fire, nor, he believed, had any 



heating been discovered, 



.'I I I: \ \ . • i i I'HK NOHTII OK ] HI I I I i I I 

Some yeai go, in giviiij I) 

Knquiry, lie wus n I ed Uj ", i \ • • his opinion upon t In- 1 
firos i 'i the mines in the l)oi II" hud pui ii 

rough sketches ( \' W I i nd 2), und the following 

of Ii is remn rks : — 

\t tlin'. or four collierie working the Barn 
i: re ai •• becoming in< i ea ingly I 

,i ii. in"-' i I i bought it ratn< r more i ban .1 1 oi n< 
of \\"i k in"- .ii each of t he&e colliei i« - 

narrow wa I numerous gob packs, and I could nol help think 

this method was responsible for much of the trouble which enoed 

from gob-fh I considered thai next to stowing th< 

artificial means for example, the hydraulic method the 
let the goaf stow itself by falling. Hence I consid< only 7 

yards wide with intermediate gob-packa were inadvisable, on the lt ■■ 
that such a system did not conduce to heavy breaks and to lettii 
fall with sufficient freedom to tighten up the waste and exclude .iir until 
.1 very considerable period had elapsed. 

I pointed out that in other parts of the same coalfield the Ban 
Seam, with Top Coal as thick, if not thicker, than ;it \\u- mine under 1 
sideration, is worked with little or no trouble from gob-fires, and I thou 
it was significant t hat at these collieries, with a 9-foot gate and 7|-fo< I : 
packs, the gates are 22 yards apart with no intermediate packs. CTnder this 
system the wide area of unsupported roof tended to fall freely to a g 
height, and then if the roads are well ripped and the packs tightly built, the 
roads are ultimately wholly in the hard stone above the goaf. I was aware 
that this method had been criticized on the ground that to dispense with 
gob-packs involved very great difficulty in keeping the face open betw.»n 
the gates, but I replied that by the use of wood chocks thi-> difficulty had 
been surmounted. With regard to the danger of the heavy falls in the 
waste leading to fractures which might let air from the road into the waste 
over the top of the pack, I could only say that this appeared possible, but 
that I had not found it a danger in practice. 

He was asked how it was, if his opinion was sound, that fires 
in a particular mine were always on two sides of the royalty and 
never in the other parts of the mine, whereas the system of work- 
ing was the same throughout. He (Mr. Wilson) was unahle to 
give a satisfactory answer. Later investigation, however, showed 
him that where the fires occurred there was a strong roof, and in 
other parts of the mine the faces were straighter, there was prac- 
tical freedom from faults, and. most important, there was some 
17 feet of a softer shale, which being friable, broke up readily 
and consequently better filled the goat spaces. 

As part of the discussion on this paper, he observed that Mr. 
W. Humble wrote " that at the Brodsworth Colliery, where con- 
siderable trouble from fires was experienced some few years ago, 
they were now free from such fires. This improvement had been 
brought about by a better system of packing and stowing off of 
old roadways and gobs. No tire bad occurred at Brodsworth 
during the last three years, and at Bullcroft Colliery, although 
there had been a few heatings, there bad been no fire." It would 
appear that they bad done something to get over the difficulties 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION THE SPONTANEOUS FIRING OF COAL. 95 

of the system shown in Fig. 2, and to approximate to those shown 
in Fig. 1. Perhaps amongst other tilings they had put a 4-yard 
pack into the gate-road instead of into the gob. It should be re- 
membered that in the system of working shown in Fig. 1 the 
gate-packs were buried from 50 to GO yards from the coal-face. 
Where gob-packs were put in, the gate-packs were not buried 100 
yards from the face. In some of these mines fires had occurred 
240 yards back from the face. He had given some years of 
thought to this question, particularly in connexion with the 
Barnsley Seam, and he was convinced that it was more than a 
coincidence that wherever the system shown in Fig. 2 had been 
adopted dangerous heating always occurred, whereas in the other 
system heating was practically unknown. 

Mr. Simon Tate (Trimdon Grange) asked whether anything 
depended on the depth of the mine. Was it a fact that in the 
shallower portions of the Yorkshire coalfields gob-fires were prac- 
tically unknown, and that where the mines were deeper gob-fires 
were more common ? 

Mr. Robert Clive (Doncaster) said that, coming from one of 
the pits where that very bad system mentioned by Mr. Wilson 
happened to be in use, he found that the principal trouble from 
the fires was generally on the sides of the roads. Latterly, he 
had never known of a case where they had had any fire which 
could have been ascribed to the difference in width of the gob ; 
they had frequently had slight heatings in the roadside in which 
it had not been a case of air leaking through from the road itself 
into a gob, but air from a crack. Generally, such heatings were 
detected long* before they got to any dangerous stage, and were 
easily dealt with, being dug out and sand filled in. In nearly all 
these cases the heating itself was only very small in extent, and, 
perhaps, half-a-tubful of warm material was all that they would 
find. The actual heated part might only be a shovelful. Their 
system might not be as good a system as that of Mr. Wilson, from 
a working point of view, but that system was best which ensured 
the least number of falls at the face, because these falls were the 
main source of the fires which were caused by the methods of 
working. When there was a large fall at the face and the coal 
became very much broken up, with air percolating all round it, 
there was always a liability that trouble might occur at that place 
at some later stage. At his pit they felt that the best way to 
avoid gob-fires was so to work the face as to get the minimum 
chance of falls. 

Mr. W. H. Chambers (Eotherham) said that some of the 
members had had the experience of having to manage pits in 
which these fires occurred . The air that percolated and set up the 

VOL. T,XVIIT.-1917-1 < )1-. 



.11 I " , ,] , 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Ih'.i! 1 1 1 s_r did not go through the pack . but through i n«l 

over i lie top oi > he pa( I Gob-fin did not *» i u i ";»l 

i li in. I ii one i oil mi 5 in pai i iculai . w here t here 
amounl oi Black thrown back bei nol thick, and tl i 

w.i- qo great weight <■• stone on top "i it, the coal did not fire. 
It ought to have been jusl the place to fire, according to any- 
thing one could conjecture, but it did not fire. \\<- had m 
seen a fire burn through Prom one gob to anothei through ;i pack. 
The fire occurred in the gob thai was nearest the gate, and i 
to get through. One could scour through thai and into the gob 
and into the other pack and then gei it sealed <»tt there, and in 
this \\;i\ scores oJ fires had been put out. II<' had known a fire to 
go on burning for ten years, and then they had had to dig it out. 
The smaller the area it was confined in, the easiei the operation 
was. They were very much obliged to Mr. Wilson for bis sug- 
gestion, but he was afraid that Mr. Wilson's method would nol 
do. The speaker had experimented in that direction, and he 
thought it was a wrong one. They were now making their en 
gates across the wastes with very thick packs, and they found it 
advantageous, but the packs should not be so big as to prevent 
the roof from bending down without fracture and closing up tho 
gob and making it solid. If there was any obstruction anywhere, 
or a short cut for the air to go through, the air would go through 
the fissures he had mentioned, and then there would be trouble. 

Lieut. -Col. Harry Ehodes said that he gathered, reading 
between the lines, that the colliery J) referred to in Mr. 
Wilson's remarks was one with which he was connected. 
Whether the fact that they had only had one gob-fire at that 
colliery was due to the adoption of the method advocated by Mr. 
Wilson he did not know ; but as the one fire that had occurred 
arose from a combination of circumstances which no method of 
packing would have prevented, it would appear that there was 
a good deal in Mr. Wilson's contention. He was also connected 
with another colliery which he gathered was referred to by Mr. 
Wilson, and in this mine the same method of packing had been 
adopted. Whether it was because of this method, or in spite of 
it, that no actual gob-fires had occurred, he was not prepared to 
say. They had certainly had a little heating, but none of these 
heatings had occurred on a straight coal-face : all had taken 
place under abnormal conditions, owing to the presence of faulty 
ground, and in one case to the fact that an outbreak of water 
had led to a considerable amount of timber being left behind in 
an old heading, the coal surrounding which was afterwards 
worked off. To the rise of that colliery was another working 
the same seam, where neither gob-fires nor heating had ever 
occurred, and on the other three sides were mines which were 
more or less subject to heating. 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION— THE SPONTANEOUS FIRING OF COAL. 97 

Mr. Simon Tate (Trimdon Grange) asked at what depth these 
fires referred to by Mr. Wilson occurred. 

Mr. Wilson replied that they were all deep pits. 

Mr. Chambers said there was one colliery 450 yards deep at 
which there had been frequent fires. There were others 600 yards 
deep and over, working practically under the same conditions — 
one could not say there was any physical difference of condition 
— and they had had no fires at all. 

Lieut. -Col. Rhodes knew one pit in which a fire had occured 
at a depth of 380 yards, but it was believed that this was an old 
fire which had crept down a fault side for some hundreds of 
yards, having originally been caused by a powder shot which lit 
some brattice and caused the district to be closed many years 
previously. He had also had experience of a fire in another seam 
at a depth of about 270 yards. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) said that, in a pit with which he 
was connected they had a fire 40 fathoms deep in a seam that had 
doubled over itself. 

Mr. Wilson, in replying to the foregoing discussion, inti- 
mated that he was rather tied by his official position. The point 
he had sought to make was that in those pits that adopted the 
system he advocated they never got fires. He had intentionally 
confined his remarks to the Barnsley Seam and to Barnsley 
Softs, because they were referred to in the series of papers. He 
could have given many other instances where the system of work- 
ing allowed the air to get through. They knew that coal 
oxidized, and that it might cause a fire when it did oxidize. His 
point was that they should not allow it to oxidize. 

The two sketches he had shown were put in to illustrate how 
the gob closed about the gate-packs in the one case and failed to 
do so in the other. It was, of course, obvious that the packs did 
not long remain as shown, but became crushed, and the gate- 
roads were ultimately formed in the roof. 

He quite agreed with Mr. Clive's remarks about the danger 
of large falls at the face ; but he was convinced that if, for any 
reason, the faces had to stand, the system of putting in frequent 
gob-packs in the Barnsley Seam was a predisposing cause of 
breaks at the coal-face. 

Mr. A. S. Douglas (Bearpark) wrote that he was able to 
supplement the remarks made by Mr. J. R. R. Wilson on this 
subject, as from observation extending over a period of thirteen 
years, during which time he was working the Top Hard or 
Barnsley Bed, he was strongly of opinion that the prevalence of 



ii in nu oil i m. i i \. . i \ \ ii i \- i i i i j i 

. ii uol a -I lie i" 

;ii mo i "i the Nottin form 

diate packs between the pate IJ the whole period oi 

b i ma aagemeni i be pit be coni rol led i I her 

si ink or fires ; in twi le ' i e ulted. 

Th( m adopted was the straight-face longwall, with u 

10 yards apart, and two wi . the rest being 

packed solid. In the wastes, the Coomb Coal •.• seam oi brij 
household coal) was cut) and a small proporl out; con- 

sequently the space was nol entirely filled, and the pacl 
side prevented the complete filling-up oi the when tl 

settled. Ii was the exception to find a fire anywhere l»ut a< 
to t be pack side. 

The Top Hard Seam, including the Coomb Coal, • 1 from 
7 to 8 A teet in thickness, the Latter coal being separated only b; 
small band. The overlying strata foi I or d agisted 

of a shaly bind, which readily Pell, it aot supported, but hung a 
long time on the central packs before they were crushed solid. 
He was strongly oi opinion that the pack-walls were I tree 

of the trouble, and while doubtless more timber would 1»p required 
if they were discontinued, ii would more than repay the cost of 
sanding off or digging out fires, to say nothing oi Lessening 
anxiety to the colliery manager and his officials. The disuse of 
intermediate pack-walls would ensure a more uniform distribu- 
tion of the weight over the entire stall. It was not uncommon in 
the collieries to which he had referred to find fractures parallel to 
the goaf-packs and in line with them, which extended in some 
cases up to the coal-face. 

Dr. J. S. Haldaxk (Oxford) wrote that, after reading over 
the discussion, he felt that his own experience with regard to 
the points raised was not sufficient to justify him in adding any- 
thing by way of reply. The important point raised by Mr. 
Wilson was one for mining engineers to decide in the light of 
practical experience. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. WILLIAM MAURICE'S PAPER 
OX "ACETYLENE MINE LAMPS."* 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that he was. possibly, one of the first users of 
acetylene lamps underground. His first experience was in 1903, 
when he used an acetylene bicycle-lamp in that manner. Hi< 
reason was thai he had to examine a copper mine. Those of 
them who had to do that knew that by the light of a candle or an 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 'J'J7. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION ACETYLENE MINE KAMI'S. 99 

oil-lamp it was impossible to tell the difference in colour between 
iron pyrites and copper pyrites in a lace, whereas by the 
pure white light of acetylene one could see the difference quite 
plainly. Since that time, he had introduced it very largely 
indeed into ironstone and metal-mines of all descriptions where 
such a lamp could be used safely. Some years ago, when in a mine 
in Norway, he found that nearly all the men were using acetylene 
lamps. They said it cost them considerably more than candles, 
but that they found that the advantage they derived from the 
improved light enabled them to so increase their output that it 
paid them to use acetylene lamps. He noticed that, in the 
paper, there was very little said about the acetylene safety-lamp. 
He had had one, and had kept it burning for a while in his 
house, but from the way it behaved there, he never had the pluck 
to take it underground. An important fact that the author 
had omitted to state was that acetylene combined with one 
or two metals, especially with copper, to form an explosive 
compound. That was a source of danger which ought to be 
in people's minds. He freely admitted that he had never heard 
of an accident that could be traced to that cause, but it was a 
perfectly possible cause of accident, and it was right that atten- 
tion should be drawn to it. He considered that a man who was 
using a brass acetylene lamp was running a risk he had no right 
to run. Acetylene lamps should always be made of steel, tin- 
plate, or some similar metal, and copper and brass should be 
avoided. 

Mr. James Ashworth (Vancouver) wrote that Mr. Maurice 
had stated that safety-lamps burning acetylene gas had success- 
fully passed " the various Continental safety-lamp tests," but 
that the British Home Office or the Committee of the Eskmeals 
Testing Station had declined to entertain the proposition to intro- 
duce them into British coal-mines, because (1) there were no 
regulations in existence which would admit of such a lamp being 
tested, and (2) that it was an acetylene lamp, and therefore could 
not be tested. 

The force of this reasoning was not very clear, as the 
Ashworth -Clowes hydrogen gas-lamp was permitted. The 
difference between the hydrogen gas-lamp and the acetylene was 
that one carried its gas in a cylinder under pressure, and the 
other one made its gas whilst in use ; but if the acetylene gas 
were supplied from a steel cylinder, the acetylene and hydrogen 
lamps would practically be on the same level. Both gases, if 
mixed with the air feeding a safety-lamp flame, were 
undoubtedly very dangerous to the safety of a safety-lamp. ~No 
known safety-lamp could withstand safely the ignition of a 
mixture of hydrogen and air inside it, and probably the same 



I'TICJ I'llKNOKTH Ol KNlil riTl'Tl Vol. t 

i .'in. iik w.i 1 1 ue of a mixture i 

lon| i be w riter \ i ited a ooa open acetj l< 

la ni|» were principa llj u ed, bui p bere I bei 
1 1 1. 1 1 niiir l'.i might '"' i "H in I in a broken-up pari <>i the do 
A lew ml safety-lamps were also taken along, ami '.Inch « 

,i Wolf lamp of the Clanii} type with a single game. On reach- 
ing the spot where gae wae suspected, the r-lamps Vil 
Lighted. The write] remarked thai be did do< consider the lamp 
(»t i be ( Hanny i \ pe a -.1 le lamp to ose foi under I 
oondil ions. ' >n rei nrning to the bre-boj 
menl was made by extinguishing the flame of an acetylene lamp, 
allowing the gas to play on the top oi the gauze oi the Clan 
type Lamp, [gnition eventually took place inside the Lamp, and 
the flame was carried through the gauze instantly, and if 
the open acetylene Lamp. In the opinion oi the writer, an 
acetylene safety-lamp was not a sufficiently safe Lamp to use in 
a gaseous coal-mine, principally because the means for regu- 
lating the supply ot gas to the burner was not under abeol 
control. 

The acetylene safety-lamp was more complicated than the 
ordinary safety-lamp, and it was expensive to clean and recharge. 
The writer had nothing to say againsl it- use in an open-lamp 
mine, as under those conditions it was excellent. 

Mr. Archibald Russell (Bacares, Spain) wrote that lie hoped 
the excellent paper of Mr. Maurice would bring before mine- 
owners and managers the advantages of the acetylene lamp, from 
the point of view of economy, safety, and convenience. In Spain 
the lamp had almost completely superseded the oil-lamp, even 
in districts where oil was obtained from olives grown close to the 
mines; whilst carbide had to be transported for considerable dis- 
tances. A 16-candle-power acetylene lamp consumed about 1 
ounce of carbide per hour, and at pre-war price cost about Id. per 
shift of eight hours : this included replacement of burners and 
accessories, which was not a large item when lamps were pro- 
perly handled and looked after. 

It was difficult to determine the exact monetary gain per shift 
to owners and miners, but the workmen declared that the use of 
acetylene lamp was worth a 10-per-cent. rise in wages at least. 
This was to be expected, as the oil-lamp gave only from 1| to 2 
candle-power under best conditions. 

The following were some of the advantages acetylene lamps 
possessed over oil-lamps or candles : — (1) Acetylene would burn 
in an air-current of greater velocity than oil-lamps or candle^, 
although it was more liable to be extinguished by sudden concus- 
sions arising from shots fired, and it would burn more readily 
in a place where ventilation was sluggish ; (2) the men could re- 



1917-1918] DISCUSSION — ACETYLENE MINE LAMES. 101 

turn to their working places very quickly after shot-firing, and 
could also examine the condition of roof and sides more carefully 
and more rapidly : (3) the mucous membranes of nose and mouth 
were affected very little by acetylene lamps, whereas the effects 
of oil-lamps and candles were very objectionable; (4) in high 
workings the roof could be inspected with greater facility, and 
timbering more expeditiously carried out : (5) in haulage sidings 
or junctions the light was of great convenience, whilst in actual 
mining it enabled the miners to distinguish between the ore and 
bands of inferior mineral or impurities. It was almost certain 
that a trial of properly-constructed acetylene lamps in mines in 
Great Britain — especially in metalliferous mines- would mean 
their adoption in places where hitherto candles and oil-lamps 
had been used, and a reduction in the number of accidents would 
be sure to follow. 

Mr. William Maurice (Sheffield), in reply, said that it was 
gratifying to hear an engineer of Prof. Henry Louis' wide 
experience speak so favourably of acetylene lamps. The intense 
whiteness of the acetylene light had proved of great importance 
in many metalliferous mines. It w r as correct, as Prof. Louis had 
stated, that acetylene combined with copper to form an explosive 
compound, and copper vessels were therefore prohibited. The 
use of copper and brass vessels for acetylene lamps had been 
officially investigated in England, France, and other countries, 
and it had been definitely and authoritatively stated that there 
was not the slightest risk in using brass vessels. Even copper 
was, he thought, proscribed only on academic grounds, there 
being, so far as he knew, no recorded instance of any accident 
having arisen through the employment of this metal. The use 
of brass acetylene lamps, on the other hand, was universal. There 
were hundreds of thousands of brass lamps in use, and practical 
experience proved that no risk of any kind was involved thereby. 
For mining purposes it was often a distinct advantage to use 
brass, as there were localities in which water acted corrosively 
on tinned and steel vessels. Brass was, as a matter of fact, used 
for the water-droppers and gas-fittings of every acetylene lamp, 
no matter of what metal the body of the lamp was composed. On 
any of the newspaper kiosks in the streets of Paris and other 
continental cities might be seen acetylene lamps made of the 
thinnest possible sheet brass, but he had never been able to 
ascertain that any accident had arisen from their use. 

With reference to Mr. James Ash worth's remarks, he (Mr. 
Maurice) understood that the official objection to the use of 
acetylene safety-lamps in fiery mines was that, in the event of 
the flame from such a lamp going out, the gas would escape and 
be liable either to form an explosive mixture in the air, or to 



h' • niA.NS 'M i i ii .,i i \..i \ \ i, i •- i i i i i I 

l HOI PH H I I 

proportion "t tii.-i liam I />/ ioi i \ i mix tun 

Ii \ ih ogen mid .mi in explo ive proporl o* through I 

.1 I rl \ 1,1 111 |i ".i uzi bul 1 1 li."l I" 
nl ;irrl\ |.i ■ .i ml ., i | I I, .. u I I.. !ii -I I . In|i did Q0( bl 

through. I ' w n . lie i lioup lit, prom i ert i 

nil acetylene *afetj lamp wa«- ue< u l\ urn 

1 1 p hoped . tt1 a o ea rly date, to be able t< 

mi the subject oi acetyl* ety-lamps l^ the mei 

and on I \ iKiw asked thai n lamp \»>- 

advantages should not be condemned in advauci 

Mr. Archibald Russell's remarks showed hon lamps 

were held in favourable esteem bj those who had extensiv< 
used them and where, consequently, considerable i 
to their advantages and disadvantages had beeD acquired. M i 
Russell had made an interesting comment on the hygienic 
advantages oi acetylene Lamps. The injurious effect oi lamps 
and candles ujton the mucous membranes ol the nose and mouth 
had been reported upon officially in connexion with the dise; 
of miners in the Transvaal, and the advantage afforded in this 
respect by acetylene Lamps had been noted. He Mr. Maui • 
had no doubl whatever that the enormously increased illumina- 
tion rendered possible by the use of acetylene lamps in mil 
would diminish greatly the risk of accident from falls of roof 
and side, and all those numerous accidents classified as 
" miscellaneous " which were so difficult to guard against. He 
would also point out that sufficiently extensive use had not yet 
t>een made oi acetylene lamps for the purpose of boiler and flue 
inspection. It was difficult to understand why inspectors should 
continue to look for minute cracks in boiler-plates by the aid of 
a flickering candle or an oil-torch when an infinitely more 
satisfactory lamp for the purpose was available. 



1917-1918] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 103 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

December 8th, 1917. 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, President, in the Chair. 



DISCUSSION OF MR, GEORGE GIBE'S PAPER ON " A 
FRESH ASPECT OF INTENSIVE MINING THIN 
SEAMS."* 

Mr. Simon Tate (Trimdon Grange) wrote that Mr. Gibb bad 
launched a tirade against the longwall method of working, 
ascribing to it a number of mining troubles and difficulties 
which were also common to other methods of coal-working, and 
had inferred that these disabilities were the natural result of 
working coal bv longwall. 

(1) Mr. Gibb had first of all ascribed to the longwall method 
'" irritation of labour," but surely he could not seriously ask any 
one to accept the view that such a method caused the colliers to 
be more irritable than when working by other systems. He 
(Mr. Tate) had always found that meagre wages were a more 
potent element of dissatisfaction and unrest than any particular 
method of work. Easy work and high wages were two factors 
which tended to calm unruly spirits, and longwall work stood out 
pre-eminently as the ideal method of accomplishing this, by 
reducing the most laborious part of a coal-hewer's or coal-getter's 
labour, by taking the full benefit of the weight of the super- 
incumbent strata, and thereby utilizing natural forces rather 
than the muscular effort of the collier. Although honest labour, 
however hard it might be, was not derogatary, yet to see an 
intelligent human being day after day, and week after week, 
flogging away at the hard unyielding coal-face of a bord or wall, 
such as existed in some of the hard coal-seams, emboldened one 
to hope that the time was rapidly approaching when either by 
the use of longwall or by machinery the hewing of hard coal by 
manual labour would be reduced to a minimum. 

(2) With regard to interruptions to normal and steady work- 
ing alienating the sympathies of labour, in the writer's some- 
what long experience he knew of nothing peculiar to longwall 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1917-1918, vol. liw, page 28. 



h'l ii'\\ \« i i-.-. i in son HI OF ENGLAND 15 mum. Vol I] I 

working thai merited this condemnation. 1 1 •• w * » > 1 1 « I rentur* 
saj thai a the long 1 wall method invariablj tended to make the 
coal 'M ier to win, [\ mu t also lend t<» ;ill.i\ the <! hoii 

oi service and t»> mollify rather than alienate tl 
t be w «»i ker. 

With re peel to the statement that the larger ai - • i * - } t 

must I" 1 developed in dealing with thin coali ai coi 
depth were so extensive as almosl to preclude from the hoi 
the possible economic application of longwall in it- ei <>u 

the outward journey, the \n i i t « - i- interpreted this to mean that in 
order to obtain ;i I tutpul in deep pits the L< 

would be so extensive thai it would preclude the application 
that method of working. It this was whal the writer meant, 
then he (Mr. Tate) ai once joined issue with him, because in 
his opinion the longwall system of coal-fac? working lenl itc 
to yielding the maximum output in the shortest possible time 
from any given area of coal-mines, as ;t much larger number oi 
coal-getters could bo applied on a longwall face of work than by 

any oilier system. 

(4) With regard to the assertion thai the need for efficient 
transport was increased because of larger areas and outputs, this 

"was a truism well known to the merest tyro in mining. The- 
outlets, the haulages, the mechanical power, and all the m- 
sary plant must be in adequate proportion to the output : but 
the adoption of all these aids to output were not the prerog 
tives of " intensive mining." 

(5) Mr. Gibb claimed that the inherent defects in longwall 
were such as to prevent the fullest advantage being taken at all 
times of the electrical and mechanical facilities now available 
for transport work, etc. Surely this assertion was not the 
universal experience of mining engineers, and in his (the 
writer's) opinion it was incorrect, because longwall working 1 
fulfilled one of the first requisites of a successful application 
of mechanical haulage. It focussed the output of a larger 
number of colliers to central collecting points than could, be 
arranged for by any other system. For example, in South 
Yorkshire longwalls the outputs of five or six men were probably 
all coming to one gateway (in cases where conveyors were used, as 
many as twelve coal-getters were often filling coal into one gate- 
way) ; and if one considered for a moment the tonnage delivered 
from a single district of one of these pits one could see how 
much simpler and more effective mechanical haulage could be 
utilized in these circumstances than in a pit where a larger 
percentage of coal was won from comparatively narrow working- 
places driven into the solid for future gate-roads, as suggested by 
Mr. Gibb. What he meant by " etc.." he (Mr. Tate) could 
not gather, unless it were ventilation, which was mentioned in 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 105, 

the same paragraph ; but surely Mr. Gibb did not for a moment 
suggest that the method of working proposed by him was easier, 
better, or more effective for efficient ventilation than a straight- 
faced longwall. If, however, he actually meant this, he could 
hardly expect any mining engineer to give credence to such a 
statement. 

Mr. Gibb in the next paragraph stated that " it had been the 
custom in longwall working with machine-mining to send out 
exploring headings several hundred yards in advance, etc." 
Surely this must be a very isolated practice, and certainly very 
costly and unnecessary. 

(6) The author claimed that in the scheme detailed by him 
the aim was to retain the advantages of relieved pressure. He 
(Mr. Tate) must confess that he could not understand what was 
meant by " the advantages of relieved pressure." He could 
understand and appreciate the advantage to coal-getting of the 
pressure of the strata upon the coal-face, but he could not see the 
advantage of relieved pressure. He had always understood, 
too, that the pressure having once been exerted upon coal and 
afterwards reduced caused the coal to become " winded," and 
resulted in its being much harder to work. 

(7) The statement that exploring headings were carried 
ahead 400 to 500 yards per annum showed that Mr. Gibb 
was not working his pits by the longwall method, but rather by 
a mongrel system. In a longwall pit proper it was only when 
taking precautionary measures against danger from known or 
suspected old workings or faults that cover-places in keeping 
with safety and the requirements of the Mines Act were driven. 

(8) In order to provide for the continuity of output, all that 
was necessary, as soon as the requisite output had been obtained, 
was to cease working as much of the coal near to the shaft as 
was necessary for the future equalization of output and cost of 
working. 

With regard to subsidence, Mr. Gibb claimed 20 to 25 per 
cent, less subsidence by his method of working. How could 
this claim be substantiated if the coal-seam was completely and 
thoroughly worked out? The overlying strata must ultimately 
fall or sink to fill up the space of the extracted coal. He (Mr. 
Tate) was afraid, therefore, that the lessened subsidence was 
due to the whole of the coal not being so cleanly extracted as 
would be the case in longwall working. He thought it probable 
that in longwall workings a larger immediate subsidence of the 
surface occurred than with pillar-working, but the ultimate 
amount of subsidence must be the same in both cases, provided 
that the coal was cleanly worked out. 

He noticed that Mr. Gibb did not claim great originality for 
the scheme. He (Mr. Tate) had seen this system in operation 



loc 



rHA.\HA< i IONS i in tfOfl I II 01 I SOLA HD IKKT1TI M Vol \l 



more than forty yeai i the Elemore Collier; - of the 

Hetton pitfl under thechiel management oi 8ii I Wood, 

in which case the pillan were formed bj bordi and walls <]i, 
by coal hewen and the pillar uoH.'-d «»1i nmn tin* coal p 
roads, the face being anderout by machines called 

the " Imhi Alan." The system was ;i I ».i n f 1 < »fj <•♦ 1 bi-raus,. <,\ ■ 
the oosl oi forming the pillars, and (6) the difficulty oi •working 
ili*' la si portion oi the pillar-, when as the face oi i una 

Dear to the cross-heading (headways) the roof-stone broke up, 
causing greai trouble and expense in maintaining the working, 
and (.lien resulting iii considerable lose oi coal. 

The introduction of the compressed-air percussive heading- 
machines had revolutionized the driving oi narrow irhole-mine 
work, especially where the coal was hard, and difficult to 
win. These machines were invaluable in all such cases, 
and with their aid bord-and-pillar working more nearly 
attained the advantages of Longwall working. In many < 
where the coal was hard to work in the whole mine, it had 1 
found very advantageous to win out the coal into pillars by using 
the heading machines, and afterwards to work off the pillar- by 
manual labour. 

There was, however, a well-known exception to longwall 
working in the mining- of the thin coking seams in the West oi 
Durham, where the coal was comparatively tender and easy to 
work, and the size of the produce was immaterial. It 
here found to be much more economical to work tl ams 

either by bord-and-pillar or by single or double stall: but for 
working thin hard seams, longwall was the system that would 
generally yield the most satisfactory results. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener (Beamish) said that the impression he 
had received on reading Mr. Gibb's paper was different from 
that conveyed to Mr. Tate's mind. The object that Mr. Gibb 
had in view was to bring forward the advantages of a modified 
system of longwall as applied to working thin seams. Mr. Gibb 
had not stated the exact thickness or the depth of the seams to 
which he referred, but he (Mr. Greener) gathered from the 
paper that the seams were somewhere about 1,200 feet deep, 
and that their thickness did not exceed 2 feet. Mr. Gibb spoke 
of his system as " intensive " mining, but he (Mr. Greener) had 
never heard that term applied to mining, and was not quite 
sure whether he understood what Mr. Gibb meant by it. He 
had heard of the intensive system of poultry-keeping, and 
assumed that the adjective meant something similar when 
applied to mining — that it was a system by which as many men 
as possible were concentrated in a given area for the purpose of 
obtaining the largest possible output from that area. If that 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 107 

were so, that object would commend itself to every member of 
the Institute. As to the system itself, it was, as Mr. Tate had 
remarked, not by any means new. When he (Mr. Greener) 
went into Yorkshire many years ago, the system of bank- 
working was then in operation to a limited extent, and it was 
very much the same system as that shown on the plate illus- 
trating Mr. Gibb's paper. That method was abandoned, because 
it was found that longwall was more suitable for working the 
seams in operation than the old Yorkshire system. The former 
had many advantages over the latter: among others it pro- 
duced a larger quantity of round coal and got rid of serious out- 
bursts of gas. He understood Mr. Gibb to claim that his 
working costs were considerably lower than they were formerly, 
and that he had obtained a much larger output of coal from a 
given area, and got it more regularly, than from the system 
previously employed. Everyone would agree that, if this were 
so, there would be less liability to irritation amongst pitmen by 
reason of interruptions to regular work, and undoubtedly that 
was an important point. It was also an advantage that the 
greatest possible output should be obtained. Having regard to 
his (Mr. Greeners) experience in working* thin seams in the 
County of Durham, of a section of 2 feet and under, he had no 
hesitation in stating that it was cheaper to work such seams by 
a modified system of longwall than by the ordinary longwall 
method, because it was possible to do with a less amount of 
shift-work in the former system than in the latter, and there was 
less trouble in maintaining the roads. With regard to subsi- 
dence, although settlement would ultimately take place — pro- 
vided, of course, the coal was totally exhausted — to the same 
extent as in the ordinary longwall, the subsidence did not 
follow the removal of the coal so quickly, and there was not, 
therefore, the same difficulty in maintaining the gateways and 
the face, but he did not think there was any other advantage. 
He had tried both systems, and had ultimately come to the con- 
clusion that the modified system of longwall was cheaper and 
more suitable for thin seams than any other system with which 
he was acquainted. In those parts of the pit in which mechan- 
ical conveyors were in operation, Mr. Gibb's and other similar 
systems of working coal were, in the speaker's opinion, more 
convenient and suitable than the ordinary longwall, for the 
reason that the pressure on a short face was less than the pres- 
sure on a long face, and coal-conveyors could therefore be oper- 
ated more cheaply and more regularly than in a face subject to 
great pressure. 

Mr. Gibb's paper was particularly interesting to all mining 
engineers in the Xorth of England, because in that district a 
larger number of coal-seams varying in thickness from 18 inches 



108 I I' W kCTIO> III) .Ml' I || .,| I M.I •.!,!•. I I I I I I \ . || 

i<» 2\ i- ■< i were being worked than id anj other districl prith 
which he (Mr. (ireener) «va acquainted. The coal w 
.1 1 1 \ used foi i ok i Qg b ad u u -< « eened fru coal ; 
matter whether i1 waa Large oi small, provided thai there 
plenty oi \\ and thai the coal oi product ion wa n-aMma)d<*. On 
the whole, whilsi there were tatementi In the paper with which 
he was ooi in agreement, he undoubtedly agreed with Mr. Gibb 
thai under certain conditions a modified Bystem of lonjrwall 
more suitable for working thio seams than the ordinary loi 
wall met hods. 

Mr. M lrk Foed (Washington) said thai the methods oi 
mining coal varied in different districts, and mighi be due to 
the size of the coal required by the market, its quality, its hard- 
ness or peculiar formation, the depth oi the seam, the strei - 
oi the roof or floor, and the flexibility oi the strata interver 
between the scam and the surface; bo thai a discussion oi a 
paper of tin's kind was attended with a host of difficulties due 
to the lack of local knowledge. In Mr. G. L. Kerr'a Praci 
Coal-mining, which dealt largely with Scottish practi 
following paragraph was found : — 

" Long wall. 

■" Length of Walls. — The length of wall depends on the thickness of the 

seam and the amount of material at disposal for 'packs.' For a seam 

4 ft. thick, with a good roof, 12 to 15 yds, is quite long enough; for a 3£ ft. 
seam, 15 to 20 yds. is sufficient; and for seams 1£ ft. to 2 ft. thick, the wall 
may be 20 to 25 yds. in length."* 

In the North of England and in most other coalfields the 
reverse was the case : the thinner the seam, the shorter the face 
between the gate-roads. 

It would have been better if Mr. Gibb had further elabor- 
ated his description, and had given the dimensions of the 
faces and pillars, and the widths of the gateway-. 

It was the practice at many places in the North of England 
to drive a winning place or places 9 to 12 feet wide, and to pro- 
tect them by leaving from 40 to 100 yards of coal before open- 
ings out by longwall. This enabled the mechanical haulage to 
be kept well up to the face, and was often a useful method, 
especially working to the dip. In place of this practice. Mr. 
Gibb had adopted what he called " semi-longwall," wherein the 
subsidence was 25 per cent., as compared with 80 per cent, under 
ordinary longwall working. The width of coal extracted was 
not stated. Much would depend on the hardness of the coal 
and the roof and floor conditions as to the behaviour of the road- 
ways. If the coal was soft and the roof composed of shale, it 
was possible that the subsidence would be as great, and the 
necessary repairs as much, as in ordinary longwall working. 

♦Fifth edition, 1914, page 211. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 109 

With a width of 40 yards, a hard coal, and a sandstone roof, 
there might be little settlement, and a difficulty in conveying 
the air very far from the shaft, as there would be insufficient 
pressure to make the packs airtight. 

In many cases the roof would be broken by the side of the 
semi-longwall roads, thus making the new roads dangerous and 
costly to turn away. In other cases the coal would be " winded ' 
and difficult to work when being opened out. 

Interruptions to normal and steady working was not the 
general experience in the North of England where the longwall 
method was practised. As a rule, there was less irritation from 
the labour point of view when working* longwall than in other 
systems. It might be that by his method Mr. Gibb had over- 
come difficulties peculiar to his own district, and, if that were 
so, he was to be congratulated. 

The mining of thin seams was a vital problem at the present 
moment with many engineers, and the reading and discussion 
of similar papers would bring out many ideas useful to the 
profession. 

The labour problem was full of difficulties. Secretaries of 
trade unions might shut their eyes to the results of the Mini- 
mum Wage Act, but mining engineers had to recognize them 
and act accordingly. A pick-sharpener had recently stated that 
he could generally tell who were the " minimum ' men, as 
their picks so rarely came to bank to be sharpened. 

Hard coal could not be hewn by hand, and resource must be 
had to mechanical cutters, or advantage taken of the weight of 
the strata. If anyone would plot the increase of coal got by 
machines in this country during the past twelve years, he would 
, be surprised at its slow growth in comparison with the increase 
in the total output (the figures for coal-cutters for 1916 showed 
a considerable increase, however). By more scientific records of 
the rate of travel of the face, the number of temporary and per- 
manent supports, the direction of the face, and the tools used 
by the miner, better results might be obtained by manual labour 
in the future. 

It was recently found at a colliery where a number of men 
worked at the " minimum " wage that 980 picks were 
sharpened for 1,074 hewers' shifts. It was also found that the 
same weight and pattern of pick was used irrespective of the 
thickness or hardness of the coal. The picks varied from 1\ to 
2h pounds in weight, the average being 2 pounds. 

Both engineers and workmen from thick seams had carried 
their methods, machinery, tools, and prejudices into the thm 
seams, and free discussion and exchange of experiences would 
in time tend to relieve the present irksome nature of mining in 
thin seams. 

q E 

VOL. LXVI1I.— 1JT.7-1918. y 



110 Tl t'TICJ i I i i i i I 

\1 1 < < Lea en ->■:• In. i lie point bour 

mi 1 1- t . i In- be i w u "i •• II.' ' ;■ moiiK »t ' lie men 
w.i to '••• i bat th< ere i 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 \ nl. orae work w a done awi tl Be wa quit 

i li.i i i lie long wall •> tern a ad all it bad done 

wnli \ ci \ iinn 1 1 bard work which the of the | 

i l.i \ bad never bad to do and would <l". 1 1 

work could be made Fairlj i nd pleasant, there would 
\ti\ little trouble, provided thai the men made good moi 
was thi •hi. 

Mi. Roberi Peel (Durham) asked whethei lii ( - 
advocated his method oi mining foi all thin seams, <n wi 
owing to some particular circumstances in ln^ case, In- method 
was more advantageous than the ordinary method oi I' I? 

lie (Mr. Peel) was led to think there were special • 
Mr. Gibb's case by the statement made that when longwal] 
in operation there were interruptions to normal and steady w< 
ing, difficulties of ventilation and transport, and inability to t 
the fullest advantage oi electrical and mechanical facilii 
occasioned bj roof-and-pressure troubles. There was also 
statemeni thai the method advocated "adds enormously to 
genera] safety, as was Bhown by the faci that accidents had 
decreased by 75 percent." The conclusion might be drawn from 
the foregoing that the conditions of working must have !• 
exceptionally bad, due to a difficult roof and a soft thill. This 
was borne out by a further statemeni that u the labour formerly 
employed in making and maintaining road- and airway-, with 
its continual burden of expense, falls, interruption, etc., 1 
largely decreased; " also that the change was not inaugurated for 
novelty, but from necessity. It might be assumed, therefore, 
that the seam as worked on the ordinary long-wall method " 
unprofitable, and that a system which might be described ae 
combination of stoop-and-room with a modified longwall had been 
adopted as an alternative, and. so far. had proved more satis- 
factory. 

It was quite an ordinary resource to change from one method 
of working that might be giving bad results to another, in the 
hope that less difficulties might be encountered and the seam 
prove more remunerative. It would appear, therefore, that Mr. 
Gibb's suggestion of originality, or that the method proposed wa? 
in any way " intensive," was hardly warranted, unless there 
were further facts and information to modify this view in the 
subsequent paper promised by Mr. Gibb on the method of 
investigation, the labour, the work of management, and the 
investigating staff. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. Ill 

Mr. G. L. Kerr (Glasgow) wrote that Mr. Mark Ford had 
quoted a paragraph from his (Mr. Kerr's) book {Practical Coal- 
mining) with regard to the length of walls in longwall working. 
It was always a risky and an unfair practice to wrench a sentence 
or paragraph from the context in order to illustrate or make a 
point in a discussion. If Mr. Ford had given the full quota- 
tion, it would have shown more fully and clearly what his (Mr. 
Kerr's) views were in defining the length of a wall in seams of 
varying thickness. The following should be given immediately 
after the paragraph quoted by Mr. Ford : — 

" In thin seams the walls ought to be long enough to hold all the 
debris, and the longer the walls the less will be the cost for ripping. If, 
however, the walls are too long (in thin seams) the coal is much injured by 
breakage, in the process of throwing it two or three times along the wall 
to the road-head or gate-road."* 

This paragraph and the one quoted by Mr. Ford were first 
written 18 years ago, and probably would require some modi- 
fication now if applied to mines or seams where conveyors were 
employed, but where these were not used, and especially if the 
coal was entirely got by manual labour, the writer thought that 
no modification was necessary. If the foregoing paragraph was 
read along with the other quoted, he did not think that many 
of the members would disagree with the views expressed. 

This point might be illustrated further by taking a concrete 
example. Taking first a seam 3 feet thick and assuming that 
the gate-roads were ripped 5J feet high by 10 feet wide at the 
bottom and 9 feet at the top, the cubic feet of ripping got in 1 
fathom would be 9'5 x 2'5 x 6 = 142*50. The debris from each 
cubic foot of the solid ripping when blasted down would approxi- 
. mately put in 2 cubic feet of pack-wall, so that 1 fathom of 
ripping would be sufficient to put in two pack-walls (one on 
each side of the gate-road), each measuring 8 feet by 3 feet by 
6 feet. With pack-walls of these dimensions, in gate-roads 
having 36-foot centres, there would be a " cundie ' or goaf 
space of 10 feet between the pack-walls. 

Taking now a seam 21 inches thick with gate-roads of the 
same dimensions and distances apart, the cubic feet of ripping 
in 1 fathom would be 3*75 x 9*5 x 6 — 21375. On the same basis 
as before, the loose debris from 213*75 cubic feet of ripping 
would requite two pack-walls 21*3 feet long by 6 feet wide if 
all the debris were to be stored. A wall only 12 yards long 
could not take all this stowage, and instead of a cundie being 
left sufficient debris would remain over to put in other 16' 6 
feet of pack-wall, or equal to 174*3 cubic feet, which would be 
equal to approximately 6 tons of debris that would require to 
be stowed elsewhere or drawn to the surface. If all the debris 
were to be stowed, it would require a wall 18 yards long 

*Fifth edition, 1914, page 211. 



US i 1 1 nil " i 

4-foot gate-road centre*) iu I 

I 
i he '• foot -•'■mm m it I 
fathom "i advance would equal 21 fi tons. Assuming il 

i ippii i ,'ii pei i.ii hom, i ben i be i o ton foi i 

would equal Lid. Foi i be lame length ol wall in th< 

n i be i 'i pei fal hora of ad ailed 11*6 md 

cosl of i ip] i i ton (a1 20s, pei fathom I equal rd. 

fathoinage rate for the thinner seam would probah more tl 

i li;ii For i he 3 F< oi se im, bu1 i he I th illu 

point. It instead ol b L2 yard w i one of li 

n taken for i he 21 -inch seam, the 1 
advance would be I 8*9, and ' he i os1 oi i ipp ] ' 6d., 

which would more oearlj approximate the cosl in th< 3 
with L2 s irds oi wall. To the cosl ol 20*7d. would have to 
added the expense o\ raising the surplus dSbrij t<> th 
and dealing with it there, which would also mean more expei 
i ore for surface area for a dirt-heap. 

I n face of these facts, the writer would like to know u] 
whal basis " in the North oi England and in mosl othei 
fields the reverse was the case: the thinnei the seam, the shoi 
the face between the gate-roads," as stated by Mr. Ford. If 
Air. Ford followed this practice, be must either have exception- 
ally good roots, or musl have made 1. - t Buch 
dimensions that only a conveyor could be employed in them 
instead of tubs. 

With regard to the discussion on Mr. Gibb's paper, the 
writer held no brief for Mr. Gibb, as thai gentleman would 
doubtless answer all the points and objections raised; but in 
reading over the contributions it was quite evident that some of 
the speakers had either not understood the paper or had not read 
it very carefully. 

Mr. Simon Tate had expressed the hope " that the time was 
rapidly approaching when either by the use of longwall or by 
machinery the hewing of hard coal by manual labour would be 
reduced to a minimum." It was for that very purpose that Mr. 
Gibb had devised his system, and he had accomplished Mr. Tate's 
desideratum, for the coal was practically all cut by machinery, 
and there was very little hand-drawing, as the haulage was kept 
well up to the face. Mr. Tate was probably correct wben lie 
stated that the longwall system " lent itself to yielding the 
maximum output in the shortest possible time from any given 
area of coal-mines," but it should be kept in view always that 
the maximum output had not only to be attained in the short- 
est possible time, but be maintained over the longest possible 
time. 

In paragraph (fi) Mr. Tate had evidently misunderstood the 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 113 

words " the advantages of relieved pressure." The paper did 
not refer to relieved pressure at the coal-face, but in the road- 
waj's. Then in paragraph (7) Mr. Tate was again under a 
misapprehension, for if he would look at the plan attached to 
the paper he would see that each section was 150 feet wide, had 
three roadways, with pack-walls between, and was not a narrow 
roadway of 8 or 10 feet wide, as Mr. Tate seemed to imply when 
he spoke of cover-places approaching old workings. The system 
seen by Mr. Tate at Elemore Colliery more than forty years ago 
was surely not similar to that described by Mr. Gibb. Mr. 
Tate stated that the pillars " were worked off from the coal gate- 
roads, the face being undercut by coal-cutting machines called 
the ' Iron Man.' In the system described in the paper not 
only were the pillars undercut by machines, but also the 
advancing places forming the pillars, the coal being cut to a 
depth of 5 i feet. It was owing to this system that 400 to 500 
yards were driven per annum. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener was evidently puzzled by the term 
" intensive." It had exactly the same meaning as his poultry 
reference. Intensive poultry-keeping was to raise as many eggs 
as possible from a given number of fowls, or to raise a maxi- 
mum number of fowls from a minimum of space ; but Mr. 
Greener was wrong when he stated that " it was a system by 
which as many men as possible were concentrated in a given 
area for the purpose of obtaining the largest possible output 
from that area." It was not that, but to get the largest possible 
output from the least possible number of men in a given area. 

Mr. Robert Peel fell into the same error as Mr. Tate when 
he spoke of a combination of stoop-and-room with a modified 
longwall. Places 150 feet wide were never driven in a stoop- 
and-room working. If Mr. Peel desired a parallel to the system 
described by Mr. Gibb, a combination of the double-stall system 
— as practised in South Wales — and longwall appeared to the 
writer to give a closer resemblance. 

The writer had selected only a few points from the discus- 
sions, as Mr. Gibb would doubtless reply to all the questions 
raised. From what he (Mr. Kerr) had seen of the system, he 
had no doubt that it could be applied very advantageously to 
thin seams; but in different mines it would require to be 
modified, according* to the conditions prevailing. It would be 
a mistake for a manager to copy exactly the system for any 
thin seam that he might be working or going* to work. In some 
mines it might be more suitable to have the advance places 180 
to 200 feet wide, and in others only 100 feet wide, the width 
depending on the depth, the roof, the floor, the amount of gas 
given off, the type of coal-cutter adopted, and the depth of cut 
determined upon. 



lit L'lU.N ICTW.N i ill KON i 

\| i In ■.!■• i I i i I - 

\l i Pate 5 ren 

i he appl i' >i ion of mechanics! I ' i 
Hii i k.i the writ 

expei ience. I n longwall the ba< i led 

In the total mbsidi mini] 

made i he imraedi ite applic n ol ha ulage i ighl up I 

w,,i Km Im.i Ii difficult and coat l> .In tl 

haulages in the system of mining detailed in tl 

i ighl up i" the woi kinj w ithoul the r ip] ng 

, ha > Minimi to Longwa 1 1. This was due 

semi-longwall headings were subject to onlj 

subsidence, as compared with 80 per cent, under the older loi 

wall system. These headings varied Prom 30, 1". 

yards, according to the depth and the nature ol the 

strata. Whether the system was called " longwall," " wmi- 

longwall," or, as Mi. I ite had stated, a " mongrel * tern, 

mattered little so long as the coal was more cheaply and n 

easily worked. Thai was the object, and it had also been the 

resull ol the inauguration and successful developmei I the 

system the writer had outlined. Be had no sentimental i 

lor retaining any old-fashioned and out-of-date prs no 

matter how serviceable it had been in it- day, and in working 

the seams, semi-longwall, as described in the paper, \v; t ~ su] 

ceding the older longwall prad i 

Mr. Tate had asserted thai the writer had launched a tirade 
againsl longwall, and thai in his snce h»* knew of 

uothing peculiar to longwall thai merited this condemnation. 
Yet another critic (Mr. Mark Ford' was able to quote the damn- 
ing fact that the increase of coal got by machines in this country 
during the lasl twelve years — a longwall period — was dis] 
portionately small compared with tlie increase in the total 
output. The writer would also point out that the output per 
machine fell far short of the known and claimed capacity of 
standard makes of longwall cutting machines. Investigation 
had disclosed the fact that this was due in large part to inability 
to make the fullest use of mechanical appliances, owing to the 
inherent defects of longwall on the outward journey. 

Mr. Tate claimed to have seen such a system as described by 
the writer in operation more than forty year- ago, which had been 
abandoned owing to the cost of forming the pillars and difficul- 
ties in withdrawing the same. Let that be as it may, by utiliz- 
ing the electrical and mechanical appliances now available for 
mining, the merits of the system as regards cost and so forth had 
been developed and proved beyond doubt, as claimed in the paper. 
Narrow work had been abandoned and the use of percussive 






1917-1918.] DISCUSSION INTENSIVE MINING THIN SEAMS. 115 

machines in favour of the rotary type, and the same had been 
applied to a semi-longwall system of working. This method of 
opening both in direct and lateral directions was very often 
accomplished at a cost and output approximating to that with 
longwall, and it not infrequently happened that coal was pro- 
duced in forming the pillars more cheaply than in longwall. 

He (Mr. Gibb) would point out to Mr. Tate that the paper was 
not a post-mortem reference to a defunct and abortive attempt, 
but was a record of a successful achievement. Mr. Tate did not 
appear to have appreciated correctly the spirit and substance of 
the paper, for lie did not appear to have grasped the writer's 
remarks on subsidence, for instance. By semi-longwall develop- 
ment the workings on the outward journey were subject to only 
partial subsidence — about 25 per cent. — and the partial sub- 
sidence accompanied the development right to the boundary and 
during the formation of the pillars. These pillars, he might 
say, were formed at a cost approximating that in longwall 
mining. Having reached the boundary, the exhaustion of the 
field commenced, retreating back through the area of partial sub- 
sidence and leaving the area of complete subsidence and pressure 
behind the working. The costs of extracting the pillars were 
more favourable than those ruling during their formation. 

Mr. Greener had more correctly interpreted the aim of the 
writer's firm, and although in one or two points he (Mr. Gibb) 
did not follow his meaning, he gathered that Mr. Greener was 
in accord with the writer on the main points raised. In reply to 
his query, the seams were mined at a depth of from 250 to 400 
yards, and varied in thickness from 24 to 30 inches. In his con- 
cluding remarks Mr. Greener had stated that under certain con- 
ditions (not mentioned) he certainly agreed that a modified long- 
wall system was more suitable for working thin seams. Earlier 
in his remarks, after enumerating some advantages which 
accrued from such a modified longwall method of working, he 
had concluded that this system was cheaper, but that he could 
not discover any other advantages which it possessed. Surely, 
however, that was not an entirely insignificant recommendation. 

The writer did not propose to make any comment on Mr. 
Ford's reference to Mr. Kerr's book on coal-mining, as that 
publication had nothing to do with the paper. Mr. Ford had 
asked for the dimensions of the pillars, etc. The semi-longwall 
headings varied from 30 to 60 yards, with three or more gate- 
ways, according to the depth and the nature of the adajcent 
strata ; the working being so developed as to bring on the area 
such partial pressure as would facilitate coal-getting, and at the 
same time secure easy and efficient ventilation from the tighten- 
ing of the pack. The writer might state that his experience 
•embraced all kinds of roofs, from soft blaes to hard rock. The 



116 r I i CTIOX i PH K NO UTI I CJ mm i i 

pill ,i \ u ied i" iee t rora •» ,,, » h . 150 feet 1 

i be «l •!. lion being n 1 1 goi ei aed bj i be pre* uilii 

;ii the particuhti collie] 

M i I ,ea< h bad i ien much in i ommon n ith 1 1 
mI in the allaying ol unreMl umonp workmen. With 
experience ol both lonfrwall and semi Longwall, he (Mr Gibb) 
found i liii i be Lai tei . tem w ent t ui ther in bat 

objecl than did the former, h wai found thai the men them- 
Belveg bad In their work shown b decided prt 
new system . 

Mi-. Peel bad asked whether the writel would ;•<!• the 

Bystem for all thin Beams. In reply, be I Mr. Gibb) would qu 
one oi the speakers at the Glasgow meeting ol the Mining I 
tute oi Scotland/ who was identified with the system and with 
whose views the writer agreed. This gentleman had stated, in 
effect, thai he had yet to Bee the Beam where longwal] • 
practicable where be would not prefer to apply this system. 'I he 
writer would inform Mr. Peel that the one m he had, 

it any. in developing this Bystem waa to improve the adverse out- 
put per machine and to attain a higher overall average per man 
and boy employed, a point on which Mr. Ford had commented. 
In this attempt, success had been attained, and the chart l 1 _ 
2, Plate I.) showed a substantial reduction in the ratio 
administrators to producers. The scheme was not a local 
curiosity, but was successfully applied in a number of different 
coalfields. A> to the opinion that the Bcheme was not quite new, 
he could say that over twenty years ago lie had adopted a 
modified form of it considerably further south than Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in a thick seam dipping 20 inches to the yard. That 
was a slower and smaller application than he had to deal with at 
present, for he had not then the electrical and mechanical 
facilities now available. The system to-day was so developed as 
to utilize to the best advantage the mechanical facilities now at 
command. 

There had been considerable comment with regard to the 
title of the paper and the use of the term " intensive/' No one 
would think of applying the term " intensive " to the humdrum 
practices so common in mining to-day. It was a higher all- 
round efficiency that was aimed at, in which the operations of 
coal-cutting-, conveying, and hauling were efficiently co- 
ordinated, where hauling did not wait for coal, nor coal-cutting 
temporarily stop through interruption to the haulage system. 
The attainment of this object in the highest degree the 
writer considered intensive mining. The system he had outlined 
had proved itself superior to longwall on the outward journey 

* Tram. Inst. M. A'., 1917-1918, vol. liv., page 314. 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS. 117 

in the attainment of this objective. The units of labour 
formerly required for road, etc., repair-work in order to main- 
tain uninterrupted transport were now replaced in great measure 
by productive units. 

In conclusion, he wished to state that many of the points 
raised by the members had also been raised in the discussion at 
the Glasgow meeting of the Mining Institute of Scotland, and 
his reply would be communicated to the members of that 
Institute in due course. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. MARK HALLIDAYS PAPER ON 
" THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS.'* 

Mr. William Watts (Wilmslow) wrote that the mathematical 
calculations were interesting and instructive, but they were too 
abstruse to be understood by the majority of users of syphons. 
In the flow of water under atmospheric pressure only, the fewer 
the changes made in the delivery the more likely was the dis- 
charge to be regular. Change of direction in the descending part 
of the syphon should be avoided as much as possible in order to* 
insure a uniform and steady flow, and in his opinion the method 
shown in Fig. 1 insured a more even flow than that shown in Fig. 
2. Too many changes of direction, therefore, should be avoided, 
and the diameter of the pipe should be fixed so as to carefully 
control the delivery required. Any change of direction in the 
flow of water in a pipe checked the velocity, and this would be 
felt in a syphon influenced only in its delivery by atmospheric 
pressure. 

If the supply of water at the inlet were constant, the flow 
would be unceasing, and in this respect Fig. 1 was the simplest 
form to introduce. 

If the descending part of the syphon were not fully charged, 
air was likely to enter and cause air-lock at the crest, and 
occasionally cause the flow of water to cease. In order to avoid 
this, the outlet end should be permanently submerged, or the 
diameter slightly reduced, so as to insure the full bore being 
maintained. 

The steady work to be done by a syphon was to deliver the 
water provided for it at the inlet under the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere only, and, as previously stated, Fig. 2 lent itself more 
freely to effect this than any other form. Such a syphon required 
no other adjustments or attention than sufficient feeding. 

Prof. Alex. H. Jameson (King's College, London) wrote that 
after having given equation (3) the author had added " the 

* Tram. Inst. M. E., 1917-1918, vol. liv., page 107. 



II- 

l>l p.- 1)1 
id h il '"' I pai ullel ii 

i he ' i be resei voir, w lnl<- \n i - pe proji 

i qual I" I I ' » ; • 

bell-i ithed eutrj would ii be pn • nly 

:iiii(iMn ti] 11 on l«l i 

aci "nut ii the velocity-head ., was \wmli mentu 

• 

i n a n \ case tna ke i be equal ions bul little m( i '1 

In drawing the absolute pressure-line hydraulii on 

Fig. I. the absolute pressure-head jusl inside the mouth 

pipe was height of water-barometei 34 feel — ., —loss of head a< 

entry, as ii \\ ;i - less than thai jusl outside the mouth 1 
kinetic energy and Loss of head al entry. According to Mr. 

Ealliday, this pressure-head just inside the pipe = 

feet, or the heighl of the water-barometer. At the outlel I 
absolute pressure-line would be above the water-level bj • -'lit 
equal to thai of the water-barometer, as tin -head v 

w holly losl in eddies unless the pipe was w idened oul du- 

ally, in which case some of ii might be restored. 

Be ( Pio!. Jameson) did nol understand Mr. Ballid; 
menl after e [uation (14) thai '* the valve musl be regulated until 
(F 3 xarea at C) (V 2 > area at B [J the only i tly 

closing a valve was thai the water passed through it a1 ;i higher 
speed inversely as the area— the discharge would be unaffected. 
Actually, the loss of head caused by the sudden contraction and 
consequent re-expansion al the valve caused ;i sudden drop in the 
pressure-line. The effecl was to lessen the slope of the hydraulic 
gradient and so reduce the flow; while the consequent raising of 
the absolute pressure-line behind the valve increased the absolute 
pressure al the summit of the syphon, with beneficial results 
if it would otherwise be too low. 

The absolute pressure at the summit of the syphon could not 
in practice be zero, as air escaped from the water when the pres- 
sure was very low: probably it would never lie allowed to fall 
below from 6 to 9 feet of water. 

Some air-discharging device was essential at the summit of 
the syphon in order to allow of the occasional discharge of the 
air, which collected at all summits on a pipe-line. Even on an 
ordinary inverted syphon air-release valves ('automatic) had to 
be placed at all summits and at intervals on slight gradients (and 
at the top of steep slopes), otherwise the air would accumulate 
and reduce the flow. 






1917-1918. j DISCUSSION THE FLOW OF WATER IN SYPHONS. 119- 

It was advisable not " to cut things too fine " — that is, not 
to let the absolute pressure-line in a true syphon, nor the pressure- 
line in an inverted syphon, approach too near the top of the pipe, 
as one could never be sure that the resistance cf the pipe was 
quite uniform. One part of the pipe might incrust more than 
another, in which case that part of the pipe would require a 
steeper hydraulic gradient to produce a now which required a 
less gradient on another part less incrusted. One should not 
assume, therefore, that the hydraulic gradient would be absolute- 
ly a straight line from end to end of a uniform pipe. 

In conclusion, he would like to emphasize the advisability of 
drawing the hydraulic gradient or absolute pressure-line on a 
vertical section of the syphon (to an exaggerated vertical scale), 
as in all cases of complicated flow in pipes. If the pipe-line was 
at all steep, the base of this section must be extended to equal 
the inclined length of the pipe. If a height PA were set off above 
water-level at A in Fig. 1, equal to the barometric height less the 
velocity-head and less the loss of head at entry, and a height BQ 
were set off above the point B equal to the minimum allowable 
absolute pressure-head at the summit of the syphon (say, 6 to 9 
feet as above), then the maximum flow of water possible was that 

h ifv 2 
produced by the hydraulic grade PQ, namely, ~j = o-r. If 

now a height CR were set oft' above the water-level at the outlet 
of the pipe, equal to the height of the water-barometer (34 feet), 
then all would depend on the position of the point R with respect 
to the line PQ produced. If R lay above PQ produced, the 
hydraulic gradient would be the straight line PR, which had a 
less slope that the maximum slope PQ. If R lay on PQ produced, 
the flow would be a maximum, and the hydraulic gradient PQR 
would just pass a sufficient distance above the summit B for the 
syphon to work. If R lay below PQ produced, the hydraulic 
gradient in the falling leg of the syphon would have to be a line 
RS parallel to PQ and meeting the falling leg in some point S, 
the syphon running only part full from B to S. This would 
allow an empty space, in which air would soon collect and stop 
the syphon from working. In such a case the only thing to do 
was to close the valve at the outlet C until the absolute pressure- 
head behind it was raised so that R was forced back on to the line 
PQ produced. The nearer B was to A the better, as the 
hydraulic gradient falls from A to C, as is well shown in 
Oibson's Hydraulics (page 277). This steepens the maximum 
allowable gradient, and increases the maximum flow. 

He suggested that a valve at N , in place of the air-inlet, would 
be at least as useful in a compound syphon, as it would enable the 
hydraulic gradient on the true syphon part to be regulated as 
described above. 



i i • \ - i i : i UHTII OF KNCi 1 in' u I 

\l i M 1 1- 1. 1 1 u.i. in i\ Dm liani \ wrc \l i Will 

\\ .iii Ii.hI luted i li.ii i lie ni.ii l.rn 

i ii . to be ii uclei tood by the i 
h wa« the custom when deulitig wit] i «»i ihi* kind 

make general itutemenl in ordei to trj '<» prove >h«- trutl 
• -i-i i mi phenomena without the uid oi mathemati< . but invi 
;il»l\ iln^ method led '<> wrong conclu* ons. There wa 
one sure waj to a correct solution oi such problems, Daniel y, 
the mathematical way. I in- formula? were quite elem< 
and were purposely arranged so .1- to make this »ub 1 
as possible. 

A.8 a reply t<> the objections thai Mi. W bad raised t(. 

the numerous changes in the direction <>t H<»u in the compound 
syphon, be (Mr. Balliday) would refer bim to Mi George B 
Nicholson's paper on " The Horslej and Nicholson Automi 
Compound Syphon. "* 

He welcomed the valuable criticism oi the paper by Prof. 
A. II. Jameson, and entirely agreed with his remark rd- 

ing the various losses. It was not, however, his intention when 
presenting the paper to aid the designer, but to prove the state- 
ment thai a compound Byphon could be arranged to deliver 
as much water as ;i simple syphon working under the same 
conditions. With this object in view he had assumed ideal 
conditions, and had purposely omitted the Losses referred to by 
Prof. Jameson, in order to simplify the argument, which was 
unaffected by them. He (Mr. Halliday) had referred to the omis- 
sion in his paper, as well as the assumption oi a uniform coeffi- 
cient of friotion throughout the whole length of pipe: and also 
that a perfect vacuum had been assumed to exist at the summit 
of the syphon. In practice, as Prof. Jameson had shown, all 
these points could have been considered, but they did not in 
any way affect his (Mr. Halliday's) argument. 

The statement after equation (14) must obviously be true for 
continuous action oi a simple syphon, otherwise the quantity of 
water passing the point B would not be equal to that discharged 
at the outlet ('. Here, again, the drop of pressure-head caused 
by sudden contraction of the valve at the outlet was omitted for 
simplification. 

Prof. Jameson's suggested method of drawing the hydraulic- 
gradient was interesting. A uniform grade such a> was shown 
in the paper was essential for maximum or continuous flow. 

He did not agree with Prof. Jameson that a valve at N f in 
place of the air-inlet, would be as useful in a compound syphon. 
An air-inlet was essential for automatic action, whether a valve 
were placed there or not: and if it were omitted, the whole- 
object of the compound syphon would be defeated. 



*Trans. Inst. M.E., 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 99. 



1917-1918.] POOLE — THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 121 



NOTES ON THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 



By G. G. T. POOLE. 



A paper dealing with the Uniflow steam-engine may possibly 
be lielpfnl to mining engineers, especially in cases where 
economies have had to be made, or will have to be made, in 
connexion with the working and upkeep of the surface plant at 
collieries. 

For the most economical working of the Uniflow engine it is 
best to use high-pressure steam having a large degree of super- 
heat. The question, however, naturally arises : Do collieries 
possess this necessary condition, and, if not, would it be of 
advantage to rearrange the plant to enable them to obtain it? 
Several points would have to be considered and settled before 
this question could be finally answered — for instance: — 

(a) Is the colliery large enough to warrant the rearrange- 
ment of its surface plant? 

(b) Is the estimated working life of the colliery sufficient 
to warrant the expenditure upon rearrangement ? 

(c) Is the motive power wholly steam or only partly steam? 

(d) Are the power units large or small ? 

Taking the collieries of the present day (omitting new and 
recent improved installations), the steam pressure is usually from 
50 to 80 pounds per square inch, although it is sometimes 100 
pounds per sqnare inch, with very little, if any, degree of super- 
heat. It may, therefore, be asked : would a Uniflow engine 
under these conditions show any marked advantage over other 
types of engines? The writer considers that the lowest steam- 
pressure that should be used is 100 pounds per square inch, and 
even at this pressure very good results should not be expected ; 
for, in order to reap the full advantages of the Uniflow engine, 
the steam-pressure should be from 120 to, say, 180 pounds per 
square inch, with as high a degree of superheat as possible. 

In the case of a colliery having a steam surface plant, and 
using small coal of a low calorific value for raising steam to an 
average pressure of about TO pounds per square inch, would it 
be advantageous to use a superior grade of coal of a high 
calorific value for raising steam to a high pressure, and to use a 
high-class engine of a more economical type, such as the Uniflow 
engine ? This point the writer considers should be seriously 



I • ['RAM utio* n 

tudied bj mi nil 

to the inci product ] 

in value, and in m u n 3 
it for leu m 1 

An example of economy m 
col lie] ii "\\ 11 e 

<ln \ en gene] ator. Thi 1 be cli 

enp ine are (a) speed 1 .1 1 ia 1 ion within v< 
economy in running; and (< I ■ 

tlir I n iflnw engine these poinl 
running ia far above tli.ii ol ordii 
and for a given power and steam-pressure will < 
room, as the power h ill be produced in one < > lindei 
other types, such as the tandem and cross-compound, 
cylinders a re required. 

Having indicated a few ol the conditions which would I 
to be considered before installing CTniflow engine, the wi 
will now proceed to describe the method ol working, and illus- 
trate its advantages over other types ol steam-eng 

The CTniflow engine derives its name from it- mode ol 
namely, the flow ol steam in one direction, and this is its el 
characteristic. Tn ordinary steam-engines the steam enters .it 
one end ol the cylinder, forces the piston forward, and flow* 
the other end; on the return stroke it flows in the opposite 
direction, and finally leaves the cylinder at the same end aq 
which it entered. The disadvantage in this system is thai the 
cylinder walls are constantly varying in temperature, and. 
owing to the exhaust-steam leaving the cylinder at the same 
end as the incoming steam, the clearance surfaces are reduced in 
temperature, thus withdrawing a large amount of heat from the 
incoming steam, and causing thereby initial condensation and 
consequent loss in economy. Steam- jacketing of the cylinder 
has been resorted to in order to overcome this disadvantage, but 
opinions differ as to its effectiveness and efficiency. 

In the Uniflow engine this difficulty is overcome by the steam 
flowing in one direction. The steam is admitted at each end of 
the cylinder through well-designed steam-tight valves, and flows 
towards the centre of the cylinder. Exhaust-ports are cast in 
the centre of the cylinder, and. as the piston uncovers these 
ports, the steam exhausts through them, and does not have to 
retraverse the length of the cylinder and exhaust in the 
neighbourhood of the inlet-valve. 

The temperature of the clearance surfaces at the inlet to the 
cylinder are thus kept at a constant temperature,, and initial 
condensation avoided. 

Bv referring to Fis\ 1 the above-mentioned action will be 



1917-1918.] 



I'OOLE THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGIXE. 



123 



easily understood. The steam is admitted through the end 
cover A, and is passed into the cylinder B; during the expansion 
the cover (which acts as a jacket) exercises a heating action (due 
to the difference of temperature between the cover and the steam), 
which is chiefly transmitted to the steam in contact with the 
cover. As the steam expands, that which is close to the piston C 
will increase in wetness, due to adiabatic expansion, whilst the 
steam near the cover at B will be dry, and possibly possess a 
certain degree of superheat, depending upon the initial tempera- 
ture of the incoming steam. On the piston uncovering the 
exhaust-ports D, the steam is released, and the wettest portion 
is forced through these ports and passes into the exhaust-chamber 
E. Upon the return stroke, when the piston closes the exhaust- 
ports D, the steam which received heat from the cover during 




Fig. I. — Outline of Uniflow Engine Cylinder. 

expansion is trapped and compressed, the compression closely 
following an adiabatic for superheated steam ; and during com- 
pression further heat is transmitted from the cover to the com- 
pressed steam. It will therefore be seen that the cylinder-ends 
are practically at a high constant temperature, namely, that of 
incoming steam ; whilst the centre of the cylinder is practically 
at a lower constant temperature, namely, that of exhaust-steam. 
One great advantage in the Uniflow engine is the entire 
absence of exhaust-valves, with their corresponding links and 
operating gear. By the substitution of exhaust-ports in the 
centre of the cylinder, in place of the exhaust-valves at the ends 
of the cylinder, all leakage losses, additional clearance surfaces, 
and spaces in connexion therewith, are avoided. The essential 
feature in working is to obtain a high temperature of steam, and 
if this is obtainable, no jacketing, other than the end-covers, is 



m niKNui mi 



i 
i ■ 
ile. lii ( 
ne in in ind i I 
i be qj li.i i 

I '. re fen I I 1 1 \\ 1 1 1 

I ol i be b! i" 
ilia ii-l \ t he pi jton closer i be en ha u 
mm I 

i 1 1 1 1 hy rei th e i ml 

Ailni i--n.il c< ■« urs us i t«. i he i omn 

be \\ orking si i oke, a nd ia noi 
ordinary engines. Cut I 

t. ol i be stroke, i be o \ en age b< i om 7 to L2 

Release occui - a i £ v* hen t be piston ui 

// 

exhaust -po I 

The nee 

volume when work- 

lensi : 

• _' 
and in 
any ca 

should 

red no a 

minimum. Prof- 

S1 ;mpf. in his book 

on Th f '/■ -flow 

Fig. 2. — Indicator-diagram iob a Uxiflow Engine. § ,, E r q • 

-Point ok Cut-off: — Point of Release; . , 

// — Point of compression. '" that with a 

clearance of 2 per 
cent., cut-oft ni 8 per cent., condenser pressure 0*07 atmosphere, 
the most favourable compression is 90 per cent., and these con- 
ditions may be taken as normal tor the Una-flow engine." He 
also states " that the steam consumption is 4 to 41 kgs. per 
I.H.P. hour " — that is, about 9 pounds. 

Owing to the small clearance volume, it is necessary to make 
extra provision for starting the engine, and this consists of an 
additional clearance chamber, which can be used or cut out as 
desired. This additional clearance space also provides a means 
of running the engine non-condensing, and is usually about 12 
per cent. 

It will now be opportune to enumerate a few of the advan- 
tages claimed for the Uniflow engine, namely : — 

(a) Great economy in steam-consumption. 




1917-1918.] TOOLE THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 125 

(b) High efficiency in working. 

(c) Simplicity of construction. 

(d) Fewer working parts, with high efficiency of lubrica- 
tion and consequent reduction in repairs and renewals. 

(e) High vacuum in cylinder. 

if) Less space occupied than by other engines of the same 
power. 

It may also be mentioned that, owing to the length of the 
piston, there is no necessity for a tail-rod and guide. 

The next consideration will be the uses to which a Uniflow 
engine may be applied, and it must be admitted that up to the 
present time it has not been used in this country in all cases 
where steam-engines are applicable, one chief exception being 
in the case of winding-engines. 

The writer does not know of any colliery in this country in 
which the Uniflow engine is used for winding purposes, and by 
examining the action of the engine it would appear at first sight 
to be impossible to so use it, seeing that the early cut-off and 
excessive compression would prevent the stopping and starting 
of the engine in any position whatever (this being an essential 
requirement in the winding-engine). 

Again, as pointed out by Hie writer in his previous paper 
read before the Institute on " The Prevention of Overwinding 
and Overspeeding in Shafts,"* the majority of so-called over- 
winding accidents are caused through excessive speeds, especially 
when coming to bank; consequently, it should be possible to 
control the speed of the engine at any point during the wind, 
and this would mean a special governor arrangement, with 
possible complicated attachments to an otherwise simple engine. 

These and other difficulties have possibly prevented the 
application of the Uniflow engine for winding purposes in this 
country, but it should be pointed out that in Germany this type 
of winding-engine is in existence, and is working at many 
collieries. Prof. Stumpf gives particulars of these plants in his 
book, and mentions the manner in which various difficulties 
have been overcome ; he also gives tests of their working, which 
show that in regard to economy they are well ahead of existing 
high-class steam winding-plants of high powers. 

The question, however, of adapting this type of engine to 
various purposes concerns mostly the designer, and therefore 
the writer will leave this question of adaptability for his con- 
sideration, with the opinion that if a Uniflow engine can be 
designed for winding purposes, which is reliable in working, with 
increased economy, and if the mining engineer will co-operate 
(as far as he is able with the conditions at his disposal) in the 

* Trans. Inst. M.E., 1914-1915, vol., xlix., page 355. 

VOL. LXVIII.-1917-1918. IQ ^ 






I 
<>l I*' 
will h 



fi 



J • 




Fia. X — Longitudinal Skcttod 01 Oyi 

Proceeding now to the consideratioD <»t the actual work 
ami descriptions of Uniflow engines already installed, the wi 
is able through the courtesy ot several engim c Buns in this 
country to embody in his paper useful particulars and infoi 

a'ioii 

■ ctive makes of 
type of e 

Oniflow 
besides being of simple 
construction, is also 
totally this 

being i wing to 

the fact that forced 
Lubrication is us 
throughout the whole 
engine. Messrs. Robey 
(N: Company, Limited, of 
Lincoln, have now been 
makers of the L'niflow 
engine for several years, 
and they claim to have 
produced an engine which 
is one of the foremost of 

all British makes. Large numbers have been supplied, and are 

giving the greatest satisfaction in working. 

Their engine is fitted with a positive valve-gear, having 

valves of the double-beat type, especially made to keep tight at 




Fig. 4.- 



-Traxsverse Section of Cylinder 
and Valve-gear. 



1917-1918.] 



POOLE THE UXIFLOW STEAM-EXGIXE. 



127 



all temperatures by means of a special- design, and worked from 
a layshaft driven from the crank-shaft. The valve-seat is an 
entirely separate casting from the cylinder, and is held in 
position in the cylinder by a bonnet-cover, which is also an 
entirely separate casting. The governing of the engine is con- 




Fig. 5. — Another Indicator-diagram taken from a Unit low Engine, 

trolled by a shaft-governor, which regulates the speed within 
very fine limits, and varies the cut-off to suit the load. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show complete longitudinal and transverse 
sections of the cylinder and valve-gear, from which will be seen 
the simplicity of its construction. In condensing engines special 
clearance-valves are fitted, which connect the additional clear- 




Fia. 6. — 500/800-Brake-horsepower Robey Uniflow Engine, 



I'TII | MM! 

nn i e pa< • • w h h ' • "• • 3 lindei : 1 1 . . 

I 1 1 1 L" I 1 1 • • • ' 1 1 V I 1 11 • . . 1 1 1 • I • 1 I ' 1 • 1 ' I 

1 nuclei 
I 1 .hi actual iudicat* /Mm From 1 

I lift I I II itlllW pi] . ' . I ■ ., Ii|l- till! 

w ei I n • tl"'. ae ilrivi ag ad; ■ in t • 

works powei station, and its extreme simplicity in coi 
mooi li uess in 1 unn ing, b ad aeal fi aish 
Tin- engine bas ao^« been running for twelve montl 
illustrated in Fi{ ind T. It uses -'••.mi al h pressure 

pounds per square inch, superheated to 60CJ I I temj 

ature, the cylinder ia 29 inches in diametei b 




Fig. 7. — 600 800-Bbakb-hobskpowkh Robkx Uniflow Engine. 

and the speed 140 revolutions per minute. Owing to present 
pressure of work they have been unable to give this engine a 
complete test, but hope to do so as soon as conditions permit. 

The writer also had the opportunity of seeing a new installa- 
tion of two 500 OoO-brake-horsepower engines, each with 
cylinders 27J inches in diameter by 30 inches stroke, running at 
150 revolutions per minute: and two engines of 60/8Q-brake 
horsepower, each with cylinders 12 inches in diameter by 14 
inches stroke, running at 210 revolutions per minute. 

These are all in one engine-house, work at a steam-pressure 
of 160 pounds per square inch, and maintain a vacuum of 27i 
inches, although working practically continuously and receiving 



1917-1918.] 



POOLE THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 



129 



very little attention. The large engines work day and night 
from Monday until Saturday, and the small ones continuously 
for weeks at a time ; when seen they had been running for six 
weeks without a stop. 

Another very useful type of engine seen by the writer and 
illustrated in Fig. 8 is known as the " Robey patent undertype 
Uniflow engine." It is combined with a boiler, superheater, 
and jet-condenser; it will be seen that the condenser and air- 
pump are placed below ground, the latter being worked off the 
crankshaft. In order to secure the utmost benefit from the use 
of dry steam, the superheater is placed in the smoke-box of the 
boiler. 

The engine 
is of 110140 
brake - horse- 
power, works 
at a steam- 
pressure of 180 
pounds per 
square inch, 
and runs at 
190 revolu- 
tions per 
minute. All 
Messrs. Robev 
& Company's 
standard Uni- 
flow engines 
are built for a 
steam -pressure 
of 180 pounds 
per square 
inch, and are 
suitable for 
the highest 
degrees of 

superheat; they are stated to give the lowest possible steam- 
consumption when working under these conditions. 

Messrs. Cole, Marchent, & Morley, Limited, of Bradford, 
have also been makers of the Uniflow engine for several years, 
and produce a very high-class and economical engine. Their 
engine is fitted with balanced-piston drop steam-inlet valves, 
which they claim combines the small power required by drop- 
valves with the quick cut-off obtained by Corliss valves, and also 
ensures a steam-tight valve when closed. The valve is well 
suited for the use of superheated steam at a high temperature, 




Fig. 8. 



-110/140 Brake-horsepower Robey Undertype 
Uniflow Engine. 



I 






•Ill) I 

■ , 

i d. 
I be cutrofl ifi goi erned I 

I . i \ - 1 1 . 1 1 1 . and an 

. .| aboui 6 per i en1 . .1 b< >nna] u K 

ine is runnin 

The centra] exhau be fitted \\ itli a V. 

thai 1 be 1 urning momenl 1- suitable 'II <l;i • 




Fig. 9. — Diagrammatic Section" through Engine Cylinder of Uniflow Steam- 
engine built by Messrs. Cole, Marchent. k Morley, Limited. 

machinery, including rolling-niills, electric direct and alternat- 
ing-current generators, textile machinery. flour-niills. etc. 

The principal feature in which their engine differs from 
those of other makers is a combined drain exhaust and relief- 
valve, which allows of the exhaust to the atmosphere when start- 
ing up, or, if necessary, for any length of run. This valve 
embodies three valves in one casing* and gear, is controlled by a 
simple hand-lever, and allows of the engine being started up 
without undue compression. 

Before the engine is started, the hand-control lever is set to 
the " drain " position, when any condensed water is allowed to 
leave the cylinder. Immediately after starting, the hand-lever 



1917-1918.] POOLE — THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 131 

is set to the " exhaust ' position, and the valve acts as an 
exhaust-valve. As soon as the vacuum has reached, say, 20 
inches, the control-lever is set to the " running 1 " position, when 
the valve acts as a simple relief -valve. 

These engines are manufactured in powers from 100 to 2,000 
indicated horsepower, and are designed to give a satisfactory 
overload of 30 per cent. 

The prominent features in all sizes are that the main bearings 
and crosshead slides are water-jacketed, and forced lubrication 
is fitted throughout. 

With regard to steam-consumption, the makers claim that 
it is practically the same per brake-horsepower from about half 




Fig. 10. — Central Exhaust Uniflow Steam-engine driving Cold Rolls 
in Tinplate Works in South Wales. 

load up to 10 per cent, overload, and they recommend as good 
working conditions a pressure of 160 pounds per square inch, 
with steam superheated to a total temperature of 600° Fahr. 
Under these conditions they state that for engines up to 500 
indicated horsepower the steam-consumption would be approxi- 
mately 9*75 pounds per indicated horsepower-hour, and in larger 
sizes it would be less. 

Owing to its economy and reliability, this engine has a great 
future before it for driving electric generators up to, say, 1,500 
kilowatts, and it is often advisable or more economical to put 
down a small power-station at the source of demand than to 
obtain power from a central station, on account of transmission 
losses and cost of cabling. 



I I I i I ) Vol. Il 

I 'I . Ill.u 

i »n i be lei i i Im- | 
i li.ii 4 tea in i ail entei i lie i \ lindei I I 



I 



• 








FTG. 11 — U.M1LOW ENGINE INSTALLED AT A ColLIERY IN THE NOBTH Of KiMQLkKO 




Fig. 12.— Fniflow Engine installed at a Colliery in the >.orth of England. 

shown in position, and is in section, the piston-valve spindle 
beino" broken off to show the arrangement of the steam-ports. 



1917-1918.] POOLE — THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 133 

An explanation of the reference letters on the figure is as 
follows : — A — bonnets containing cam motion operating the 
piston-valve ; B — false cover to neatly finish off the joint here and 
to cover the bolt circle round the valve-bonnet ; C- — planish steel 
lagging; D — polished ring to cover the joint in lagging (by 
removing this ring access is obtained to the nuts holding the 
cylinder-head in place, and there is no need to remove the lag- 
ging if the head should have to be taken away); E — sectional 
view of piston-valve liner in position ; F — steam-inlet port ; G — 
steam-port in the liner ; H — entrance into the cylinder for lubri- 
cant, on each side of the exhaust-belt ; J — liner for drain-exhaust 
and relief-valve; K — bonnet to contain gear for drain and relief- 
valve ; L — metallic packing ; M — cylinder foot ; N — cylinder false 
cover, to cover non-conducting material and support lagging; 
— clamps on lagging-rings; P — piston in forward position. 

Fig. 10 shows an engine installed at a tinplate works in 
South Wales ; the power developed is 300 indicated horsepower 
when running at 150 revolutions per minute and using 
steam at a pressure of 150 pounds per square inch, 
superheated to a total temperature of 500° Fahr. The 
cylinder is 23 inches in diameter by 24 inches stroke. 
Another very interesting installation is that shown in 
Figs. 11 and 12, which is working at a colliery in the North 
of England. The power developed is 550 indicated horsepower 
when running at 135 revolutions per minute and using steam at 
a pressure of 70 pounds per square inch, superheated 100° 
Fahr. ; the drives are by means of ropes and belts. 

At the far end of the engine-house is an alternator driven by 
ropes direct from the flywheel ; the two independent rope drives 
shown between the flywheel and dynamo are for driving ventilat- 
ing fans in the mine ; the extension of the crankshaft is coupled to 
gear which drives three air-compressors by means of belting. 

The writer is much indebted to Messrs. Woolcombers, 
Limited, of Bradford, for the following complete test of one of 
their Uniflow engines. They state that they have now working 
three Uniflow engines, two manufactured by Messrs. Sulzer 
Brothers, of Switzerland, and one by Messrs. Musgrave & Sons, 
Limited, of Bolton. 

Woolcombers, Limited. — Report on Trial of Engine at the Napier Works 
of Messrs. H. E. Ramsbotham & Company, Limited. 

Engine. — The engine is of the single-cylinder Uniflow type, made by Messrs 
Sulzer Brothers, Winterthur, Switzerland. It is rated at 600 indicated horsepower 
when working with a pressure of 140 pounds per square' inch. 

The steam -admission valves are of the equilibrium drop type, operated by means 
of rollers, cams, levers, and eccentrics from the side shaft, and governed by a shaft 
governor mounted on the latter, which allows for variable cut-offs from to 25 per 
cent. 



: | 



I 

■ 

o dibmtod kx 

run into '., from which it wax | »u 

pump, « hipfa i '• <lj f"i ' "'■'■ ■. -'ill 

The 

in the b nlc- I'll ite i'ii |nji- 

PARTICULARS "l I'.' 

! diameter "f cj Under, in inches 

ton-rod, in inohee 
ike of piston, in in ihi . . . . . . 31 £ 

Volume swepl through by piston, in cubic feet . . . . li'-r. 

Number of revolutions per minute .. .. .. Ul 

Piston speed, in feet per minute .. 
< 'I-- trance volun I ), in cubic feet 

.- ( .. )• per cent 2 I 

.. i back), in cubic feet 

.• ( •• ). per cent • 2-1 

Observations and Results. 
Date of trial . . . . Wednesday, July 1st. 1914 

Object of trial .. .. Steam-consumption and efficiency under ordinary 

working conditions ; Mesa 
sentativBS in attendance. 
1*36 p.m. to 450 p.rn.=3i hours. 
20-7 inches Ilir. 



Duration of trial . . 
Atm< tspheric pressure 



Steam. 
Total water evaporated, in pounds 
Water entering engine per hour, in pounds 
Pressure by gauge at boiler, in pounds per square inch 
Pressure by gauge at stop-valve, in pounds per square inch 
Pressure absolute, in pounds per square inch 
Temperature of steam at engine side of stop-valve, in degrees Fahr. 
Temperature of saturated steam at steam pressure 
Superheat in steam .. .. .. .. .. ., 

Power. 
Indicated horsepower in cylinder (front end) 

(back end) 
Total indicated horsepower 
Total revolutions by counter 
Revolutions per minute 
Piston speed, in feet per minute 

Condenser. 
Temperature of injection, in degrees Fahr. . . 

„ air pump discharge, in degrees Fahr. 

Vacuum in condenser, in inches of Hg. 
Temperature of steam in exhaust belt, in degrees Fahr. 



17,248 

5,307 

140 

135 

148.7 

484-7 

358 

1267 

228-5 

263-1 

491-6 

27,431 

14-1-6 
760-2 

89-8 
106-8 

26-3 
143-2 



1917-1918.] POOLE — THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 135 

Heat Account from 32 a Fahe. 

British Thermal Per 
Units, cent. 

Gross heat supply entering engine, per minute .. .. 112,072 100 

Heat equivalent of indicated horsepower . . . . 20,850 18-6 

Heat leaving engine in exhaust, balance of heat account, 

radiation, errors of observation, etc. . . . . 91,222 81 4 

Totals 112,072 100-0 

Results (Calculated feom Hot-well Tempeeatuee). 
Heat supplied per indicated horsepower per minute, in British 

thermal units . . . . . . . . • . • • • • 214 

Thermal efficiency, per cent. .. .. .. .. .. 19*78 

Heat theoretically required (Rankine cycle), in British thermal 

units . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . 1489 

Efficiency of Rankine cycle between limits of 484*7° and 106-8° 

Fahr., per cent. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5 

Efficiency ratio 0-6942 

Work actually obtained per pound of steam, in foot-pounds . . 183,530 
Maximum work theoretically obtainable from 1 pound of steam, 

in foot-pounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264,400 

Thermal efficiency of engine, per cent. . . . . . . . . 69*42 

Pounds of steam per indicated horsepower per hour . . . . 10*79 

Equivalent consumption of saturated steam per indicated horse- 
power per hour, in pounds .. .. .. .. .. 11.9 

A Uniflow engine, having' a different type of valve-gear, is 
manufactured by Messrs. The Lilleshall Company, Limited, of 
Oakengates, Salop. This company have now made tw T o of these 
engines to the patents of Prof. Stumpf, and these are giving 
every satisfaction in working. 

The inlet-valves are placed at the side of the cylinder, thus 
making them very accessible ; additional clearance-valves are 
provided, which automatically increase the clearance spaces at 
each end of the cylinder in case the vacuum should be destroyed. 
These engines are built from 100 horsepower upw 7 ards. 

With regard to continental practice, Messrs. Sulzer Brothers 
have been makers of the Uniflow 7 engine for many years. Their 
engines are of a high-class finish, and economical in w 7 orking, 
many having been supplied to this country as well as to France, 
Russia, Germany, etc. They are built of the horizontal type 
only, the cylinder having no steam-jacket, but the covers are 
heated by live steam before it enters the cylinder. 

The steam inlet- valves are of the double-beat type, located in 
the cylinder-covers, and are claimed to remain absolutely tight 
at varying steam temperatures and pressures. The cut-off is 
regulated by a shaft governor, allowing of a speed variation of 
+ 5 per cent, whilst the engine is running. The flywheel is 
designed for use as a belt or rope pulley, and usually for a 
coefficient of fluctuation of about x^. 

For illustrations of engines made by Messrs. Sulzer Brothers, 
the writer must refer the members to a paper read before the 



M b u r n a i ' ' | 

'i I. . I'll 6, on I • I i 

M [)] ■ II. 




Fig. 13 — Ssotiob oi Sulekb I 

section through the cylinder oi Messrs. Sulzer Brothen 
and this is shown in Pigs. 13 and 14. It will be noticed thai I 
inlet-valves are placed as low down as possible in the end- 
in order I i dace 

the clearance .-pace. 

The en 
Pig. - iws the 

: h a ast-porta 

through the cylin- 
der, all leading into 
the exhaust - belt. 
With regard to the 
question of the 
permanent running 
of non - condensing 
Uniflow engir 
M e — r s. S u 1 z e r 
Brothers state that 
the steam consump- 
tion, when using 
steam at a tempera- 
ture of about 600° 

Fahr., would be 
Fig. 14. — Cross-sectiox through Cylest-er. 




1917-1918.] DISCUSSION THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 137 

about 50 per cent, higher than when working condensing, and with 
saturated steam almost 100 per cent. more. 

The maximum obtainable output (not permanent) of the 
engine when running under these conditions with a cut-off of 20 
per cent, corresponds approximately to the nominal output of the 
condensing engine (cut-off of about 10 to 11 per cent.), and 
therefore it is not advantageous to run Uniflow engines non- 
condensing. 

The writer regrets that, owing to the present abnormal condi- 
tions, he has been unable to obtain a complete test of a British- 
made Uniflow engine, but he feels confident that they are now 
quite as economical and reliable as the best continental-made 
engines. In conclusion, he wishes to express his gratitude for 
the readiness with which the previously-mentioned firms supplied 
him with information, and to Messrs. Robey & Company, 
Limited, Messrs. Cole, Marchent, & Morley, Limited, and 
Messrs. Sulzer Brothers for the use of their blocks. 



Mr. G. Blake Walker (Tankersley) wrote that Mr. Poole's 
paper was interesting in that it dealt with a novel form of prime- 
mover. The drop-valve as fitted to Messrs. Robey's engine had 
the advantage that it was easy to keep steam-tight, but, as men- 
tioned by Mr. Poole, these valves were restrained from closing 
sharply so as to prevent hammering on the seats, and he (Mr. 
Walker) assumed that the indicator-diagrams shown in Figs. 
2 and 5 were taken from an engine fitted with this type of valve. 

It would be interesting to compare diagrams from engines 
fitted (1) with the Robey valve, and (2) with the Cole-Marchent- 
Morley drop piston-valve, and observe the difference as to sharp- 
ness of cut-off. The latter valve had the disadvantage that it 
was difficult to keep steam-tight, especially when working with 
a short stroke. Probably a combination of the two valves might 
be tried as an experiment. 

With the conditions obtaining at collieries, where a quantity 
of large steam plant was already at work, better results could 
generally be obtained from a mixed-pressure steam-turbine than 
from the Uniflow steam-engine, because although the steam con- 
sumption of the former was higher, it operated for a portion of 
its time entirely on a waste product — exhaust-steam. The mixed- 
pressure turbine was admittedly not so efficient on the heat 
balance, but it was a machine perfectly adapted to the condi- 
tions at collieries. 

Mr. Poole had mentioned valves of the double-beat type 
specially made so as to keep tight at all temperatures, but he 












I 

: 
I 

!ll|M.| I 

w I !•• i derabl( , 

It. however, tl 
1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 ! . • 
the la tie] were miturnlh much tu 
ei onom ica I [t was possible 







Fig. 15. Galloway Qniflow Engine driving; an Electric Gexe:. 



horsepower-hour Prom L0,000 British thermal units, whereas Mr. 

Poole chimed for the Uniflow engine an efficie 18*6 per 

cem.. and this did not take into accounl the boiler s« s, which 
were probably 25 per cent., bring _ the efficiency down to 1 
per cent., or L8,310 British thermal units per indicated horse- 
power. 

This 13"9 per cent, must, however, be further discounted 
by the mechanical efficiency of the engine and the loss due to 
driving such auxiliaries as feed-pumps, condenser?, etc.. 
before it was in line with the gas-engine in regard to the net 
output. 

Mr. H. Pilling (Manchester) wrote that for some years past 
Messrs. Galloways, Limited, had been developing the Uniflow 



1917-1ULS j DISCUSSION THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 131) 

steam-engine with special reference to engines of large size run- 
ning at relatively slow speeds. They also made the usual high- 
speed type for electric generating, etc. The need of meeting 
widely varying loads and speeds had led to the development of a 
special valve-gear, fitted with servo-motor control, which in 
practice gave the greatest satisfaction. The engines were all 
fitted with automatic compression-relief safety-devices and 
forced lubrication. Fig. 15 showed an engine installed before 
the war for driving an electric generator. 

Mr. E.J. Milbourne (Donnington) wrote that Mr. Poole 
had stated that for the given power and steam pressure the 
TJniflow engine would occupy less floor room than any other 
engine. Had he not, however, overlooked the vertical high-speed 
type? 

Mr. Mark Halliday, B.Sc. (Durham) said that the paper was 
of more than usual interest to him, since it contained a short 
description and two photographs of the Cole, Marchent & 
Morley TJniflow steam-engine installed at Messrs. Bell Brothers' 
Tursdale Colliery, with which he was connected. As far as he 
was aware, this was the only TJniflow engine in use for colliery 
work in the County of Durham, and it occurred to him that a 
few remarks upon it might be useful to engineers who contem- 
plated power-plant reconstruction and economies. In the 
discussion on Mr. F. F. Mairet's paper,* he (Mr. Halliday) had 
given figures obtained in the official tests of th^ engine, and 
therefore did not propose to repeat them now. Mr. Poole had 
included particulars of another trial in his paper, which 
.appeared to be rather more favourable than the one to which he 
(Mr. Halliday) referred. Whilst these figures were useful, they 
were not sufficient to convince the average mining engineer of 
the superior qualities of the TJniflow engine. The question he 
always asked was : What was it going to save ? By kind per- 
mission of his directors he would quote some figures which 
would, he hoped, answer that question. 

TJp to the year 1915 the whole of the steam at Tursdale 
Colliery was raised by waste-heat from beehive coke-ovens. Some 
time previous to that it had been decided to close the coke-ovens 
down, and to reconstruct the power plant in accordance with a 
scheme arranged by the company's agent, Mr. M. E. Kirby. The 
new engines included a winder, a main-and-tail-rope haulage- 
engine, and a TJniflow engine. A Corliss- valve main-and-tail- 
rope haulage-engine, installed a few years previously, was 
retained. A battery of four second-hand Lancashire boilers, 
each at a working pressure of 80 pounds per square inch, was 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 76. 



II" II I |..\ II MM, 

■ 1 1 led 

■ 

added I ii t"i tu U \\ itli th< 

t he ueM i u hen hu ucJ 

I bin 1 1 1 1 - 1 « »i i uue in .in < •!•!•• • * lunii 

[>u i on d .1 ml model u p«»w . i ; 

\ t i li.ii i [me \\ ln« Ii \\ .1 - onlj 
sumpl Ion w.i l month, and a i»l< that 

quant ii \ M was difficult to mi I •■ 

<>ld coke-ovens had to be In addition to ] 

■ 1 1 ed i". Bj deg i e< •- 1 1"- ue* plant 
and us a result there was a stead} • 

'i i lie] consumpt Ion . until t he I n iflow • id all 

auxiliaries were in satisfactory working order, when ame 

Jnw n wit li .i leap. 

I he I mtliiw engine was arranged in a central position i 
the boilers to drive two ventilating fans, an i 
extracting and circulating pumps for the condensing plant, 
and an alternator which generated electrical en< - 'In* 

main underground pumps, the w-mill, shops, 

other auxiliary machinery. It was almost entirely due to this 
engine and to the arrangement oi drives that marked 
had been effected. In Septemher oi the | . when 

everything was in order, the fuel consumption dropped Bud< 
ly to t50 tons of coke-ballast ; and they now used steadily about 
400 in 500 tons of inferior fuel per month, varying in qnant 
according to its calorific value. 

\oi a single ton of coal had been burnt for four months. 
A i the present time they generated by the use oi 5,4t - of 

coke-ballast per annum the same power for which the consump- 
tion rate was 15,600 tons of best coal per annum two years : 
viously. There was, of course, in addition to this economy 
consequent saving oi labour, which was considerable. 

Whilst much oi this saving was due to the Oniflow engine, 
it was hot by itself sufficient to account for it all. It was, 
Mr. Poole had stated, its adaptability as a main enurine to drive 
several machines, in addition to its low steam-consumption river 
a large range of loads, that made it specially suitable for col- 
liery work. For instance, at Tursdale the Uniflow engine was 
running before the motors for the auxiliary machinery at the 
surface were ready: and although these represented only about 
100 horsepower, the old steam-engines and Ions* pipe-lines which 
they were to replace accounted for 400 tons of ballast 
per month, the consumption then being 850 tons per month. 
It was astounding what condensation took place in long pipe- 
lines. 

The foregoing figures were, he thought, sufficient to com- 
mend the Uniflow type of engine from the point of view of fuel 






1917-1918. J DISCUSSION — THE QNlFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. 141 

economies for powers below 1,000 horsepower. Further, it 
should be noted that this was a low-pressure engine, lower than 
that recommended by I he author of the paper. This feature 
was noteworthy, as such an engine would work in conjunction 
with an old boiler plant in cases where a capital expenditure on 
new boilers could not be justified. 

Another important feature referred to by the author was 
reliability. In this respect the engine had yet to be proved. 
Fortunately, however, there was every indication of its being 
so. For several months after starting up at Tursdale Colliery 
they had encountered difficulties which were now, he was glad to 
say, almost entirely eliminated. The chief cause of trouble was 
the air-pump. He was disappointed to find that the author had 
not given any description of these pumps in his paper, as they 
were of such vital importance. The subject was too complicated 
for him to elaborate at the moment, but it would be sufficient 
to state that too much care could not be exercised over their 
design and the necessary pipe arrangements. 

Mr. C. 0. Leach (Seghill) asked Mr. Halliday what he 
would have saved if he had continued to fire his boilers with 
coal. 

Mr. Mark Ford (Washington) asked Mr. Halliday whether 
lie obtained any steam from his coke-ovens at the present time. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener (Beamish) supposed that from 1J to 2 
pounds of steam would be obtained per pound of coke-ballast. 

Mr. Halliday replied that he did not now obtain any steam 
from his coke-ovens. They had installed a Lea recorder a few 
months ago, and from it they found that the evaporation varied 
from 4 to 5 pounds of water per pound of fuel. 

Mr. John Morisox (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) said that Mr. 
Halliday's remarks led him to suppose that a large number of 
auxiliary engines of inferior description (extravagant engines) 
and a long lead of steam-pipes had been cut out. The economy 
due to the particular type of engine might be something, but it 
could not be a fraction of what the total economy was. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener said that he was astonished to hear from 
Mr. Halliday that he could get 4 to 5 pounds of steam from a 
pound of coke-ballast. It was quite contrary to his own exper- 
ience in the matter — and he had made, at one time and another, 
very careful experiments — although he did not doubt Mr. 
Halliday's figures, confirmed as they were by the recorder. It 
was perfectly obvious that the quantity of steam required at 
that colliery was very small, because even 1,800 tons of best 

VOL L XVIII.— 1917-U98, 11 E 



ii" i phi nil nHTim i ii i 1 1 V( in 

per month, with ev< i 

-••lit. (] in 

\l i 1 1 \ i i i D \ ^ . in i epl y to Mi I . ti, 1 bought if pi 
i li.ii . 1 1 l». ■-! « oal* had been • ; • i d ] 

been uboul 240 to 300 toi I ■ ■ 

l»ui could drive bj three i 

Mi m kio.N Tati at ked w hel b< - Mr. Ii.« 
most oi the saving to the type of ei 
oi pot* < i . He belie* ed i hat ai ai " ! bei i o] i i<i > bel< 
same company a similar system oi workii 
it a i n iilow engine, and w ei e i be resu Its i 
instil aces. 

Mr. IIu.iiimn said thai the engine was a compound i 
ami the results were nol so goo I. The diffi was <1 

to the engine in this case. The flywheel weighed 25 tons, and 
there were rope drives from it to the alternator, etc. 

Mr Tate suggested thai Mr. Halliday mighl give 
(>t tin 4 method oi applying the system ai the two coll • He 

knew thai the system had been a y ai Bowbum 

Colliery. Hi' was i|uitc >are the results ai both places had been 
good. 

The President (Mr. John Simpson) said he hoped thai Mi. 
Halliday would also give them the details oi the « »1 « 1 plant. 

Mr. Leach asked whether Mr. Halliday would put his 
boilers on coal-firing for a fortnight, and lei the members know 
what the saving would be. 

Mr. Armstrong Varty. (Loftus) asked whether the haulage 
plants were still driven by steam or whether they were now 
driven by electricity. 

Mr. Halliday replied that they had no electrically-driven 
haulage-engines yet, although they were extending their plant 
and would contrive some electrically-driven haulages in the 
very near future. 

Prof. Henry Lor is (Armstrong College. Xewcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that, so far as he could make out, the present steam- 
consumption was a sixth of what it had been previously. 

Mr. W. Tolme Maccall (Technical College. Sunderland) 
wrote that he would like to put the following points before the 
author : — 



1916-1917.] DISCUSSION THE UNIFLOW STEAM-ENGINE. H3 

(1) Would not the whole of the steam, including that near 
the cover B, be wet at the end of expansion, since it had all 
been expanded down to the exhaust pressure ? 

(2) Was not the Uniflow engine, on account of its long 
piston, larger than a single-cylinder engine of the ordinary 
type for the same pressure and power ? On the other hand, 
compared with a two-cylinder engine, was not its speed varia- 
tion greater? 

(3) In any case where a Uniflow engine merited considera- 
tion, the following alternatives should also be considered: — 

(a) A vertical two- or three-cylinder engine using high-pres- 
sure steam with superheat. 

(b) A steam-turbine, which had, to a far greater degree than 
the Uniflow engine, the advantage of steady temperature at 
each point in the path of the steam through the engine. 

(c) The purchase of an electrical supply from a power com- 
pany in place of generating the power at the colliery. In many 
cases this last method would be found to be the best to adopt, 
despite the seeming absurdity of taking coal from the colliery to 
the power-station, and then transmitting the electric power from 
the power-station back to the colliery, instead of generating the 
electric power on the spot. 

(4) He would like to enter a protest against the practice of 
giving far more figures in a test than the accuracy of the 
measurements warranted. Many of the results recorded in 
the tests were given to four significant figures, several to five, 
and one to six, whereas he suspected that the accuracy of 
even the third figure was uncertain in most cases. Some idea 
on this point would have been available if a fuller heat account 
had been supplied. 

Mr. G. G. T. Poole (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that with 
regard to the question of indicator-diagrams raised by Mr. G. 
Blake Walker, Fig. 5 showed a diagram taken from Messrs. 
Eobey & Company's Uniflow engine, whilst Fig. l(i showed a 
diagram taken from Messrs. Cole, Marchent, & Morley's Uniflow 
engine, which was illustrated in Fig. 10. 

The double-beat inlet-valves as used with the Eobey engine 
constituted one of its most important features, and the writer re- 
gretted that he was riot at liberty to give u more detailed descrip- 
tion of them. 

In reply to Mr. Mark Halliday, the air-pump used by Messrs. 
Cole, Marchent, & Morley was of the horizontal double-acting 
type, and was driven from the end of the engine crankshaft. 
Fig. 17 showed their standard type of air-pump, and Fig. IS 
showed a section of the air-pump. The air-pump had delivery- 
valves only, and worked on the same principle as the engine. 



w ill i li. en <j. i ton i li.ti I • 

i I I < i| III hi . 

iplel • hi "in. •!• .1 1 1 • 

wiili i In- i mi • li-ii •■ i unci I 




FlO LG Im'M ITOKv-D] kOI wi . BOM < 0L1 . \l IMi H I 

Enoini [LLU8TBAT] '■ I • 1" 

injection-water flowed into this channel, and, when the plui _ 
was ;ii the end oi its stroke, entered the linei through the i • 
boles. On the return stroke the plungei forced the mixture 
condensate and injeetion-watei through the delivery-valves, and 
into delivery-chambers arranged .it each end ol the pump-barrel. 




Fig. 17. — Standard Type of Cole, Marchlm. & Moblet Air-pump. 

Mi. W. Tolnie Maccall appeared to have overlooked the I 
thai the inlet steam was always present in t li e end covers, and 
consequently, even at the end of expansion, tlie -team in the 
cylinder near the cover at 11 (Fig. 1) would receive lieat from 

the cover, and be in a dry condition. With regard to single- 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION THE UNIELOW STEAM-ENGINE. 



145 



cylinder engines of the ordinary type, the power obtainable 
economically was limited, and consequently could not be com- 
pared with the Uniflow engine, where 2,000 indicated horse- 
power might be obtained in one cylinder. 

The steam-turbine had been mentioned by several gentle- 
men, and the author desired to say that Prof. Stumpf had 



INLET FOR CONDENSATE 



VALVE 

plate' 



OVERFLOW 



PLU NGER. 

l // d[ VALVE PLATE 





ZZZZZ 



SSS 



*& 



ZZZZZ. 



zzzzzzzzzlfl 



Fig. 18.- — Section of Air-pump. 



patented a design for using an exhaust-steam turbine with a 
Uniflow engine, the exhaust outlet from the engine cylinder 
being suitably shaped for connecting to t lie turbine. Whether 
tli is combination had actually been working or not, the writer 
was unable to say, but it certainly opened up another field for 
investigation. 



lit'., Ill K. [Vol I j 



MKMulK ill IOII N II I l: M \ \ M I i:l \ A I I 



'I .M , i.l ' 



•loll ll I I .Till. I | M • ' \ .llf \\ ..- I*.! I - '. I 

< In v. in t be bouse <»t i 

\\ ordswortb The 1 1 adil ions oi li 

Qected with the church, the law, and di] lh grand- 

Lii lier, Job d 1 1 erman Mei i\ ale, bu< I Comi 

Bioner and Commissioner In Bankruptcy, bad some repute In I 

literary circles oi In- day as the authoi <>t l.iv. 

translations from the Greek and German poets II - fat! • i 

Charles Merivale, Chaplain to the 9 the Bi >m- 

tnona and afterwards Dean of Ely, a distinguished cli 

scholar and author <>i The History of thi Roman utuL 

Empire. The names oi Herman Merivale, first I adei 8< 

oi State for the Colonies, Mallet, Drury, and, <»n his mother's 

^i<It>. Frere and Wordsworth, are all well known. 

As a child tlic little boy was sen! with his Bister to the vil 
school of Lawford, Essex, oi which place his father was then 
rector, and at the age of sis he wenl on to tin- neighbouring 
Grammar School at Dedham, whence In due course ded 

to Pelsted and Winchester. Bere be pained perhaps a :• 
tion for wit and resourcefulness rather than for scholarship, and 
at the age oi 18, having failed to pass the examination for the 
Indian Civil Service, bis parents yielded to his • to beot 

an engineer. Dr. Lake, Dean of Durham, an old friend of the 
elder Merivale, was one oi the mosi active founders of the i 
College oi Science at Newcastle-upon-T^rne, and persuaded him 
to enter his son as literally it- firsi student. -Fu-t at tlii- time 
prospects in the coal-trade were very good: the termination oi 
the Franco-German War coupled with the passing the M 
Act of 1871 bad brought about a demand for mining engine 
and several of young Merivale's college friends obtained appoint- 
ments as sub-inspectors at a commencing salary of £250 to £300 
a year — a tempting- opening' which encouraged his father to let 
him take up the mining side. He was accordingly articled to 
Mr. R. F. Matthews of the South Hettou and Morton Collieries, 
and for the next four years worked hard under his guidance. 
During this time he visited more than once the Belgian Coal- 
fields: and a tradition of the " mad " Englishman who used to 
tramp all over the country accompanied by " Yapps." a little 

* Assisted bv Prof. Gr. A. L. Lebour ami Mr. Charles Herman Mrriva.e. 



1916-1917.] MEMOIR OF JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE. 147 

browu mongrel clog, still lingered j.11 the recollection of pitmen 
at the Hazard Colliery, near Liege, when one of his sons served 
part of his time there twenty-five years afterwards. Upon the 
completion of his apprenticeship, Merivale obtained charge of 
the mining properties belonging to Lord Carlisle, then in the 
hands of trustees : he was also appointed manager at Netherton 
Colliery under Mr. Liddell. 

During all this time Merivale had interested himself in teach- 
ing, and after leaving the College he lectured upon mining sub- 
jects at night-schools at the colliery villages wherever he hap- 
pened to reside. For two sessions (1878 and 1880) he lectured for 
the Mechanics' Institute, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. All this experi- 
ence doubtless helped his candidature for the Lectureship in 
Mining at Newcastle, which was instituted in 1880, and finally 
developed into the Mining Chair. He received the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts of Durham in 1884. In the course of 
his College work lie travelled all over the north as far as Seremer- 
ston, in connexion with the University Extension lectures, 
west to Whitehaven, and south as far as Staffordshire. He was 
engaged in practical as well as in theoretical work, as he was 
taken into partnership by his father-in-law, Mr. J. E. Liddell, 
who was agent to the Broomhill Coal Company and a check- 
viewer with a considerable practice in the North of England. 
This partnership continued until Mr. Liddell's death, when 
Merivale became agent to the Broomhill Company, which ap- 
pointment he held for thirty years. During the latter part of 
this time the company formed by the late Lord Furness took 
over the colliery and added to it the neighbouring colliery of 
Radcliffe. 

Besides the ordinary trade appointments, such as arbitra- 
tions, strike awards, etc., he could seldom be persuaded to take 
outside work, but he was called to give his services at the great 
Whitehaven disaster, and was appointed one of the five mining 
referees in connexion with the 1909-1910 Finance Act. 

Although coming of a literary family, his busy life did not 
admit of much writing, but he contributed papers to the 
Institute, he compiled a note-book (Note* and Formula*) for the 
use of his students, and for many years edited the Colliery 
Manager 1 s Pocket Book. 

He was one of the Honorary Secretaries of the Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne Committee appointed in connexion with the meeting 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science when 
that body visited the city in 1889, and was asked to undertake the 
same duty again in 1915-1916, but dec lined. He was a member 
of the Council of the Institute for eleven years, a Vice-President 
from 1899 to 1906, and President during 1906-1908, and finally, 
on the death of the late Mr. M. Walton Brown, was appointed 
Honorary Secretary. He was also a Justice of the Peace, 



Dm 

III ! I ' . 

n tern : 

t In- | .• |m'. [ imd - '.'i !i'|. • I I 

1 1 tide n • I"- diffi( iilt 1 

• 

In 1878 Mei ule ma » i ied H M i ' B 

Liddell, ol Netherton, Northumberland, 
lie »ue< peded hifl fal liei »in-ln ' : I 

liei i 

<H bis gen in- for » ea (ship, I 

ness of heart . this Ie aol ' he pli 

were greal in all directions, and it i I to think thai ' 

w as hastened by sorrow for t he deal b 
field ;inil anxiety for the others 1 1- ! i<l always insisted si 
upon the value oi an efficient volunt< 
lished a rifle-range al each oi I he col ■ • 

connected. I ich ol his sons as tin 
in tlic Territorials, with the resull thai when n 
the four younger ones were all palled u] 
anxiety, coupled with much additional work entailed b 
conditions, told heavily upon him. He di< shorl illi 

at Togstone, Northumberland, on Nbvembei 18th, 191( and v 
laid a few days later in the graveyard al An ri amoi y 

the men with whom he had lived and worked «1 
thirty years. 



1917-1918.] THE LATE PROF. GEORGE ALEXANDER LOUIS LEBOUR. 149 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

February 9th, 1918. 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, President, in the Chair. 



THE LATE PROF. GEORGE ALEXANDER LOUIS 

LEBOUR, 

The President (Mr. Jolm Simpson) referred to the great loss 
that they had sustained by the death of Prof. Lebour, who had 
been Professor of Geology at Armstrong College since 1879, and 
Vice-Principal since 1902. He was elected a member of the 
Institute in 1873, and an honorary member in 1879, served on 
the Council from 1880 to 1888, and acted as Secretary from 1888 
to 1891, when he was succeeded by the late Mr. M. Walton 
Brown. He contributed many papers to the Transactions of the 
Institute. He (Mr. Simpson) had often heard Prof. Lebour's 
students express their appreciation of his kindness of the way in 
which he always tried to assist them. He was a man who had 
done a great deal for the geology of the district. He moved that 
a vote of condolence should be sent to Mrs. Lebour and family, 
expressing the members' sorrow at his death, and sympathy with 
them in their bereavement. 

The vote of condolence was unanimously passed by the 
members rising in their seats. 



ir><> 



i i: LNSACTIONS THE NORTH O] ENGLAND INSTITUTE. | Vol. I 



MEMOIB OF JOHN GEOBGE WEEKS. 



Bv K. J. WEEKS. 



John George Weeks was a native of Kyton-on-'J \ n<\ County 
Durham, having been born there on August Oth, 1843. His 
father, Mr. Richard Morce Weeks, both farmed his own land 
and kept an academy, two of his best known pupils being the 
late Sir Joseph Cowen, M.P., and Sir W. H. Stephenson. His 
mother was Fanny Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. John Nicholson, 
of Winlaton. 

Mr. Weeks was educated at home and at Newcastle Grammar 
School until the age of 12, when he went to Rossall, where he 
soon showed the mathematical ability and retentive memory 
which aided him so greatly in his later life. On leaving in 
1859 at the early age of 16 he was top boy in mathematics. 

In 1860 he began his apprenticeship as a mining engineer 
with the Stella Coal Company under the late Mr. Robert 
Simpson and Dr. J. B. Simpson, to whose kindness, strict disci- 
pline, and help he attributed the mining knowledge which stood 
him in good stead in after years. Contemporary apprentices 
were Mr. Arthur Sopwith, Mr. James McMurtrie, and Mr. 
James A. Maughan. In 1865 he was made master sinker at 
the Addison Pit, but left in the same year to take his first charge 
as manager of the Maehen and Rhos Llantwit Colliery in South 
Wales, under the late Mr. Thomas Forster Brown. He remained 
at this colliery for two years, and in January, 1868, accepted 
the post of manager of North Gawber and Willow Bank 
Collieries, near Barnsley, which he held until September, 1872, 
when he was appointed head viewer and agent to the Bedlington 
Coal Company, Limited. 

Mr. Weeks was then 29 years of age, and his connexion with 
this company, owning one of the largest groups of collieries in 
Northumberland, lasted to the date of his death on July 8th, 
1916, a period of nearly 44 years. 

As might naturally be expected, many important changes and 
developments took place at Bedlington in his time; several addi- 
tional shafts were sunk, all the heapsteads and screening plants 
were remodelled, the furnaces replaced by fans, and electricity 
substituted for gas. He built a great many workmen's houses, 
and it was one of his sayings that " every new house built was 
an improvement on the last." As a pitman his early practical 
experience always proved of the greatest assistance. Careful 



Vol. LXVIII., Plate I. 




JOHN GEORGE WEEKS, 

PRESIDENT OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1900-1902. 



Born on August 6t/i, 1 843, and died on July Stlt, 1916. 
{Presented by The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers.) 



1917-1918.] MEMOIR OF JOHN GEORGE WEEKS. 151 

and painstaking to a degree, lie had the knack of gathering 
around him officials on whom he could rely, who gained every 
confidence in him and acquired his methods. Very hardworking 
himself, he would not tolerate slackness in others. He held 
strong views on managing his own pits, and did not believe in 
being dictated to, or, as a local newspaper put it, he was a 
' Pitmatic Home Ruler. " He insisted on making and maintain- 
ing good haulage- and travelling-roads, and was of opinion that 
most of the obstacles to keeping up the output was due to a dis- 
regard of this essential. His relations with his workmen were 
good, for he always gave them a fair crack of the whip, and 
though he constantly differed in opinion with them, they knew 
that they could rely on him dealing justly with any subject in 
dispute and on him keeping his word. 

In addition to the Bedlington Collieries, he was connected 
with Messrs. Joseph Laycock & Company's Seghill Colliery,, 
and became managing owner there in 1883, which post he re- 
tained until his death. He was also mining* adviser to the late 
Earl of Ravensworth and his successors from 1903 onwards, and 
held several other similar offices. 

Mr. Weeks took a great interest in local affairs ; he became 
a member of the Local Board in 1876, and on this becoming an 
Urban District Council was its first chairman. He continued as 
a member until 1913, when he retired, although still keeping 
his connexion with them by being appointed as their first 
representative on the newly-constituted Blyth Harbour Commis- 
sioners. He was a member of the Morpeth Board of Guardians 
from 1879 to his decease ; chairman of the managers of several 
of the colliery schools ; vicar's warden for many years at the 
Parish Church ; and in various ways gave a helping hand to the 
many institutions, societies, and undertakings in the district. 
That this was appreciated was shown by the presentation made 
to him by the officials and workmen of the Bedlington Collieries 
and the public generally of Bedlingtonshire in July, 1914, con- 
sisting of a clock, bureau, and address. 

In 1894 he was made a justice of the peace for the county, 
later becoming chairman of the petty divisional court and a 
member of the licensing committee. 

Mr. Weeks will perhaps be best remembered in connexion 
with the Coal-trade Associations of Northumberland and 
Durham and the Mining Association of Great Britain. He 
became a member of the Northumberland Joint Committee at 
its inception in 1873, and remained on till the end of 1913. 
Vigorous and energetic in action, his personality was marked by 
a fighting temperament which dominated him in all the opera- 
tions that he undertook. Endowed with a splendid memory, no 
one could surpass him in his knowledge of the varied and' 



J f>2 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH 01 ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol U-. iii 

changing customs and idiosyncrasies oi the coal-trade; in argu- 
inciii across the table be was ;ii his best, and altogether b tower 

of strength to liis side. 

lie look a prominent pari in the Northumberland Coal- 
(iwiiits' A.ssociation, and so Long ago as IHTfi acted as arbitrator 
will) Mr. S. C. Crone in the enginemen's dispute; and to- 
gether willi the lat<> chairman ( Mr. I'.n. Lamb) gave evidence 
in London in 1891 on their behalf before ili<- Royal Commission 
•on Labour. In the minimum wage proceedings in 1912-1913, 
before Lord Mersey, the brunt of the practical evidence fell 
upon liis shoulders. In 1913 he was made vice-chairman of 
the Association, and held that office until hi- death. 

In the United Coal-trade Association lie played latterly a 
leading part; when the clauses of the New Mines Aci of 1911 
were first published, Col. W. C. Blackett and he were appointed 
to represent the Durham and Northumberland coal-trade on the 
•committee appointed by the Mining Association of G; 
Britain, and it was greatly due to their common -on-o, prac- 
tical knowledge, and vigorous efforts that the various provisions 
and special rules were pruned, altered, and excised so ;i- in make 
them as workable and comprehensible as possible. 

No position that he held was he more proud of than the 
Presidency of The North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers in the years 1900-1902. He became a 
member of the Institute in 18G5, was elected to the Council in 
1877, and served continuously till his death: he always took the 
greatest interest in its welfare, and spared nothing to further 
its progress. He was also a member of the Council and of the 
Finance and Publications Committee of The Institution of 
Mining Engineers. 

He was for many years an examiner for colliery-managers' 
certificates, and there will be many who will remember the 
kindly way he put them at their ease on going before him tor 
their viva-voce examination. 

In the course of so busy a life, there was little time for 
recreation — in fact, his work was his life — but the one pleasure 
he allowed himself was shooting, and in later life travelling 
abroad. A propos of the present war, the writer remembered 
him saving* in 1913 on his return from one of such trips, during 
which he had spent several days in different parts of Germany, 
how immensely struck he had been with the systematic drilling 
everywhere, and the universal dislike and suspicion which was 
shown to anyone supposed to be British. He took little interest in 
politics, and socially was quiet and reserved: to him, indeed, 
Tiis home was his castle. He had a keen sense of humour, and 
enjoved a good story or an amusing play. 

His health broke down completely in April, 1916, but it 



1917-1918.] MEMOIR OF JOHN GEORGE WEEKS. 153 

was characteristic of the man that his reply to a message of 
sympathy from a meeting of the Northumberland Coal-owners' 
Association should be that he " hoped soon to be in harness with 
them again." After an illness of three months, most bravely 
fought and patiently borne, he passed away on July 8th, 1916, 
and was buried in Ryton Churchyard. 

He married in 1881 Frances Mary, only daughter of the 
late Mr. Thomas Hunter Rutherford, of Seaham Harbour, whose 
uncle, Mr. George Hunter, was the well-known mining agent to 
the Marquesses of Londonderry and John Buddie's right-hand 
man. Mr. Weeks left one son and two daughters. 



Mr. Reginald Guthrie (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) desired to be 
allowed to express his personal appreciation of the services ren- 
dered to the mining industry by the late Mr. Weeks, whose 
unique knowledge and experience were always at the full dis- 
posal of the coal-trade, and who was ever ready and willing to 
advise on matters connected with the industry. His kindness in 
supplying to him (Mr. Guthrie) information and advice was of 
enormous advantage to him, and of the very greatest benefit to 
the coal-owners. 

The President (Mr. John Simpson) said that probably there 
was no one present who had been in such close touch with the 
late Mr. Weeks as he (Mr. Simpson). He knew Mr. Weeks when 
the latter first commenced to serve his time in 1860, and, in 
1865, when Mr. Weeks went to South Wales under the late Mr. 
Thomas Forster Brown, he (Mr. Simpson) was put under Mr. 
Weeks's charge, and practically served that part of his appren- 
ticeship with him. Ever since they had been associated with 
each other, and had worked a good deal together. A better 
friend and a truer and more straightforward person than Mr. 
Weeks he had never known. 



lf>4 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITI 1 I . | Vol 1\ 



A SYSTEM OF STORING AM) FILLING SMALL COAL, 
WITH REMARKS UPON THE PREVENTION 01 
SPONTANEOUS BEATING I \ COAL-HEAPS. 



I!v JOHN MORISON, Ml. ; « I. 



It has been found necessary during the war to -tuck ! 
quantities of small coal in Northumberland, owing to want of 
trade for this class of coal, and in order to maintain the output oi 
the large coal for national requirements. 




Fig. 1. — Stocking Coal by Means of Travelling Cranes at the Bureadon 

and Cramlington Collieries. 

A system of stocking by means of travelling cranes is in use 
at the Cramlington and Burradon Collieries, this system being 
illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, which give a clear view of the 
general arrangements. 

At botb groups of collieries the application of the system has 
been facilitated by the fact that there were available bottom- 
door hopper-wagons of the type shown in the illustrations. These 
wagons each carry 4 tons of coal, the tare of the wagons being 
about 2h tons. The cranes are designed to lift T tons at a radius 
of about 30 feet. There is nothing special about the construc- 
tion, both of the cranes being ordinary travelling steam jib- 
cranes. There is, however, a special arrangement for allowing 



1917-1918.] 



M0RIS0N STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 



155 



the crane to follow up its work quickly and to provide for its 
seating itself, whilst lifting, on a wider gauge than the perma- 
nent-way of 4 feet 8J inches. The wider gauge is 7 feet 3J 
inches, and the crane is fitted with wheels to this gauge, as well 
as with wheels to run on the ordinary gauge. 




Fig. 2. — Stocking Coal by Means of Travelling Cranes at the Burradon 

and cramlington collieries. 




Fig. 3. — Stocking Coal by Means of Travelling Cranes at the Burradon 

and Cramlington Collieries. 



156 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IK TIT1 I I.. L \'<>\ l.\ 

The special arrangemeni referred to consists oi two platforms 

filltMl wiid rails of the gauges mentioned. The crane u run ofV 
the ordinary railway-track on to tin- gauge oi 1 feel 8J inches 
on the platform, and is then arranged t<> engage t Im- widei g 
The second platform is then Lifted by the crane itself in iron i of 
the (irsi platform, and the crane propels itself Btep by step, o 
each platform, until it reaches the desired position for- lifting the 
wagons. 

This arrangemeni renders unnecessary ;i Large squad oi men 
being kepi in readiness 1<> lay down the road in froni of the 
and the use of short and therefore unstable rails. 

The Frame of the platforms measures aboui L5 feei by 8 feet, 
and is provided with eye-bolts by which the crane lifts each 
platform in turn after advancing, ready for another advance. 
The tipping capacity of each crane is 60 tons per hour. 

It is desirable, in the writer's opinion, not to allow the heaps 
where continuous to exceed about 12 feet in height, although 
where the heaps are coned this height may be increased, in which 
case it is desirable to lay down the heaps w r ith a base due to a 
height at the centre of the cone of about 15 feet. In each case 
the heaps should be separated from each other by suitable spaces. 

The cranes are provided with grabs for filling from the heap, 
together with the necessary attachments for operating them. The 
filling capacity with a 2-ton grab should be equal to the loading 
capacity when the men are skilful and experienced in the work- 
ing of the apparatus. Unfortunately, very little filling has 
hitherto been required, and in practice the men can only fill 
about half the quantity that they can tip. It has been necessary 
to exercise considerable vigilance in order to prevent the heaps 
from firing, and a great deal of experience in this respect has 
been grained. The following are the practical results of this 
experience : — 

(1) It is not necessary to have any very hard-and-fast limits 
with regard to the size of the heaps, but the dimensions pre- 
viously mentioned should be approached and worked to. 

(2) Temperature-rods, consisting of iron rods J or J inch in 
diameter, and of a length equal to the height of the heap, 
should be provided, and inserted at intervals of, say, 8 yards. 
These rods should be left constantly in the heap, and drawn 
through the hand daily. Whenever heating is taking place, it 
will thus be detected at once. One man specially instructed 
should attend to this work and report daily; and whenever there- 
is the slightest tendency to heat, the fact should be at once 
reported. 

(3) Whenever any heating is noticed, the top of the heap 
should be trenched by irregular trenches to a depth of 4 or more- 
feet. These trenches are easily formed, and there is no objec- 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION — STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 157 

tion to throwing the coal which is dug- out in forming the trenches 
on to the heap at the side of the trench. 

It is usual to find that heating commences at a depth of about 
5 feet, and if left alone it will spread downward until the coal 
fires. 

(4) In addition to the temperature-rods and trenching, the 
use of a long stiff bar or poker worked into the heap so as to form 
funnel-shaped orifices at intervals has been found beneficial. 

(5) The whole surface of the heap should be raked 
periodically in order to break up the surface formed by the 
weather. 

It has been observed that if the small coal contains much 
shale, there is a tendency for this to cake and so to interrupt the 
dissipation of the heat. It will be obvious that the object of the 
whole of the precautions mentioned is to break the surface of the 
heap and to allow of the dissipation of the heat. 

The heaps should be trodden on as little as possible, and it is 
not desirable where it can be avoided to run railways or tram- 
ways for stocking on the coal-heaps themselves. It may be 
advisable to trench the heaps before heating is observed. 

Heaps should not be formed on marshy ground. 

The writer has in this paper recorded the results of actual 
experience over a considerable time, during which there have 
been frequent alarms of heating that have been cooled down 
successfully. He feels confident that a simple remedy has now 
been found for the prevention of firing, provided that it is 
applied promptly whenever there is any indication of heating, 
and before the coal actually fires. 



Mr. C. Augustus Carlow (Leven) wrote that it was difficult 
to criticize the paper, as the method appeared to be ideal for the 
particular local circumstances. Unfortunately, the method was 
not one which could be adopted universally, on account of the 
fact that these little hopper-bottomed wagons were peculiar to 
certain districts only. 

Prof. George Knox (South Wales and Monmouthshire School 
of Mines, Treforest) wrote that the latter point in Mr. Morison's 
paper was one which was causing considerable difficulty in the 
South Wales and Monmouthshire coalfield at the present time. 
It was seldom that coal-heaps had to be laid down at the collieries 
in this district ; but, owing to the difficulty recently experienced 
in finding a market for small coal, large heaps of this material 
had had to be laid down. As the space available in the vicinity 
of South Wales collieries was very limited, owing to the shafts 



15K TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OP ENGLAND INSTITUTE. Vol lxviii. 

having to be placed id narrow valleys, manj oi the • bad 

reached heights varying from 20 to 10 feet, and a oumbei 
them had heated spontaneously, several of them to the point of 
ignition . 

In some cases these heaps were laid down on damp soil, with 
the result thai heating had taken place rapidly. Othew v 
laid down on coarse vegetation like brackens, which on decom- 
posing set up local heating, and assisted in the spontaneous 
ignition of the coal. Others, again, had temporary wooden gang- 
ways erected, from which the small coal \\;i> tipped into the heap, 
and where these supports were left in the lower ignition-point 
of the wood, assisted by local heating of the coal, had caused 
spontaneous ignition. It had also been observed that — 

(a) Wherever mixed coals from various seams had been 
stacked in one heap, heating had rapidly taken place. 

(b) Where wet and dry coals from the same seam had been 
mixed in the same heap, this also had caused rapid heating. 

(c) Where " through " slack had been stacked, heating was 
more rapid than where " sized ' small coals were stacked 
separately. 

(d) Coal containing friable dirt (shale) bands or thin bands of 
alternating layers of coal and shale (known locally as " rash- 
ings") were more liable to heat spontaneously. 

For the prevention of heating, the following points were 
suggested in a report issued some time ago to colliery-owners by 
the South Wales and Monmouthshire School of Mines : — 

(1) Wherever possible size the coal before stacking it, and 
put each size in a separate heap. 

(2) Never stack heaps of " through " coal or mixed small 
coals to a height of more than 13 feet. 

(3) If necessary (on account of lack of space) to store 
il through " coal or mixed smalls to a greater height than 13 
feet, these should be laid down in succeeding layers of not more 
than 3 to 4 feet thick. These heaps should also be provided with 
perforated ventilation pipes 3 to 4 inches in diameter. Iron or 
earthenware pipes might be used, one pipe to every 300 square 
feet of surface. The lower ends of these pipes should be at 
different heights from the ground throughout the stacks. 

(4) A thermometer should be lowered occasionally through 
these pipes in order to ascertain the temperature at various 
depths of the stack. 

(5) Never stack coal behind wooden structures, on moist 
vegetable soils, on ground covered by coarse vegetable soils, or on 
ground covered by coarse vegetation like brackens. 

(6) Do not mix inferior (dirty) coals with the better-class 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 159 

varieties, and remove as far as possible all " rashings " or other 
friable bituminous shale bands before storing. 

(7) Never allow coking coals to be stored in beaps of more 
than 4 feet, and only for short periods, as very slight heating 
renders them useless for coke-making. 

(8) Wet small coal should not be mixed with the dry coal. 
It might be dumped around the edges of the stack, where the air 
could get to it freely. 

For the treatment of heating heaps, the following methods 
had been successfully adopted: — 

(a) Where heating had been detected by temperature-rods, 
and had not reached the " steaming " stage, a conveyor was laid 
alongside the coal and the height of stack reduced to about 12 
feet. 

(b)' Where the " steaming " stage had been reached (usually 
about the end of three months), and when oxidation was rapidly 
increasing, perforated ventilating pipes were forced down 
through the heap from the top and the coal pumped out of the 
pipes. While this permitted more rapid radiation of heat, it 
was not wise to depend on this alone to prevent further heating. 
The precaution of reducing the height of heap to about 12 feet 
should then be commenced. 

(c) When the temperature of the hot zone, which was usually 
about 15 feet from the upper surface of the heap, reached 150° 
to 200° Cent., and when yellowish fumes were beginning to be 
given off, a series of small " shafts " about 10 feet deep were 
sunk on the top of the heap, and a plentiful supply of water 
was allowed to pass into these and find its way through the 
heated zone. These shafts were kept flooded with water until 
the height of the heap could be reduced. 

A very noticeable feature of the cases of spontaneous heat- 
ing in this district was that it applied to all classes of coal. Coal 
containing under 11 per cent, of volatile matter and 25 per cent, 
of ash had heated as rapidly as coal containing nearly 30 per 
cent, of volatile matter and 3 per cent, of ash. Even in the 
anthracite region, several cases of spontaneous heating had taken 
place with very fine anthracite duff. 

Mr. E. W. Dron (Glasgow) wrote to ask whether the small 
coal was dry or wet when laid down, and whether weather 
conditions had been found to affect its liability to spontaneous 
combustion. The general experience with Scottish coals was 
that heating seldom occurred with heaps under 20 feet in height, 
unless under some exceptional conditions. The heaps referred 
to by Mr. Morison were only 12 to 15 feet high, and the fact that 
it had been necessary to exercise considerable vigilance in order 

VOL. LXVIII.— 1917-1918 12 E 



Kit) l|(\.\s\( ||i|\s | ||K NMli'j II HI I.V.I Wh I. ) I 1 I 1 K. j Vol : v ^ i J i 
1o pjv\.-nt the heap- Ijom JJJin- led Jjun In ;.A \s Im-1 lie; 

were any special charade] i>n.- «.t 1 1 1 i - <.,..! that mad.- n liable 
to bpnntaneou> <onil>u>lioji. 

Mr. John Kirsopp (Gateshead) wrote thai the paper dealt 
not • • 1 1 1 \ with ;i labour and time-saving device aj the coJJJery in 

tlie slacking of coal. hui also with I li «■ maxim U in height a nd 

dimensions it was possible to make a coal-sjacjs without the 
pro.bable and alaiosl certain danger oi its beating and taking 
fire through spontaneous combustion. As fete tforihumberiand 

and Durham collieries (with the exception oi a few of the coking- 
coal collieries) were entirely dependent on export trade tor their 
markets, little stacking* of coal at the pit's month had been done 
in fhe past, and the dire necessity for so doing had only arisen 
recently, owing to the shortage and scarcity of shipping, com- 
bined with the action of the Coal Controller; but in the inland 
coalfields of the country, where the coals wrought were used 
largely for gas-making consumption and a home house-coal trade, 
there was a great deal of slack working time during the summer 
months, and stacking during these months was therefore essen- 
tial. Where this was done, in order not to impede winding 
operations, the most expedient method of handling and manipu- 
lating the tubs, without hindrance to teeming operations at 
bank, was essential, and the first portion of Mr. Morison's paper 
furnished valuable information in this respect. So far as the 
North of England was concerned, the question of the heating 
and firing of coal-stacks through spontaneous combustion had not 
received the close study that it warranted, and might otherwise 
have had. Some years ago, when compiling his paper on " Coal- 
shipment and the Laying-out of Staithe Heads, with Special 
Reference to Anti-breakage Appliances,"* he had gone into the 
question, and wished to draw the attention of the members to a 
valuable paper on the subject by Sir Richard Threlfall on " The 
Spontaneous Heating of Coal, Particularly During Shipment."! 
Sir Richard Threlfall stated that Mr. Henri Fa vol found, as 
the result of experiments with various coals from the Xorth of 
France and Belgian coalfields, that the inflammability of coal 
was highest with lignite, passing down through gas and coking 
coals to anthracite, in the order named ; but the difference 
between gas and coking coals was not great, which was an 
important fact, as there had always been a tendency to make too 
much of supposed great differences in the natural tendencies of 
coals to inflame spontaneously. Various commissions had proved 
that the risk of a spontaneous fire was much greater when a 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1908-1909, vol. xxxvi., page 610. 

f Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 1909, vol. xxviii.. page 759. 



1917-1918. j DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 161 

ship's cargo was loaded in summer than when loaded in winter, 
and tjiat the size and depth of the hold had also an important 
bearing. The Second yew South Wales Commission on the 
Spontaneous Combustion of Coal further recommended that 
where large ships were, being loaded during warrn weather 
(temperature of 91)° Fahr. or oyer), a hose should Jb,e played 
down the hatchway. Some collieries for the preservation of their 
coal in wel weather toojv jthe precaution of covering their loaded 
wagons with tarpaulins during transit between the colliery and 
the place of shipment. r |liis practice was adverse to the views 
qf Fayol and the Second Xew South Wales Commission on tl^e 
Spontaneous Combustion of pQal. Fayol also claimed tln}£ 
height also played an iinportant part in the beating of coal, 
migre especially when tjie stack was cprnposed of unscreened coal 
or slack, and stated from hjs 0F n phseryatious tjiat no .cases had 
occurred in heaps of less height than 6J feet, whereas when jthe- 
heaps were more than double this height spontaneous combus- 
tion invariably occurred. 

tine of the reasons generally given for spontaneous combus- 
tion was the occlusion of oxygen by the small particles of coal, 
by which the oxygen was raised to a great pressure. Authoritips 
all agreed that ventilating the heaps to the greatest possible 
extent was a preventive, combined with the use of water if nnd 
when the coal began to heat. 

Jn lace of these statements, it would be most interesting and 
valuable if ^fr. Morison would kindly supplement his paper by 
explaining his reasons for arriving at the following points : — 

(1) It was not necessary to have any hard-and-fast limits to 
the size of the heaps. It would seem that there did exist $ 
maximum limit to the height in the opinion of other authorities 
and commissions. 

(2) How he accounted for the fact that heating commenced at 
a depth of 5 feet, the heaps being coned-shaped. 

(3) Why the periodical raking of the heaps should affect 
the possibility of heating. 

(4) Why heaps should not be formed on marshy ground, 
seeing in the case of heating the Second Xew South Wales Com- 
mission on the Spontaneous Combustion of Coal advised watering 
as a precaution to firing. 

He (Mr. Kirsopp) could quite appreciate the fact that where 
there was a series of coned-shaped heaps there was probably less 
likelihood of either heating Or firing taking place, provided that 
there was a maximum limit to their height, owing to the constant 
circulation of air round them. Older authorities seemed to have 
fixed the height as not above 12 feet as the limit of possible 
prevention, and apparently had considered the length and 



162 TRANSACTIONS HIE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. 

breadth ol a heap as qoI affecting I In* « ■;• -«* ol heating in anj w 
Tins seemed to be a moel important point to ascertain, ;i^ not 
every colliery (or works) was so favourably placed as to have 
waste ground available for the dumping of ;i series oi 
although il mighi have sufficient space to Lay down one Large heap, 
It appeared from Mr. Morison's paper thai Length and breadth 
(as well as height) did control the question. Wnere heaps were 
coned-shaped and L5 feet in height, did Mr. Morison find a 
greater tendency to heating limn in those not exceeding L2 Peel or 
less? It might also be interesting to know whether the coal • 
unscreened, the percentages of round and small, the length of 
time the coal was stacked before signs of heating were noticed, 
and at what temperature, how long afterwards it was before it 
fired, and whether the point at which it actually fired was much 
lower than the highest point of such heating, or was it at the 
extreme bottom of the heap. What was the least height of stack 
which he had known to begin to heat or fire? 

As a great diversity of opinion apparently existed with regard 
to the maximum height and limits of heap- without incurring the 
risk of firing, and it would appear that these dimensions varied 
more or less in different areas, it would be interesting to ascer- 
tain the views and experiences of authorities in other coalfields 
throughout the country. If these were classified, it would, no 
doubt, furnish a useful working standard of what the maximum 
safe limit really was. Was it not possible that the reason why 
heaps of, say, over a certain height did not fire was because they 
were allowed to lie for only a short time before being filled out ? 

A discussion on the question of reducing the deterioration 
which took place in various classes of coal when stacked (if there 
were any means of so doing) w T ould also form a valuable addition 
to the paper. 

The President (Mr. John Simpson) said that Mr. Mori son's 
experiences and conclusions agreed absolutely with his (the 
speaker's) own experience in past years. There had been 

considerable difficulty at Heworth Colliery at one time with the 
heaps of coal, and they had found that so long as they kept to a 
height of not more than 14 or 15 feet they had little trouble : but, 
when they got up to 20 or 22 feet, they had heating, and, in one 
or two instances, very heavy fires. They found that the only 
remedy was to spread the heap and not teem the coal so thickly. 
Mr. Morison 's way was, he thought, very simple and effective. 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) asked whether Mr. Morison found any difference as to 
heating corresponding with the weather : whether it was more in 
wet or in dry weather, in cold or in hot. In a paper recently 
issued by the Canadian Department of Mines on the question of 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 163 

heating* of small coal, very great stress was laid on weather 
conditions. 

Mr. Mark Halliday (Durham) thought that, in the paper to 
which Prof. Louis had referred, the question of storing coal under 
water to prevent deterioration was raised. Had Mr. Morison 
had any experience of that ? 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) asked whether the author had 
had anything to do with the insurance of his small coal-heaps 
against fire, and whether the insurance companies had drawn up 
any set of rules for such policies. 

Mr. T. V. Simpson (Throckley) asked whether Mr. Morison 
had found any point where there was a critical temperature 
before the heap actually broke into fire. He had had some 
bother at Throckley Colliery with the heat. He had experienced 
difficulty with the insurance company in arriving at a suitable 
basis for insurance, and had referred them to Dr. Harger's paper 
on " Gob-fires, and the Prevention of Gob-fires in Mines "* 
(which gave a synopsis of Fayol's experiments) and the discussion 
thereon, which showed the variable results obtained with differ- 
ent classes of coal. Finally, the insurance company agreed to 
issue a policy, as his company was an old customer, but it was not 
taken out on the full quantity. He had watched the heap, which 
was about 16 feet high, and had put down some pipes, as being 
more satisfactory than the rods, as the latter seemed to cool 
rapidly when pulled out. They had had a rise in temperature up 
to 28 degrees when tested with a thermometer, and he would like 
to know what degree of heat was likely to prove a critical tem- 
perature. 

Mr. J. B. Atkinson (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked whether 
Mr. Morison had any views as to the reason why coal heated. 

Mr. R. S. Tate (Trimdon Grange) asked whether the author 
had had any experience in storing washed coal. He had found 
that with unwashed coal a heap within the dimensions men- 
tioned by Mr. Morison had taken fire, practically speaking, in 
under three months. 

Mr. John Morison (Xewcastle-upon-Tyne), in answer to Prof - 
Louis, said that he could not say he had noticed that the weather 
had much influence, and he did not think that he would attach 
very much importance to that cause, for the reason that the real 
-object of the paper was to meet a necessary condition in which 
they had to lay down coal in all weathers. He would say that 
e»al laid down in summer was more apt to heat than ooal laid 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1912 1913, vol. xliv., page 324. 



HI 1 I if \\s \( i io\s [ i if-. \m: i ii (ii f.\(.i \\hl\ ill' N Vol |v. 
down in winter, hut lie had not -iiffi'ien ♦ ex periencr to caj 

definitely. 

As <o Mr. BalKday's question, bis (Mr. Morison's) opinion 
Was that storage under water waa the rerj bed way of sioring 

coal ; lie did not think the coal would deteriorate at all. It was 
Laid down without breakage, and it would be lifted very much 
easier with grabs than coal laid on tin' Burface. 

As to insurance, Hie insurance companies liad to DM know- 
ledge raised considerable objection to insuring heap- aftei 
heating' started. They were, he believed, making a tariff stale 
for different classes of coal, and were laving down condition 
to the height and size of the heaps. Possibly they might intro- 
duce some unnecessary and useless conditions, but thai could not 
be helped. As to Mr. T. V. Simpson's remark-, he would not 
worry about the critical temperature as ascertained by the ther- 
mometer. The critical temperature was when one found the rod 
warm in the hand, and the moment it was warm — probably at a 
temperature as low as 70° or 80° Fahr. — it was time to do some- 
thing with the heap, which should then he trenched and the 
sides broken. He did not consider that taking the temperature 
with the pipes was nearly so good as with the rods. The pipes 
had, more or less, access to the air, and probably there might be 
an internal change of air, which would not give as real an indica- 
tion as would the rods. He had had dozens of instances where 
the temperature had become quite alarming without firing, but 
whenever the precautions he had detailed were taken the heat 
disappeared. The practice now was that whenever there was the 
slightest warmth these precautions were carried out. 

Mr. Atkinson had asked him a difficult question. Perhaps 
Dr. J. S. Haldane's book was the most recent and scientific work 
on the subject, and gave the reasons that were arrived at by those 
who were more scientific than he (Mr. Morison). He had had a 
•considerable number of fires, both underground and on the sur- 
face, and had always experienced the same difficulty of not know- 
ing why the heating took place. He accepted the general reason 
given by most people — that the coal, being finely-divided and 
open to oxygen, oxydized so rapidly that it took fire. 

As to Mr. Tate's question, he thought it was obvious that 
unwashed coal would be more apt to fire than washed coal, as it 
■contained a great many impurities: it was open also to a crust 
being formed by shale being washed down by the weather into 
layers in the heap, thus preventing the dissipation of the heat 
which naturally took place if the surface was broken. 



1917-1918. j BOOTH THE STRENGTH OF PIT-PKOPS. 1(55 



THE STEENGTH OF PIT-PROPS. 



By FRED. L. BOOTH. 



Introduction. — In submitting the following tables of the 
results of tests of crushing strengths of various sizes of pit-props, 
the writer wishes it to be clearly understood that the tests were 
made in order to obtain practical data for a particular purpose, 
and it is not claimed that the results represent the strength of 
timber from what might be termed the scientific point of view. 

Owing to the growing scarcity of supplies of timber, and 
especially the difficulty in obtaining certain sizes, it became 
necessary to cut up large timber, and it was in order to ascertain 
the relative strength of this cut timber as compared with round 
props that the tests were made. 

The proposal was to quarter 6-, 7-, and 8-inch props, of which 
there was a good supply, and use these instead of 2J-, 3-, and 3}- 
inch props, and as a result of the tests it was possible to give 
general instructions to the timber-yard officials as to what sub- 
stitutes could be sent to the pit in case of a shortage of any 
particular size. 

It is regretted that the only details available of the class of 
timber tested are those given in the tables, but, as already 
explained, the tests were practical, and no selection of timber 
was made except as to size. The timber was taken haphazard 
from the stacks, ready to go into the pit, the ends were roughly 
squared, and no particular care was taken in setting them in the 
press. 

The machine employed was an ordinary hydraulic ram-press 
used for pressing on wheels, crank-pins, etc. The diameter of 
the ram is 12 inches, and the pressure-gauge used was a most 
reliable standard test-gauge, with two independent gauges 
combined in one case, each pointer recording its own pressure 
upon a separate scale, and acting as a check on the other. The 
graduations are in divisions of 2\ pounds per square inch. 

As the machine as ordinarily used could only lake props up to 
18 inches in length, the first set of tests were of props of this 
length (Tables I. and II.), as it was thought that these would 
give the necessary comparison. The legs were afterwards 
lengthened, and a further series of tests were made on props 4h 



t66 ii;\\s\( L'lONS CHE NORTH O] ENGLAND INSTIT1 I .. I win 

itM't Long:. The tables to b great extent explain themselves, and 
are as fol lows : — 

Dwcrlptloo. I-'"' 

Ft. i 

I able 1. Ball Lc t imbei . . ..16 

Table 1 1 Russian timbei . . . . .. ..16 

Table III. Baltic timber 4 

Table IV. - Russian timber .. .. 4 

Table V. — This table comprises a summary and the totals <•' Tablet I., I J., 

III., and IV., and is that on which the relative values for 

practical purposes wen; based. 

It w;is Bell that the differences in the lour tables were so slight, 
.-Hid might be easily explained by the relatively few tests made, 
thai the most likely way to eliminate or reduce any errors would 
be to add them together. 

It will be noticed in column 5 of Table V. thai the strength 
per square inch decreases apparently as the size of the prop 
increases. Whether this is really so the writer is unable to say, 
and no douht some information on this point will come out in 
the discussion. 

It was decided for the practical purpose of the test- to still 
further take advantage of the law of averages, and work out a 
new figure, column 6, containing the average strength per square 
.inch of all the props tested., and from this calculate the strength 
of the prop according to its diameter (column 7). 

With further reference to the apparently greater strength per 
square inch of small timber, it must again be remembered that 
the sizes here given are not necessarily exact. "While a 3-inch 
prop sent into the pit may be anything up to nearly 3 h inches, 
for the purpose of the tests the prop taken was as nearly as 
possible 3 inches, not less, generally stiff, and in some cases 
almost J inch over this size. From this it is suggested that a 
little oversize on a small prop will have more effect than on a 
large prop, and this may account for the tests showing a greater 
strength per square inch for small timber. 

The areas given for the quartered props are a quarter of the 
area of a round prop of the size indicated, and no allowance is 
made for the saw-cut. Neglecting this point, it will be seen that 
the cut prop is 23 per cent, weaker than a round whole prop of 
the same area (1*77 — 1*36). From these figures it was possible to 
say that a 7-inch prop quartered could be used in place of a 3-inch 
round prop in case of scarcity of that size. This is quite borne 
out in practice, and cut props selected according to this standard 
have given every satisfaction. 

Conclusions. — It may be of interest to give the writer's 
general conclusions from the information he gained in making 
the tests. In considering the following conclusions, due regard 
must be had to the limited number and range of the tests: — 



1917-191*. J 



HOOTH THE STRENGTH OF PIT-PROPS. 



167 



(1) The strength of a round prop is independent of its length 
within the limit of 4 h feet (range of tests). 

(2) The strength of a round prop per square inch of area is 
independent of its total area. 

(3) A quartered prop is 23 per cent, weaker than a round 
prop of equal sectional area. 

(4) Sun-cracks (reasonable), if straight and parallel to the 
length of the prop, do not appreciably affect the strength of the 
prop. 

(5) Sun-cracks, if diagonal (say to the extent of quarter of 
the circumference in 2 feet), greatly reduce (by nearly 50 per 
cent.) the strength of the quartered props, which should on no 
account be cut from timber of this nature. 

Test of Home-grown (Scotland) Timber. — Table VI. con- 
tains the result of a number of tests of home-grown timber used 
unseasoned. Table VII. shows the result of pieces cut from the 
same timber as used in Table VI., after being dried for four 
months in a boiler-liouse. These tests (limited in number, it is 
admitted) show that the seasoned timber increased 40 per cent, in 
strength after being dried for four months. They also indicate 
that home-grown timber (seasoned) is stronger than foreign 
timber (176 i- 200 = 136 per cent.). 



Table I. — Average of a Number of Tests of Crushing Strength of Baltic 

Timber : Length, 18 inches. 



Description of 


No. of pieces 


Area of 


Total load Load per 


Average. 


prop. 


tested. 


prop. 


on prop. square inch. 




Inches. 




Square inches. 


Tons. Tons. 


Tons. 


2£ (round) 


16 


4-90 


8-88 


1-81 •) 
1-74 ( 




3 „ 


16 


7-07 


12-34 


1-79 




16 


9'62 


18-55 


1-91 C 


4 „ 


16 


12-56 


21-95 


i-7o ; 




6 (quartered) 


16 


7-07 


1079 


1-52 ") 




7 


16 


9-62 


14-38 


1-49 [ 


1-43 


8 


16 


12-56 


15-61 


1-27 ; 




Table II.— A 


yERAGE OF A I 


Dumber of Ti 


lsts of Crushing Strength 


[ of Russian 




TlMBE 


b, Seasoned ; 


Length, 18 Inches. 




Description of 


No. of pieces 


Area of 


Total load Load per 




prop. 


tested. 


prop. 


on prop. square inch. 


Average. 


Inches. 




Square inches. 


Tons. Tons. 


Tons. 


2\ (round) 


8 


4-90 


10-19 1-97 




3 


8 


7-06 


12-95 1-69 \ 




3£ • „ 


8 


9-62 


15-00 1 56 ( 




4 


8 


12-56 


19-43 1-55 ' 


1-69 


4£ „ 


8 


15-90 


26-71 1-68 \ 




5 


8 


19-63 


32-91 1-67 




6 (quartered) 


8 


706 


8-83 125 ") 
12-42 1-29 [ 
16-40 1 -31 S 




7 


8 


9-62 


1-28 


8 


8 


12-56 





If.s I'RANSACTrotfs Til K \<»in 1 1 m r.\«.i w\>\\ irii 11 \ ..| ixviii. 
i- III \\i:im.;i 61 I Ni mi'.i.h tfi I i. r ft I | .•■ -n ir >>r Baltic 

Tron : Length, 4£ rtvr. 



Description of 

prop. 


\ ■ r i i 

tCHt»-'l. 


Ijrea oi 
mop 


Total l.a<] 

on prop. 


*qu»r* Inch. 


Averate. 


Inches. 
3 (round) 


4 


Square Inched. 

TUT 


Tool! 

1370 


Tontj 
L-93 . 

L-87 ' 

1-77 N 
1-78 J 


BB. 


3£ „ 
4 »> 


4 
4 


9*62 

12-50 


17-!»ti 
22-21) 


1 M 


4* „ 


4 


15-9" 


28-55 




6 (quartered) 
7 


4 
16 


7-07 
9-62 


10-99 
13-19 


1*58 y 

1-37 


J 44 


8 


8 


12-56 


1717 


1 37 ) 





The H<.Hnc 10*99 is ;in average of four pieces Prom obe b-inch 
prop. One prop (not included in the above tahlfi with very 
twisted sun-cracks — that is, running diagonally across the prop 
gave the very low result of CvSl tons. 

Table IV. — Average of a Number of Tests of Crushing Strength of Russian 

Timber : Length, 4£ feet. 



Description of 


No. of pieces 


Area of 


Total load 


Load per 




prop. 


tested. 


prop. 


on prop. 


square inch. 


Average. 


Inches. 




Square inches. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


3 (round) 


4 


7-07 


13-36 


1-89 . 
1-66 ' 




3* „ 


4 


9-62 


15-94 


1-71 


4 


4 


12-56 


19-67 


1-57 I 
1-72 ) 


H „ 


4 


15-90 


27-34 




6(quartered^ 


12 


7-07 


925 


1-51 ) 

1-29 




7 


8 


9-62 


12-41 


1-36 


8 


8 


12-50 


16-41 


1-28 ) 





A test of an 8-iuch quartered prop of red wood, not included 
in the above table, gave the high result of 18'56 tons. 



Table V. — Summary of all Tests (Tables I., II., III., and IV.) of Baltic and 
Russian Timber ; Lengths, 18 Inches and 4| Feet. 



1 


2 


o 


4 


5 ! 

i 


6 


7 '< 














Strength of 














various props 


Description of 


No. of 


Area 


Total 


Load 


Average 


calculated from 


prop. 


pieces 


of 


load 


per 


load per 


averaee per 




tested. 


prop. 


on prop. 


square inch. 


square inch. 


square inch in 
previous column. 


Inches. 




Square inches. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


2£ (rounds 


24 


4-90 


9-82 


1-9L 




: 8-67 


3 „ 


32 


7-07 


12-79 


1-81 1 




12-51 


3* „ 


32 


9-62 


17-26 


1-79, 




17-03 


4 


32 


12-56 


21-08 


1-687 


1-76 


22*23 


■H » 


16 


15-90 


27-33 


1-72 




2814 


° j? 


8 


19-63 


32-91 


1-67' 




3474 


6 (quartered) 


40 


7-07 


9-95 


1-41 i 
1-38 [ 




9v61 


7 


48 


9-62 


1333 


1-36 


1316 


8 „ 


40 


12-56 


16-18 


1-29 N 




17-08 



From the foregoing figures it will be seen that there is a loss 
of 23 per cent, in the strength of cut props, as compared with 
round timber of equal sectional area. 



1917-1918.] 



DISCUSSION THE STRENGTFI OF PIT PKOPS 



169 



The figures suggest that quartered props may be used up to a 
length of 4J feet, provided that great care is taken to see that the 
|>ro'p is divided equally, and that there are no diagonal sun- 
cracks. 

Table VI. — Average of a Number of Tests of Crushing Strength of Home- 
grown Timber from Scotland, newly felled and very green ; Length, 
18 Inches. 



Description of 
prop. 


No. of pieces 
tested. 


Area of 
prop. 


Total load 
on prop. 


Load per 
square inch. Average. 


Inches. 
2£, (round) 

3 

3* „ 
4 

4£ j> 

5 „ (dry) 


8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 


Square inches. 

4-90 

7-06 

9-62 
12-56 
15-90 
19-63 


Tons. 
7-02 
10-72 
12-59 
18-07 
20-84 
31-10 


Tons. Tons. 
1-43 
1-50 / 

1-31 1-42 
1-43 
1-30 \ 
1-58 



Table VII. — Average of a Number of Tests of Crushing Strength of Home- 
grown Timber from Scotland : Timber of No, 6 test (Table VI.) seasoned 

IN BOILER- riGUSE FOR FOUR MONTHS ; LENGTH. 18' INCHES. 



Description of 

prop. 


No. of pieces 

tested. 


Area of 
prop. 


Total load 
on prop. 


Load per 
square inch. Average. 


Inches. 
Zf, (round) 

3 
4 

4£ „ 


3 
4 

5 
3 


Square inches. 

4-90 

! * 7-06 

12-56 

15-90 


Tons. 
9-08 
14-53 
23-50 
35-60 


Tpns. 
1-85 ■) 
2-05 ' 

1-87 C 

223 ; 


Tons. 
200 



Mr. F. C. Lee (Ashington) said that Mr. Booth's paper was 
essentially and particularly one of great interest and usefulness 
at the present moment. The mining industry in this country had 
never suffered from the shortage of pit-props to the extent that 
it had at the present time, and the surplus of one class of timber 
gave little compensation for the shortage of another class, if the 
former were not made economically and efficiently serviceable in 
place of the latter. 

In the discussion on the writer's paper entitled " Some Prac- 
tical Xotes on the Economical Use of Timber in Coal-mines," Mr. 
W. H. Hepplewhite had mentioned the advisability of quartering 
tree-trunks and branches 10 to 12 inches in diameter into four 
props,* and that this method of dealing with the above-men- 
tioned class of timber on the colliery premises resulted in great 
saving of labour and money. The quartering of the larger sized 
props mentioned by Mr. Booth was therefore identical in prin- 
ciple with Mr. Hepplewhite's suggestion, although he (Mr. Lee) 
was well aware was independent of it. Hitherto everybody knew 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 164. 



170 TRANSACTIONS rHE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. Vol ll 

thai small pieces of timber cut Prom larger pieces could be used ai 
;i coal-face in place of the small, round, and whole props; l>ut 
«>\ erybodj did nnt know theexacl or even the approximate sizes oi 
the former to be employed as substitutes for the latter. The result 
was. in order to err on the side of safety, the splitting and quar- 
tering of pieces of timber thai wen- far too Large, whilst the 
pieces to be used as substitutes were much in excess oi strength 
than they need have been. From the standpoint oi safety this 
practice was, of course, quite admissible, bui from the stand- 
poini oi' safely combined with economy, and. what was more, 
combined with the objed of making the mosi use oi an available 
stock, it ought noi to be encouraged. Bearing these points in 
mind, the value of Mr. Booth's paper was at once realized. The 
tables and the conclusions come to formed clear guidance as to 
the requisite sizes to be employed in place of round and 
whole props of smaller sizes, thus fulfilling the demand of 
economy. 

Another point which wa> invaluable to mining engineers, 
especially to managers and other officials at collieries, was that 
the recommendations made by Mr. Booth of certain sizes of 
quartered props as substitutes for certain classes of whole props 
were entirely in accord with safety. If a fall of roof should 
take place in a district where these supports were used, the 
manager or other officials, both from a humanitarian point of 
view and as a guard against the intervention of the Coal Mines 
Acts, could always conscientiously state that such a fall could 
not have been avoided or prevented even if the ordinary round 
and whole props had been in use. 

Mr. Booth had made it quite clear that no particular care was 
exercised in the setting of the pieces during the tests, and the 
figures so obtained were therefore all the more useful in prac- 
tical mining. He (Mr. Lee) had always contended that in actual 
mining practice the ultimate destruction of a prop at a coal-face 
was seldom due to the stress of compression caused directly by 
the descent of the roof, but due to " buckling " (or bending), and 
shearing created indirectly by it. Xo one knew the exact direc- 
tion in which the roof exerted its pressure, and the props set to 
resist it were seldom in line with the lines of force in the roof. 
Consequently, compression in many cases only resulted in 
tightening up, whilst bending* and shearing, due to the different 
directions of force exerted on the props by the roof and floor, 
accounted for the rest in effecting the destruction of the prop. 
Compression only caused crushing, whilst bending and shearing 
caused breakage and splitting; and when it was seen that the 
destruction of a prop at a coal-face was nearly always due to its 
breaking, no further proof for the verification of this statement 
was needed. 



1917-1918] DISCUSSION — THE STRENGTH OF PIT PROPS. 171 

In view of the above hypothesis, tests must approximate as 
nearly as possible to the actual working conditions at a coal- 
face before the figures derived therefrom could be of practical 
use to mining engineers. The tables in Mr. Booth's paper ful- 
filled these conditions admirably. 

There was, however, one point upon which he would like 
further information, namely, whether the length of a prop bore 
any relation to its diameter in respect to its strength. Mr. Booth 
had stated that the strength of a prop was independent of its 
length within the limit of 4 J feet, and had made no mention of 
the likelihood of a ratio between the length and the diameter of 
the prop. Prof. Louis' conclusion on this point was almost iden- 
tical : in dealing with this point in his paper on " The Strength 
of Pit-props,"* he had gone into details and had stated that 
there appeared to be no relation whatever between the strength 
of a prop and the ratio of its length to its diameter. As a prob- 
able reason for the greater liability of long props to breakage 
than short ones in mining practice, Prof. Louis thought it was 
due to certain weak spots contained in the props, owing to the 
fact that the longer the props were the greater was the tendency 
for such weak spots to be included in them. Thus the proba- 
bility of failure was dependent upon absolute length, and not 
upon the ratio of length to diameter. Prof. Louis had been and 
still was his professor, and, as their Principal, Sir William H. 
Hadow, once remarked that students ought to believe in their 
professors, and not only listen to them, he (Mr. Lee) would be a 
very rebellious student if he did other than have absolute faith 
in his own professor's statement, especially when the statement 
was derived from deductions of actual tests that had subse- 
quently been confirmed by Mr. Booth. Still, in his opinion, 
there ought to be some relation between the length and the dia- 
meter of a prop, and its probability of failure seemed to him not 
to lie in its absolute length only, but also in a definite ratio of its 
diameter to its length. In theory there was certainly no differ- 
ence in the results owing to the length of a prop when it was in 
true compression ; but in practice, however, a prop was seldom 
in true compression, but was subject also to bending and 
shearing, and perhaps even torsion, and although length did not 
effect the first form of stress, it played a prominent part in any 
or all of the last three forms. That being so, it could not tech- 
nically be taken for granted that it was not so, although practical 
tests seemed to confirm the statement to the contrary. 

His personal opinion on this point was that a prop had its 
limit of flexibility as well as its limit of rigidity. This might 
sound absurd, as both terms appeared to refer to the same thing, 

# Trans. Inst. M. E., 1897-1898, vol. xv., page 343. 



172 I IM\s\« I l«).\s | ,,,, \,,,: j J) uj l>< . J WO |\- j I j l ji V,„ ,,. 

(Hil\ from di Dcicii! poinK of \ ii-w . What 1j c u j ,Jj«mJ to >J ai »• | 
that b\ rigidity lir m.-iilil flu- m.ih-ii.il >lrejjgtji oj lh<- prop {f> 
le-M eoinpiv^im,. .i/i.l jU .lljr, -tJojj W.i- mojr (,| J.-- JoJjgijjy- 
dmal: and by J]c.\ I l»j lit y In- luraht JIm- rla.-lir .Inm-jlb pj 1 jjf 

prop to resist bending and cons^qupn^v " biukJjng." and 

direelion wa- more or lr>- I j ;i n>veJ -«■ j-'or in-lanrr. when the 

diameler (if a prop was Jarge and jis length ^mall. Jl rnuld only 
1m- destroyed by overromin »■ its rigidity il- iJr.xjbility hiking no 
part iti it: while, if the ivvi-im' ucjr iljc pftse. il would be 
destroyed by overcoming it> flexibility if> rigidity taking no or 
a very small pari in it. So long a> lbe rigidity \ya> equal to or 
greater than the compressive force, so long would the pi op retain 
ii> original condition and shajx* wit bout any viable >ign of 
alieiation whatever. When that strength wa- iivhidiiic by the 
external force applied, the prop then collapsed, and wa> crushed. 
This condition could not, however, be arrived at unless the lenutb 
of the prop was comparatively small in relation to its diameter. 
If, now. the diameter of tjie prop remained the ? ame. but its 
length were gradually increased, piece after pieee. a certain 
limit of the length would be found under which the prop would. 
as it were, sooner be crushed than bent and broken, and above 
which the prop would be bent and broken before its ncces-ary 
crushing strength was reached, and the greater the increase in 
length, the more marked the difference should become. In such 
cases he would hardly regard it as wholly due to the probability 
of weak spots contained in the prop, although the latter might 
he responsible in certain ways. 

His conclusion on this point was, therefore, that there was a 
definite ratio between the length and the diameter of a prop, and 
the reason why the tests had apparently not revealed any indica- 
tion of it was due to the likelihood that ' within reasonable 
limit," according to Prof. Louis, and " within the limit of 4J- 
feet," according to Mr. Booth, the length of each prop (used is 
the tests) in relation to its diameter just afforded the suitable 
sfate of arriving at the point where the limit of rigidity finished 
and that of flexibility began. Thus the props were destroyed due 
either wholly to their rigidity being overcome when their lengths 
were well within the limit of the working ratio to their diameter, 
or to their flexibility being overcome shortly before the limit of 
rigidity wa£ about to be reached, when their lengths slightly 
exceeded that ratio. Prof. Louis took the length of a prop to be 
twelve diameters as the proportion in ordinary mining practice, 
and in want of practical data of his own he (Mr. Lee) would 
venture to suggest that this was perhaps about the length-limit 
whereat the magnitude of the force required to overcome rigidity 
and flexibility was about equal: and as the conditions, such as 



1917-1918.] JHM'l SSI()>- JUH STRENGTH OF I'll 1'ROI'S. 

soundness, individual variations in ^eng.ths, diameters, etc., 
of the props ^ffered, the jforni of their destruction also varied — 
being due to crushing in some cases and to " buckling- " and 
shearing in others. 

Mr. George S. Bragge (Birmingham) presumed that the 
props tested were foreign timber. His experience of English 
tiinber, he regretted to say, had not been very favourable, owing- 
probably to the timber Joeing green. 

Mr. €. jC. Leach (Seghill) reni.arkexl, on the point of the 
strength of the prop being the same irrespective of its length up 
to about 4h feet, that he dared say that this would be shown 
quite clearly in the tests which Mr. Booth had applied to the 
prop, but if, as in a pit, there was side-pressure as well as 
vertical pressure, that would have considerable influence on the 
prop. 

3£r. -T. G. Lees (Nottingham) wrote that the paper dealt with 
a most important subject and worthy of the closest attention on 
the part of colliery managers in tlie present difficult times. 
Many collieries were unable to obtain sufficient prop timber of 
a diameter most suitable for their requirements. Home-gmwn 
trees were generally not so economical as the foreign-grown 
trees. The former appeared to be very tapered and to .contain 
more knots than the latter, and in consequence fewer props of 
the requisite diameter could be obtained from home-grown than 
from foreign timber. 

The experience of the writer of the paper w^ts probably not 
new to many of the members, as the splitting of trees to obtain 
, prop lengths of adequate strength had been adopted at niany 
collieries recently. 

It very often happened that the butt ends of trees were too 
thick to use otherwise than by sawing them up, and short ends 
might be very usefully split into four pieces by running the saw 
down them. 

The point to be borne in mind was that sufficient cross- 
sectional area should be allowed when the tree was split to be 
fully equal to the area of a round prop of the corresponding 
length. 

It was quite easy to provide a table showing the size of trees 
that might be sawn down, allowing for the sawgate to guide the 
sawyer as to from which he might cut suitable props correspond- 
ing to round props of, say, 4, 4 \, 5 \, etc., inches diameter. 

The experience at Newstead as to the relative strength of 
sawn props, as compared with round props of the same area, 
practically confirmed Mr. Booth's estimate, namely, that there 
was a loss of about 23 per cent. 



171 TRANSACTIONS rHE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. lxriij 

Other methods oi utilizing the thick ends <>f trees could be 
used. Taking ;> tree 8 inches in diameter, two props of, Bay, 4A 

or 5 feel and a benk-bar might bo sawn tlni- ''$••; '• or, again, 

taking a L2-inch diameter tree, four props and two bank-bars 

could bo made thus 

(')n comparing Tables I. and III., it appeared thai the ■■ 
per square inch with props I' feel long (Table III.» was Blightly 
higher than for L8-inch props (Table [.). Tin'- was rathei sur- 
prising. 

It would be interesting to continue the experiments as to the 
comparative strength of props of varying length < of the same 
diameter. 

Tbe inadvisability of using freshly-felled limber for props 
was generally borne out in practice. 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) congratulated Mr. Booth on having obtained fairly 
accurate figures, having regard to the roughness of the methode 
employed. He had got figures for strength per square inch 
almost identical with those which he (Prof. Louis) had obtained 
and recorded in his paper read nearly 20 years ago.* Mr. 
Booth had measured the pressure applied to the inside of the 
ram and not to the prop itself. The pressure inside the ram was 
partly consumed in friction, and only the remainder was applied 
to the prop. That was the reason, in his opinion, why Mr. 
Booth had got a certain amount of exaggeration in his smaller 
figures. The figure he (Prof. Louis) got for a large number of 
imported Baltic props was 1'68 tons per square inch, after testing 
over a hundred props, all of which were carefully squared and set 
in a testing-machine giving a dead pressure. In those tests 20 
years ago he found that very much depended upon the season- 
ing of the timber. He found that thoroughly-seasoned props 
went up to just a little over 2 tons per square inch, 
although made of the same wood as the less-seasoned 
props. In a report on pit-timbers, made by him for 
the Board of Trade in 1914. he got for similarly thoroughly- 
seasoned Norwegian timber 1*92 tons per square inch. Obviously, 
therefore, the question of seasoning was one of great importance, 
and, unless one knew the exact condition of the seasoning of the 
props, it was quite impossible to speak definitely within two or 
three-tenths of a ton per square inch. The comparison between 
quartered props and round props was quite interesting. He had 
tried to work it out on the basis of the formulas for pillars, as 
accepted by engineers, but had come to the conclusion that it 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1897- 1S98, vol. xv., page 343. 



1917-1913.] DISCUSSION— THE STRENGTH OF PIT PHOPS. 175 

w;is impossible to apply formulas of that kind with any satisfac- 
tion to such unhoniogeneous materia] as a pit-prop. Obviously 
distribution in the quartered prop was not so good as in the case 
of the circular prop. In the quartered pro}), the strongest wood 
came at the apex of the triangular piece, where it had the least, 
effect in resisting crushing action. < hi the whole, he was a Little 
inclined to think that Mr. Booth had hardly got out quite as 
good a figure as he should have expected for the quartered prop. 
He (Prof. Louis) should have put the decrease in strength, 
roughly speaking, at about 20 per cent. He found, with Mr. 
Booth, in his early experience with Scottish fir, that the green 
wood was very much weaker than ordinary Norwegian props. 
The conclusions to which he came in that earlier paper were 
practically the same as those to which Mr. Booth had now come. 
He also had found that one or two radial cracks did not greatly 
weaken the props. He quite agreed with Mr. Booth that the 
crushing of the prop was independent of its length, within 
reasonable limits. It was usually admitted, in engineering 
text-books, that, in order to treat a strut as a pillar, the length 
should not be less than four times the diameter. He thought 
that when they got that condition, and when the length was not 
excessive, the strength was independent of the length. Most pit- 
men would tell them that a long prop failed more rapidly than a 
shorter one, but that was because the pro}) usually tailed at some 
weak part, a knot or something of that soil, and the longer the 
prop the greater the 1 chance of such a point of weakness: whilst 
there were other reasons connected with the setting of long props 
which did not come into play when props were tested in the 
machine. 

Mr. J. B. Atkinson (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) said that when 
he was in Scotland 20 years ago it was quite common, in the 
Slamannan district, where a number of valuable steam-coal 
seams were being worked, to make use of quartered props. All 
the collieries about Slamannan made use of quartered props then. 
He would like to know what was the result of Mr. Booth's experi- 
ence with the quartered props. 

Mr. Mark Halliday (Durham) said that Prof. Louis had 
stated that the reason why quartered props were not so strong as 
round props would be accounted for by the smaller radius of 
gyration of the former. Mr. Booth had, however, stated that all 
the props under test failed by crushing and none of them by 
bending. He also remarked in his conclusions that within 
certain limits the strength was independent of the length. He 
(Mr. Halliday) took it that all his tests were conducted within 
these limits. If that was so, then he did not see how the radius of 

VOL IAVIII.—1817.1918. 13 E 



176 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH 01 ENGLAND INSTITUTE. Vol. lxriii 

gyral ion could affecl the strength, ;i- m was only In tic pteil 

theory <>| long columns thai this particular [unction entered into 
the calculations. It appeared to him, therefore, thai one musl 
look elsewhere lor the reason why quartered props within ti 
limits of the ratio of length to diameter, tested by Mr. Booth, 
were not so sf rong ;i^ rou nd props. 

Mr. Booth thoughl thai Mr. Leach bad made some 

lion as 1o Hie pressure of the roof. Thai could hardly I 
anything to do with his experiments, as the conditions were the 
same in each case. 

Mr. Leach said that Mr. Booth's pressures were all al right- 
angles in the axis, but in the pits thai was doI so. The props 
mighl be correct for Mr. Booth's tests, l»ul not for the pit tests 

Mr. Booth said that he was prepared to accept Prof. Louis's 
idea that the friction of the rani mighl have something to do with 
the results obtained. As to Mr. Atkinson'- remarks, he had had 
no previous experience 4 with cut props until the nee, ; of the 

present time compelled him to try them. Provided that they 
were carefully cut, and not cut from timber with diagonal sun- 
cracks, his experieuee was that they were quite satisfactory. Mr. 
Lee bad left no question for him to answer, as be bad answered 
it himself. Mr. Halliday's question was really outside the scope 
of the paper, as tbe tests were entirely practical; perhaps Prof. 
Louis could answer the point raised by Mr. Halliday at some 
other time. 



1917-1918 ] THE LATE SIMON TATE AND THE LATE WILLIAM ARMSTRONG. 177 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

April 13th, 1918. 



Mr. MARK FORD, Vice-President, in the Chair. 



THE LATE MR. SIMON TATE. 

The Chairman moved that a vote of sympathy and condo- 
lence should be sent to the relatives of Mr. Simon Tate, whose 
deatli was a great loss to the Institute and to the mining com- 
munity generally. If the members would cast their minds back 
during the past few years, they would realize what a great deal 
the Institute owed to Mr. Tate. It was not Mr. Tate's fortune 
to become President of the Institute, but doubtless he would have 
attained to the chair in time. He was an authority on colliery 
explosions, and was always ready to help in any case of disaster. 
He (Mr. Ford) always found in him a genial friend : one in whom 
he could confide and from whom he obtained advice of great 
value. Mr. Tate was elected a member of the Institute in 1875, 
appointed a member of the Council in 1891, and elected as a 
Vice-President in 1917. 

The resolution was carried in silence, the members standing. 



THE LATE MR. WILLIAM ARMSTRONG. 

The Chairman said that the Institute had been harder hit 
during the last few months by the loss of members through 
deatli than in any other similar period of its history. He had to 
propose a vote of sympathy and condolence with the relatives of 
Mr. William Armstrong, who was elected a member in 1867, 
became a member of the Council in 1875, a Vice-President in 
1897, and was elected President in 1898, an office which he held 
until 1900. Mr. Armstrong was one of the mining experts of 
the district, and a man of wide interests and great ability, whilst 
his genial character endeared him to a host of friends. He was, 
perhaps, a generation in front of his (Mr. Ford's) time, but in 
his little associations with him he was always struck by tke 
geniality of his manner and his willingness to help in any case 
of difficulty brought before him. 

The motion was carried in silence, the members rising. 



YOL. LIVIII. — 1917-191*. 14 



178 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH O] ENGLAND INSTTT 11. Vol l.wiii. 

INSTITI I E AMBI LA V I. II \ I). 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) said fchai they nil knew what the 
Red Cross was doing, bui he thoughl thai many "I them were 
unaware of ili<' work carried nut by Captain Dennis Bayley. Mi. 
Bayley was ;i coal-owner, who had gone mil during the wai ■->- a 
private and had taken five of his own can to the front to more 
the wounded. When the war started in I'M 1. there was nothing 
But horse-ambulances for that purpose. Afterwards, he had 
charge of a convoy of 100 motor-ambulances. At the first Ypres 
" scrap " lie had moved 00,000 wounded in a week. When more 
money was wanted for such ambulance work, he had approached 
the coal-trade as an organized body. Since then he had raised 
over half-a-million of money. The Institute two years ago gave 
him £200 and its members subscribed over £500 to purchase an 
ambulance, which had been running in France since then. 
Captain Bayley required money this year for the upkeep of the 
ambulance, and the Institute had granted £100 and had sent 
out an appeal to all its members, which he (Mr. Leach) hoped 
would be liberally and promptly responded to. There was no 
doubt that, lately, there had been extra loss in connexion with 
the ambulances, in consequence of the German " push," and he 
was sure that it only required that fact to be brought to the 
members' notice to command all possible support. Captain 
Bayley had told him that Sir Frederick Treves had been inspect- 
ing what the ambulances were doing in France, and had stated 
that every pound collected by him (Captain Bayley) had saved 
at least one life. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. JOHN MORISON'S PAPER ON " A 
SYSTEM OF STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL, 
WITH REMARKS UPON THE PRETENTION OF 
SPONTANEOUS HEATING IN COAL-HEAPS."* 

Prof. Hexry Louis (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) stated that, at the previous meeting, he had mentioned 
that something similar had been published in Canada, but he 
w r as not, at that time, able to give the reference. The publica- 
tion in question was one of a series of pamphlets on the Investi- 
gation of the Coals of Canada by the Canadian Department of 
Mines, and was called " The Weathering of Coal/' by Dr. J. 
Bonsall Porter, published in 1915, and numbered 338. Those 
interested in the subject would find it full of very valuable 
information. Curiously enough, Dr. Porter had come to almost 
the same conclusions as Mr. Morison. He had found that some 
coals fired if piled up as little as 4 feet, but ordinary coals were 
safe if piled from 8 to 10 feet high. Like Mr. Morison, he re- 
commended ventilation, and digging out in extreme cases. He 

* Trans, hist. M. E. t 1917-1918, vol. lv., page 76. 



1917-1918] DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 



179 



had also used iron rods for the detection of heating. When he 
found heating, however, he went further than Mr. Morison, and 
drove in a pipe with a thermometer inserted. It was very inter- 
esting to see how these two gentlemen, working on opposite sides 
of the Atlantic with different coals, had come to the same con- 
clusions. 

Mr. T. V. Simpson (Throckley Colliery) remarked that Mr. 
Morison's paper was very helpful. He still thought, however, 
that there was a critical temperature. His (Mr. Simpson's) heap 
was far too bulky and not long enough. They had split the heap 
into three parts to minimize any losses in case of fire. He had 
observed the temperatures quite regularly since the last meeting 
and had not got above 88° Fahr. He noticed in a paper by Mr. 
J. H. Anderson that the author stated that if lie got above 
a temperature of 120° Fahr. he had great trouble. 

Mr. J. H. Anderson (Purfleet Pier, Essex) wrote that 
for some years his company had stored coal, a great propor- 
tion of which was small coal, and doubtless some of the later 
heaps were partly composed of coal similar to that which Mr. 
Morison had been storing. They had carried out numerous 
experiments regarding height, width, coned heaps, etc., had 
allowed the temperature of piles to reach a certain height, and* 
had prevented it from rising higher. In no instance, up 
to now, had they lost an ounce of coal through fire. Some of 
Mr. Morison's experiences supported his suggestions with regard 
to heating. 

With respect to trenching and disturbing the top, in a printed 
leaflet issued by The British Fire Prevention Committee sugges- 
tions were made regarding storing coal. But this was not suffi- 
ciently early for the treatment. The treatment of a pile of coal 
should start the day it was tipped. 

The safety of a pile of coal depended on the care that was 
exercised when the temperature of the heap was low; and on 
that point lie would refer the members to his paper on " The 
Storage of Bituminous Coals, etc.," read before the Institute of 
Marine Engineers on April 2nd, 1918. 

He was not as fortunate as Mr. Morison, as they could not 
get plant for love or money, and in consequence had to fall back 
on some old railway-wagons used for ballasting railroads. They 
had added a few planks of wood to them, put in a false bottom, 
and made them into self-tipping wagons, and they had proved 
very efficient. They had utilized the top of the bank for the 
formation of a road, and consequently the piles were formed by 
gravity. He was rather surprised that Mr. Morison had not 
done the same. The ill-effects of running over the coal with the 



180 TRANSACTIONS mm WORTH O] fcNGLAND INSTITI L'E. Vol l.\ 

hud were nunc appareul than peal. Several heaps were deposited 
by one man, with the assistance oi a lad. 

Mosi of their coal was stored In Large areas, levelling ofl the 
top, and a poini thai tnusl also be looked ai In addition to p 




Fig. 1. — Marsh Ground 10 Feet Below Thames High-water Mark, Showing 
Ditch about 90 Feet Wide Filled in Level with Marsh. 




Fig. 2. — Rails used to Deposit Coals. 

vention of fire was the value of the coal after it had been stored. 

He had found that heating took place in coned heaps just as 
well as in large areas. It gave one confidence if one could get 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 



181 



near a fire at once, which was the case with coned heaps; but 
there was the great difference of area exposed to all weathering 
effects. As a matter of fact, he thought that most of the hea ting- 
that Mr. Morison had had so far was due to the deterioration of 
the surface coal, and to its becoming wet, whereby the pyritic 
shale would be washed lowed into the heap and oxidize there. If 
Mr. Morison had waited a little longer, this heat would have 




Fig. 3. — Old Ballast-wagons used for Discharging Copper-ore Converted 

into self-discharging wagons. 

communicated to a denser part and set the whole heap into more 
active oxidation. This was where the danger was — provided that 
there was no escape for this heat. 

They had this same coal stored up lo 1G feet, although lie 
agreed that this was too high, but it was an experimental point. 

He supposed that they had had more experience in the South 
of England in " grabbing " coal. Suffice it to say that they 
could discharge 5,000 tons in 8 hours from a vessel afloat, and 
weigh it during discharge. This, of course, was with plant 
specially arranged to contend with various obstructions on the 
vessel. 



18l' TRANSACTIONS i mi \<»i: i ii (»i ENGLAND INSTITl I B. [Vol l.\ 

Grabbing from a heap where there were do obstructions 

w;ix ii simple matter, ;ni<l depended on bow many unit. 




Fig. 4. — Pile of Slack, originally 10 Feet high, Reduced to 6 Feet and 

Still Inclined to Heat. 




Fig. 5. — An Inclined Pile of Coal which Reached a Temperature of 113° 

Fahr. 

could be worked at a time. A 2-ton coal lift with a 
good steam-crane ought to do 75 to 100 tons per hour ; but taking 
into consideration the ground that the coal was stored on, and 



1917-1918] DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 



183 



the kind of coal stored, he suggested that a 1-ton grab would be 
more efficient, and certainly would not grab up so much material 
other than coal. The crane would, of course, be much lighter 
and faster than a 7-ton crane. With regard to temperature-rods, 
he preferred pipes and thermometer readings. These readings 
were recorded and compared with previous readings, and cer- 
tainly in his opinion they were more trustworthy than trusting 
to a person's sense of touch. When each reading was taken, the 
thermometer was allowed to " soak " for 3 minutes at a fixed 
depth, and if necessary readings at every foot from the surface 
were taken. 

He would like to know Mr. Morison's opinion of the cause of 
heating. How could he tell by the feel when the temperature 
was becoming too high, seeing that the sense of touch would vary 
with the temperature of the atmosphere. 

With regard to the storing of coal on marshy ground, if the 
marshy ground was dry and composed of peat, he agreed with 
Mr. Morison in case of a fire for salvage purposes. One could not 
always, however, secure the ground one would desire. All their 
coal was deposited on marshy ground, quite 10 feet below high- 
water mark. The coolest part of all the heaps was the bottom. 

Fig. 1 showed the site of one heap before storing ; Fig. 2 
showed 16,050 tons of small coal with rails on the top 
for depositing, with a steam-crane loading from the heap ; Fig. 
3 showed the wagons, which in this instance had just tipped 15 
tons of ore ; Fig. 4 showed a pile of slack, originally 10 feet 
high, reduced to 6 feet and still inclined to heat, although 
numerous trenches were excavated and several vent-pipes put 
in; whilst Fig. 5 showed a pile which reached a temperature of 
118° Fahr. 

Mr. CO. Leach (Seghill) did not agree with Mr. Anderson's 
remark as to running the wagons on top of the heap. His 
company had put down coal from time to time, and he had 
never once had any heating, except when they ran the wagons 
on top of the heap and made it about half as high again. When 
he was serving his time, they used to make a heap about 19 feet 
high and run the wagons over the top, without causing any 
trouble. In recent times they had had trouble, although the 
heaps were no higher. He thought that was partly due to the 
different class of coal now being worked. 

Mr. F. C. Lee (Ashington) asked Mr. Morison whether 
there was a difference in the storage of washed and unwashed 
coal. His personal opinion was that the washed coal would be 
more liable to spontaneous heating than the unwashed coal, on 
account of absence of stone-dust, etc., which, when mixed in the 
small coal, would always act as an absorbent of the heat. 



184 TRANSACTIONS THB NOHTH OF ENGLAND III mm n Vol Ixrlil 

The Chairman (Mr. Mmk Ford) asked whethei a similar 

height would apply to unscreened coal b to mall. 

Mr. John Morison (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), replying to the 
discussion, s;iid thai Ik- had not had any great i ace of 

storing washed coal, l>ui thought thai washed coal was much lesi 
likely to fire than unwashed. One ol the reasons was that, 
rule, with the system described in his paper, it the coal were 
washed il would also be graded. Coal from the size ol peas to 
thai of large nuts would not contain any dust, which would 
render it less liable to spontaneous combustion. Another 
reason would bo that one of the elements causing spontaneous 
combustion — a not unimportant element was the *" duty " that 
was in the ordinary small coal, which formed an impermeable 
layer and gradually washed down and formed a layer which 
prevented the dissipation of the heat. Mr. Ford had asked 
whether he would consider that a similar height would apply 
to unscreened coal as to small. He thought that it would. 
The unscreened heap would be quite as liable to spontaneous 
combustion as a heap of rough small, because it would contain 
the same quality of coal and would have all the elements of 
" duff " in it, although probably not quite so much. He would 
not like to risk a higher heap. He had been in the habit when 
in Scotland of storing every winter large quantities of 
unscreened coal. They took no notice of the height, 
because that coal, even the small, was not liable to 
heat. With regard to Mr. Anderson's remarks, he neglected 
a little the simple means of trenching the top and 
scratching the sides of the heap, and did not attach sufficient 
importance to them. It was really the crux of the whole situ- 
ation. Since the previous meeting lie had had further exper- 
ience with increased heaps and heaps that had become older, 
and they had had frequent instances of heating in these heaps ; 
in every case trenching* and scratching* had proved effective. 
Some heaps — this occurred, he thought, before he read 
his paper — became very dangerously heated, and were 
on the point of firing when trenching without remov- 
ing the coal — simply throwing it out by the side of the 
trench — had proved absolutely effective. He did not go so far 
as did Mr. Anderson in saying that the treatment of a pile of coal 
should start the day it was tipped. The treatment should start 
whenever the hand could feel a rod any warmer than when it 
was put in. Any temperature above the normal heat was 
critical, and, when a heap began to heat at all, it was time to 
do something. He absolutely agreed with Mr. Leach 

as to the disadvantage of running the wagons on top, or 
of even treading on the heap by making footpaths over it, as 



1917-1918.] DISCUSSION STORING AND FILLING SMALL COAL. 185 

all this promoted heating. He need hardly refer to Mr. 
Anderson's remarks upon the advantages of gravity. He had 
found on niany occasions that the advantage of working wagons 
by gravity, especially on a moving surface, was more apparent 
than real. The question of cone-shaped heaps hardly arose. 
He thought it stood to reason that one could risk a little more 
height at the top of a cone-shaped heap than at the top of a big 
heap spread over a large area with a level surface. There was 
more ventilation to a coned heap, and one could always get at a 
coned heap and separate it more easily. He did not think that 
the deterioration of the surface had anything to do with heating, 
and he did not think that he had suggested in his paper that any 
of the heating was due to pyritic shale being lowered into the 
heap and oxidizing there. There was no doubt that if the heat 
had occurred at a certain level in the heap, it would have gone 
downwards and set the whole surface heap into more active 
oxidation. He did not depart from what he had stated — that the 
heat was first felt 5 or G feet down. As to grabbing coal, he 
did not know that he need refer to that in detail. It was not 
really an important part of his paper, except as a detail of the 
system that was introduced. There was nothing new about 
grabbing coal, and he thought there was nothing to compare with 
a grab for lifting the coal simply and rapidly. He did not agree 
v.-itTi Mr. Anderson that a 1-ton grab was better than a larger 
one. There was no trouble in shifting a grab and a crane to 
lift 3 or 4 tons at a lift. Referring again to the point of tem- 
perature-rods against pipes, lie thought that everyone would 
agree that, if it were possible to indicate efficiently the danger by 
simply leaving a steel rod in the heap and pulling it through a 
man's hand, it was much better than any system of a thermo- 
meter. It would not do much good, if the heap were apt to fire, 
to have a diagram of the temperatures on various days. As to 
the storage on marshy ground, he had no doubt that Mr. Ander- 
son would find that the coolest part of all the heaps was at the 
bottom, because that bore out what he had found — namely, that 
the heating first took place somewhere near the top of the heap, 
and that it was only when it was left alone that the heat spread 
to the bottom. Probably, whether the ground was marshy or 
not, the ground at the bottom would be the last to show signs of 
heating. He had written the paper because he knew that the 
position in Northumberland and Durham was somewhat acute 
with reference to storing small coal. The insurance companies 
were moving to such an extent that they were on the point of 
refusing policies, and everyone was finding that difficulty. He 
thought, therefore, that it was his duty to give all the informa- 
tion that he had on this question to his neighbours. 



VOL. LIVIII.-1917-191P. 14 E 



1*0 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH 01 ENG LAND INSTITUTE. [Vol l.wiii. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAN U [NSTITU1 E 01 MINING AND 
M ECHANICAL ENG] \ EERS. 



GENERAL M r I J ING 
FfsLD in Tin: Wood Memorial Hall, Ni 

Ji ni, 1st, 1918 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, Pbesident, in tiik Ch.uk. 



DEATH OF THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

The President (Mr. John Simpson) referred to the loss the 
Institute had sustained by the death of the Duke oi Northumber- 
land, who was one of their members and a large owner of mineral 
property in the district. The Duke was a man who did a great 
deal of good, and tried in every way to further the interests of 
the whole community. He moved that a vote of sympathy and 
condolence with the family of the Duke in the loss that they had 
sustained be sent. 

The resolution was unanimously carried, the members 
standing. 



NOTES OX THE OVERHEAD KGEPE WINDING PLAXT 
AT PLEXMELLER COLLIERY, HALTWHISTLE, 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Bv GEORGE RAW. 



Introduction. — Although neither personally responsible for 
the choice of the above winder, nor wishing to associate himself 
with unconditional advocacy of the Ivcepe principle, the writer 
has endeavoured to set out as impartially and concisely as 
possible a description of the plant, with a record of the results 
and experience gained in its construction and operation. His 
responsibility, which began with the erection of the plant, 
covered its adaptation to the British winding regulations and its 
operation to the present time. 

The contract was placed with The British Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, Limited, in March, 1910, 
but the erection of the plant was only commenced in June, 1914, 



1917-1918.] RAW OVERHEAD KOEPE WINDING PLANT. 187 

and it was not pul into operation until May, 191G. These delays 
were principally due to protracted sinking difficulties. 

The following notes are avowedly written from the stand- 
point of the colliery manager, with whom, however important the 
last word in efficiency in any type of winding plant may be, an 
assurance of every-day reliability is of even greater consequence. 

After the contract for the plant had been placed, the Coal 
Mines Act of 1911 introduced the periodical six-months' recap- 
ping provision for winding-ropes, a difficulty detailed in the 
section of the paper relating to the winding-rope. 

Briefly it may be stated that the Kcepe hoist, successfully 
applied first by Frederick Kcepe in Westphalia, may be described 
as the winding counterpart of endless-rope haulage in much the 
same way as the drum-winder is to main-and-tail-rope haulage. 
The analogy, although not quite complete, is a close one. As 
witli endless-rope haulage, the two ropes are replaced by one 
rope and the drum superseded by the frictional driving-wheel or 
pulley. 

With any system of haulage the position of the engine is a 
matter of convenience, subject to a consideration of the most suit- 
able lead for the ropes. In winding the rope lead is of much 
more importance, the more direct lead being secured if the engine 
can be put on to the headgear. It is impracticable, however, to 
build and operate a heavy steam-driven drum winding-engine 
on the headgear even if the difficulty of the lateral travel of the 
rope on the drum could be ignored. In consequence, in the case 
of steam-drum winding the rope lead must be compromised by 
the introduction of headgear pulleys, with the engine built on 
the ground. On the other hand, although the steam-driven 
, Koepe engine is most usually built in a ground-level engine- 
house, the electrically-driven Koepe winding-hoist is readily 
capable of being mounted in the headgear, with the result that 
a direct lead is secured for the winding-rope, while headgear 
pulleys and a ground-level engine-house are dispensed with 
altogether. 

Such adaptibility does not, of course, preclude a Koepe 
ground-level engine-house, and where two Koepe engines, each 
with two cages, are operating in the one shaft, the headgear is 
probably out of the question for two such engines together. 

Description of Plant. — Fig, 1 is an exterior photograph of 
the winding-tower at Plenmelier Colliery, and Figs. 2 and 3 
are end and side elevations respectively. 

The structural portion of the tower was sublet by the British 
Westinghouse Company to the Tees Side Bridge & Engineering 
Works, Limited, Middlesbrough, and the mechanical equip- 
ment to Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon, & Company, Limited, 



IHS 



TRANSACTIONS mm tfORTII 01 ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [ Vol. Ixvni. 



Carlisle. The equipment was designed for the following duty: 

Winding depth, 800 feet; coal per wind, \-> cwts.; binding 
I inic, t5 Beconds; decking time, 25 seconds. The actual wind- 
ing depth is .sio feel and the coal drawn per wind is cwts. 

The structure is buill up principally of steel joists braced 
together against the winding and wind-pressure itresses. The 
overall height of the structure is M feet 8 inches, the banking- 
out level being carried at ^'j feel from the ground or ahaft- 
collar level, the firsi floor of Hie engine-house at 56 feet 7 incl 

and the second floor 
at 66 feet 7 inches. 
A cast-iron piral 
staircase is provided 
between the ground- 
level and the second 
engine - house - level 
floor, with off -sets 
at the bank -level 
and the first engine- 
house floor - level. 
The whole structure 
is of steel, and is 
covered in by gal- 
vanized corrugated 
sheeting. 

The upper or 
second engine-house 
floor carries the di- 
rect-current wind- 
ing-motor and driv- 
ing-pulley, and the 
lower or first floor 
the guide - pulley, 
m o t o r-g e n e ra t or 
set, switchboard, 
driver's platform, 
controller, etc. The rope centres in the shaft are 6 feet apart. 
There are four guide-ropes to each cage, without any rubbing- 
ropes. The eight guide-ropes are held by Reliance glands 
carried by the first floor of the engine-house. 

The two pulleys are each 11 \ feet in diameter on the tread, 
the guide-pulley deflecting one side of the rope 5J feet (as shown 
in Fig. 3) to its correct centre in the shaft. The two pulleys are 
in the same north and south vertical plane, but the guide-pulley 
in that plane is 6 feet behind the driving-pulley, and 11 feet 10 
inches below it. The winding-rope engages with the driving-pulley 
for 21 feet 1 inch of the 36 feet 2 inches of groove circumference, 




Fig. 1. — Kcepe Winding -tower at Plenmeller 
Colliery, Haltwhistle. 



1917-1918.] 



RAW OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 



189 



a proportion of 0*583 of the periphery, 210 degrees, or 3'66 radians. 
The guide-pulley engages the rope for 3 feet 10 inches of the 36 
feet 2 inches of groove circumference, a proportion of 0105 of 
the periphery, 38 degrees, or 0G6 radian. Each pulley is built 
up of steel plates and sections on a cast-iron boss, the driving- 




Fig. 2. — General, Arrangement 
of Winding-tower. End 
Elevation. 



Fig. 3— General Arrangement of Winding- 
tower. Side Elevation. 



pulley being fitted with a brake-path on each side of the drum, 
while it is altogether of a heavier construction than the guide- 
pulley. The steel shaft carrying the driving-pulley has large 
bearings, with ring lubrication, the pulley being driven from the 



L90 L'EANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [VcJ Jxv 



Hi . 



w i ii(l i ng-mot or by means oi ;i single-reduction oil-bath machine- 
cui double helical gearing of 5*3 to I reduction, through a fles 
coupling introduced between the motor and the pinion-wheel* 

Fig. I is ;i photograph showing the second or uppei floor of 
the engine-house, with the winding-motor and the driving- 
pulley, etc., installed. 

The guide-pulley performs the double function of deflecting 
one side of tin* rope to its correct centre and thai of operating 
the same time the depth-indicator with the accelerating and 
retarding device. A.s the guide-pulley, with the exception of 
this latter lighl duty, is tree to be carried round by tin* winding- 
rope, its operation of the depth-indicator, etc., is * | < i i 1 * • reliable. 
Owing to the greater amount of slip between the winding-rope 




Fig. 4. — Second or Upper Engine-house Floor. 



and the driving-pulley, the depth-indicator could not be worked 
so satisfactorily from the latter. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show sections of the driving pulley-tread and 
elmwond segment. r l ne segments are so cut that the rope lies 
across the grain of the wood so as to increase the frictional grip 
on the rope. The path which these segments form for the 
winding-rope is of considerable importance, and is referred to 
again in connexion with the winding-rope. 

Post brakes are fitted up in the usual way to operate on the 
driving-pulley steel brake-paths. The brake is held off by com- 
pressed-air pressure against the gravitation of the weighted lever 
showing in Fig. 4. 

The winding-motor, which is rated at 240 horsepower (and 
designed by means of the Ward-Leonard control for any speed 



1917-1918. J 



RAW OVERHEAD KCEL'E WINDING PLANT. 



191 



between " creeping ' and 200 revolutions per minute), is 
operated in conjunction with the motor-generator set, which 
latter consists of a 200-kilowatt 350-volt direct-current generator, 
driven by a 600-volt three-phase 50-period induction-motor at 730 



Fig. 5. — Side View of Segments, 
Showing End of Grain. 



k~ a' 



Fig. 6. —Section of Driving- 
pulley Rim, with Segment. 







tlJ 



^Bra/re 



Figs. 5 and 6. — Driving-pulley Rim and Arrangement of Elmwood 

Segments. 

revolutions per minute, with an exciter running on the same 
shaft. 

Fig. T is a photograph showing the first or lower floor of the 
engine-house. In the foreground is seen the guide-pulley, with 




jr IG . 7. — First or Lower Engine-house Floor. 



the depth-indicator immediately in front of the same surmount- 
ing the accelerating and retarding arrangement. 

A Ward-Leonard safety-device is arranged, which in the case 
of an overwind or other emergencv automatically operates on the 



1'JL' TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH 01 ENG1 kND INSTIT1 I I. [Vol lxvoi 

controller, firsl reducing the generator voltage to practically /• 
and then interrupting the exciter circuit, thus cutting off the 
power supply to the winding-motor. The device incidentally 
applies the brakes when it comes into operation. A trip-li 
provided for the driver, who in the case oi an emergency can 
make instant use of the arrangement. 

The depth-indicator is ol the ordinary screw type, with two 
pointers and a warning gong. The accelerating arrangement 
limits the amount of acceleration, and similarly compels decelera- 
tion at the end of the wind. An adjustment is arranged for 
correcting the position of the indicator from time to time for 
any small amount of slip which may occur between the winding- 
rope and the guide-pulley. A cut-out switch is operated by a 
trip-lever on the cages in the event of either cage " attempting" 
an overwind. A two-panel switchboard is provided, one panel 
being for the 600-volt three-phase supply to the induction-motor 
of the motor-generator set 5 the other controlling the exciter 
circuit. An intermediate zero ammeter and voltmeter showing 
the behaviour of the direct-current winding-motor circuit are 
mounted (as shown in Fig. 7) on each side of the depth-indicator 
in full view of the driver. 

The automatic safety-device is " held off " by the compressed- 
air pressure in a small compressed-air auxiliary cut-off cylinder. 
If the air-pressure supply should fail, the automatic safety-device 
operates and shuts down the plant until the pressure is restored. 

The driver's platform is provided with three levers, one being" 
for the controller, another for the air-brake valve, whilst the 
third is the emergency lever referred to. The driver's air-brake 
and controller levers are interlocked, so that the brake must be 
" off " before current can be applied to the winding-motor and 
vice-versa. 

Winding-rope. — The rope in use is of non-rotating flattened 
strand construction, of best plough steel, internally lubricated, 
made by Messrs. J. & E. Wright, Limited, Birmingham. The 
rope is If inches in diameter, and constructed of wire drawn to 
a breaking-strain of 105 tons per square inch. The breaking- 
strain of the finished rope is 95 tons, and the weight per fathom 
22 pounds v 

A mild-steel flat balance-rope, measuring Sh inches by -J-J 
inch, and weighing 22 pounds per fathom (the same weight as the 
winding-rope), is in use, and runs quite satisfactorily with a 
loose loop in the pit-bottom. 

As the Koepe winding-rope is in one fixed length, with one 
end attached to the chains of one cage and the other end attached 
to the chains of the other cage, there is no spare rope for re- 
capping. If the rope is of an exactly correct length when it is 
installed, it will be too short at the end of six months after the 



1917-1918.] 



HAW OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 



193 



first recapping". Added to this difficulty was the necessity for 
making allowance for the stretch of the rope from week to week, 
which stretch, though it compensates to some extent for the re- 
capping loss, elongates the rope in the meantime. 

As the frictional grip of the pulley depends on each side 
rope being loaded, slack rope is not permissible as with the 
drum-winder, otherwise the descending cage will reach the pit- 



Fig. 8. — Side View. 



Fig. 9. — End View 



eac/7 /£-&7/cA: 

S/rrgr/e ///z/rs \\\ == 



^^Sa'eH' 3 dfci. 2/y/fc/i 




Doab/e //a/rs 



$//7#/e P/afe 
S"tfr/c/c 



Figs. 8 and 9. — Rope-adjustment Screw and Links. 



bottom before the ascending cage is quite up to the top or bank- 
level, and shortly after the weight of the descending cage is lost 
to the driving-pulley, slip will occur between the winding-rope 
and the driving-pulley, which will prevent the landing of the 
loaded ascending cage. This statement is made, however, with 
the reservation that slip will not immediately occur even after 



l'Jl TRANSACTIONS tllE NORTH 01 ENGLAND INSTIT1 I i.. [Vol .. 

the descending cage baa reached the pit-bottom, owing to the 
momentum oi the ascending cage, together wit 1 1 thai of the 
descending rope. Slack rope, therefore, to the extent 
inches, will cause ao serious inconvenience, although ii ought 

lint to exceed Mich ,in .iiimiilil Im -mnnth w i i 1 1 « 1 1 D g . 

In order to meet the difficulty ol recapping the rope, and to 
correct its stretch, the device shown in Pigs. 8 and 9 (borrowed 
from Continental practice) was introduced. A right- and left- 
band screw is shown engaging in ;i suitably-designed coupling- 
box, while in order to meet Section in (8) oi the Coal Mines Act, 
of L911, which prohibits rod attachments, the Links, as shown, 
were arranged on each side of the -crew. It was subsequently 
found desirable to allow the side links to take the Load by 
slackening the screw back, using it in tension only during the 
changing of the side links, or for any hurried though very in- 
frequent adjustment of the rope-length during winding hours. 

As with railway screw-couplings, the screw, if continually 
under load, surfers abrasion of the threads, with consequent 
difficulty in unscrewing. The attachment is coupled between 
the winding-rope socket and the cage-chains on one Bide. <>n 
the opposite side, between the rope and the chains of the other 
cage, similar steef links are introduced when the lope is 
shortened by recapping, but it is without any screw. By means 
of the screw and its side links, the adjustment of the cage posi- 
tions is secured to any degree of exactitude required, usually to 
within an inch or two. The stretch of the rope is taken up in 
this way until a link can be taken out of the link attachment 
above the opposite-side cage, and the screw let out again. In this 
way the rope is kept in very close adjustment to the exact length 
required, under which conditions the plant works most 
smoothly, and the regular prescribed recapping of the rope is 
effected. 

Since the present rope was put into use on the starting-up 
of the plant in May. 1916, each end has been recapped three 
times, an average of 8 inches being cut off each end in each case. 
The total length of rope cut off amounts to 4 feet. This portion 
has been almost entirely compensated for by stretch, the stretch 
amounting to 0'45 per cent, of the length of the rope when new, 
which was 881+ feet. 

Eel ia nee sockets are used, and the rope ends have been sub- 
jected to microscopic and other examination by the makers for 
any sign of fatigue. 

A winding-rope is subjected to less detrimental treatment by 
a properly-controlled electrically-driven overhead Kcepe hoist 
than probably by any other possible type of winding device. Not 
only is the abrasion of the rope almost entirely eliminated, owing 
to the fact that it has no hard iron pulley to encounter, but the 
fatigue of the rope is reduced to a minimum, due to the steady 



1917-1918.] RAW OVERHEAD KCEFE WINDING PLANT. 195 

winding movement and the absence of the destructive wave 
motion in the rope. A winding-rope becomes most fatigued in 
the immediate region of the socket, due partly to torsional 
stresses, but doubtless principally to the wave motion in the 
rope having to terminate there, with the resulting* tendency, 
very much as in the case of sea-waves breaking on the shore, to 
break the rope at the socket. Since the wave motion in the rope 
with the plant under consideration is practically eliminated, the 
writer sees no valid reason for having to introduce numerous 
links to replace such liberal recapping as is desirable in the case 
of a rope subjected to the " flogging " of a steam winder. 

As there is no question of altering the position of the rope 
on the pulleys, the only necessity is to know that it is not 
becoming " fatigued " near the socket. Careful destructive 
examination of the rope for some distance from the sockets at 
the end of its 3J years should be instructive and, the writer is 
disposed to forecast, eminently satisfactory. 

For subsequent ropes a softer wire would be preferable, 
drawn, say, to a breaking-strain of 90 tons per square inch, 
witli a correspondingly larger rope instead of the 105-ton 
breaking-strain steel used in the present l|-inch-diameter rope. 
The object of using a rope of softer steel would be lo reduce the 
tendency to fatigue in the region of the socket, due to what small 
wave motion there is in the rope. 

The question of slip between the winding-rope and the driv- 
ing-pulley is of considerable interest and importance. The 
driving-pulley is loaded as follows: — 

Cwts. 

(a) Empty cages^ each ... ... ... 65 

(/>) Weight of empty tubs per cage (6 tubs at 5 cwts. each) 30 

(c) Weight of coal per cage (6 tubs at 8 cwts. each) ... 48 
(rf) Weight of winding-rope or balance-rope on each side 

of the driving-pulley ... ... ... ... 28 

(e) Weight of cage-chains and attachment on the screw 

side ... ... 16-i- 

(/) Weight of cage-chains and links on link-attachment 

side 8£ 

Although the coefficient of friction between the wood-lagged 
driving-pulley and the actual winding-rope is difficult to 
determine, the following experiment is instructive as helping 
to fix it : — 

The cage with the screw attachment was resting on the shaft- 
bottom keps, when the other side cage was raised empty at bank- 
level the height of one deck without slip and without the tension 
of the bottom cage on the pulley, owing to its resting as stated 
on the pit-bottom keps at the time. 

The load T, therefore, on the rope at the point where it 



[96 rUANSACTIONS THBNORTHOl ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [ Vol Ixvjm 

engaged with tin* driving-pulley raising the cage ai bank-level 

in I hifl instance W8L6 — 

CwlH. 

(a) Empty oage 

nh Winding- and balance-rope ■ ■• W 

(/) Cage chains dink side) &i 

TotaJ T 101| 

The load t on the rope at the other side at the point where it 
was leaving the driving pulley was — 

(d) Winding-rope M 

(e) Cage chains (screw side) ... ... 16i 

Total t 4*i 

The value T+t, therefore, or the relation of the load on one 
side of the pulley to the load on the other = 10H-^44£ = 2'56. 

Assuming the reliability of the formula used by Weisbach 
and others, namely — 

T 

where Log e = Nap. log. 

T and t = greater and lesser tension on each side rope at the 
point where it makes or loses engagement with the 
driving-pulley. 

/w, = coefficient of friction. 

# = rope contact with driving-pulley in radians; 

by utilizing the value for T + t of 256 as above, /jl becomes the 
only unknown quantity in the equation and develops a value 
arrived at in this way of 03. A corroborative test made with a 
length of new ||-inch diameter Lang's lay rope slightly oiled and 
laid over the guide-pulley (the winding-rope being slung clear 
for the purpose), gave a value for /x of 0'35. The rope engaged 
with the guide-pulley for exactly half of its tread periphery 
(180 degrees), and when one side was loaded to 487 pounds, with 
the other at 235J pounds, the rope slowly and steadily slipped 
round the pulley at a speed of 8 feet per minute. The removal 
of one pound weight from the heavier side stopped the move- 
ment dead. The writer considers that a new Lang's lay rope 
might be expected to yield a higher value for fx than the smoother 
flattened strand winding-rope, and that the value of 0'35 for the 
Lang's lay rope in question supports the value for //. of 0'30 for 
the actual winding-rope. Such a value, though twice what is 
frequently ascribed to ^ under similar conditions, the writer 
advances with entire confidence, and considers that the flattened- 
strand rope sparingly oiled and lying across the grain of the 
wood in the segments is the explanation. 



1917-1918.] 



RAW OVERHEAD KOEPE WINDING PLANT. 



197 



In coal- win ding* the value of T is- 

(a) Empty cage 

(b) Empty tubs 

(c) Coal 

(d) Ropes 

(e) Chains (screw side assumed) 

Total 

The value of t is — 

(a) Empty cage 

(b) Empty tubs 

(d) Ropes 

(/) Chains (link side assumed) 



Cwts. 

65 
30 

48 
28 
16£ 

187i 



Cwts 

65 

30 

28 



Total t 131i 

The coal-winding value therefore of T-~ £ = 187J-fl31J = l'42. 

This shows in comparison with 256, the test result above 
indicated, under the unfavourable conditions of the heavier screw 
attachment being raised with the load, a surplus margin of fric- 
tional grip of the driving-pulley on the winding-rope of not less 
than 80 per cent. 

The coefficient of friction of necessity varies considerably 
with the type of winding-rope used, the amount of lubrication, 
the grain of the wood-lagging, and the kind of wood, etc. 

The writer believes that the experimental figure of 2'56 or, 
say, 2 1, determined as described for the ratio of T + t, is very 
near the full value of the frictional grip between the rope and 
the driving-pulley, and that if the heavier side were loaded to a 
greater extent than 2h times the lighter side slip would occur. 
The winding-rope, it may be added, is regularly oiled with old 
engine-oil. 

Reverting to Fig. 6, showing the tread of the driving-pulley 
with the elm segments, it is of interest to state that the driving- 
pulley segments wore down in the groove 2f inches during 19 
months' running, the guide-wheel grooving down 2 inches in 20 
months' running. If the plant had been running at full capacity, 
this rate of w T ear would have been not less than doubled. 

The winding-ropes are in their correct centres in the shaft 
when the segment thickness between the bottom of the groove in 
the segment and the pulley-tread is 3 inches. As the segments are 
renewed with a thickness of 4 inches below the groove, the rope 
does not reach its correct shaft centre again until 1 inch has been 
grooved or w T orn out. The segment groove is allowed to wear 
down roughly another inch before the segments are changed or 
packed up. The depth of the groove in the new segments is not 
less than 3 inches. 

It may be instructive to state that elm segments are found 
to give more satisfactory results than oak. 



198 TRANSACTIONS THE NOBTH OF ENGLAND IH mm i i.. [Vol l.wiii 



Efficiency <>j Plan t 

ii .in 
I duration oi I eft ... 
Number oi winds ... 
Average time per wind . 124*1 seconds. 

Total useful Load raised (coal) ... (i7'-"-l tons. 
Useful load raised per vrind (coal) W i 

Total useful work done, in shaft 

horsepower* hours ... ... 62*15 

Total energy consumption, in 

Board-of-Trade units ... 81*25 

Total energj consumption, in 

horsepower-hours ... ... 108*67 

Energy consumption per ton 
raised, in Board-of-Trade 
units 1*20 

Energy consumption per shaft- 
horsepower hour, in Board- 
of-Trade units ... ... 1 *31 

Overall efficiency, per cent. ... 57'20 



The following testi were carried out : — 

Janasrj lith, I 
80 mini 
29 



lid, i'Jl«. 
68 in i n n t - 20 * 

23 

17H seconds. 
.")4 '85 toi 
17*70 cwte. 

96*48 



1*31 



1 *42 

52 60 



The first trial gives better results than the second, chiefly 
owing- to the fact that in the firsl case with a winding period of 
1241 seconds against a capacity of one complete wind, including 
decking time in TO seconds, the plant was standing 44 per cent, 
of the time during the test, but in the second case 61 per cent, of 
the time. As the motor-generator set consumes energy at the 
rate of 18 horsepower even when the plant is standing, the 
difference in the results is accounted for. Assuming the plant to be 
run at its full capacity, the foregoing* figures would result in 
overall efficiencies of 6T50 per cent, in the case of the first trial 
and 59 20 per cent, in the second, an average overall result of, 
say, 60 per cent, on full capacity. 

It is of interest to add that an overall efficiency of 60 per cent 
is equivalent to 125 Board-of-Trade units per shaft-horsepower- 
hour, which again with current from a modern efficient turbo- 
generator at. say, 13 pounds of steam per Board-of-Trade unit, 
is equal to the very satisfactory figure of 16J pounds of steam per 
shaft-horsepower. 

With the plant working at about half capacity, the actual 
steam-consumption is about 23 pounds per shaft-horsepower, the 
colliery generating sets consuming IT to 18 pounds of steam per 
Board-of-Trade unit. 

To ask that a winding plant should run continually on full 
capacity is impossible of accomplishment, and one of the dis- 
advantages, therefore, of the AVard-Leonard control with its 
motor-generator set is that the overall efficiency of the plant falls 
off so rapidly with intermittent working, as a result of the 
dead " running of the motor-generator set. 

Comparisons and Conclusions* — The figures, which were 
taken out with some care when the election of the Plenmeller 



1917-1918.] RAW — OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 1 ( J9 

plant was being considered, gave the comparative cost of the 
overhead electrically-driven Kcepe winding plant as only 75 per 
cent, of the cost of an ordinary steam winding equipment for the 
same duty, taking all outlay into consideration, engine-house, 
headgear, pulleys, etc., but excluding any charge for the capital 
cost of the colliery generating plant. 

The writer advances these figures with some reserve, as the 
cost of the links and screw adjustments on the winding-ropes, and 
other outlay incidental to the erection of an overhead winding 
tower, must be taken into account. 

It may be added that in Continental construction the Kcepe 
plant mechanically and electrically is regarded as being 50 per 
cent, cheaper in first cost than drum-winders, although that pro- 
portion leaves such items as the headgear and engine-house out 
of account. The Kcepe system is particularly adapted to an 
electric drive, owing to the elimination of the jerking of the 
steam-engine with its tendency to produce slip between the driv- 
ing-pulleys and the winding-rope, while the electrically-driven 
Kcepe plant is essentially suited to installation in the headgear. 
The writer, however, on one occasion visited at the Adler 
Colliery, near Essen, Germany, an overhead steam-driven plant 
which appeared to work particularly satisfactorily. Particulars 
of this plant are appended as being of interest, in view of the 
iinusua 1 arra ngement . 

The Ward-Leonard control is said to be preferable for an 
■overhead winder, owing to its extremely sensitive control. In 
any case, the following guiding formula favoured in pre-war 
days by the German A. E. G. Company as applied to electrical 
winding generally is added as of interest: — 

A direct-coupled three-phase motor is regarded as preferable 
when s :-f- t 2 is under 0T8; a Ward-Leonard control when s-^t 2 is 
between 0T8 and 0"28 ; and an Ilgener set when s-f- 1 2 exceeds 0'28 ; 
where 5 = winding depth, in metres, and t = winding time, in 
seconds. 

It is probable that the Kcepe winder is capable, without excep- 
tion, of a higher efficiency, due to the lesser weights of the 
moving parts than any other type of winding plant. Continental 
practice shows a consumption of 40 pounds of steam per shaft- 
horsepower-hour with an efficient steam-driven Kcepe plant in a 
ground-level engine-house, which may be compared with 45 
pounds of steam per shaft-horsepower in an efficient steam- 
driven drum-winder, or in the case of many steam winding- 
engines of anything over 100 pounds. 

In electrically-driven winders on the Continent the Kcepe 
plant with a Ward-Leonard control and a ground-level engine- 
house is stated to average 1'50 kilowatt-hours per shaft-horse- 
power-hour, while the electrically-driven drum-winder is put at 



200 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND Dl mh I I. w V.,j :. 

L'66 kilowatt-hours per shaft-horsepower. Recent British 
practice compares \<t\ satisfactorily with these figures, I 50 
Board-of-Trade nni>> per shaft-horsepower aol being unusual 
wiili eleci iic dm m w indi ag. 

By placing the Koepe planl on the headgear, the efficiency is 
improved, due i<> dispensing with the headgear pulleys, 
average consumption per shaft-horsepower for the two tests 
carried mil on the Plenmeller planl as tabulated above being 
L'35 Board-of-Trade units per shaft-horsepower. It th** pi 
had been running al full capacity, the tesi figures would b 
approximated to an overall efficiency of 60 per cent., 1*26 Board- 
of-Trade units, or Hi] pounds of steam per shaft-horsepower- 
hour, assuming an electrical generator ol 1 ; > pounds of steam- 
consumption per kilowatt-hour. 

It is probable that L6J pounds of .steam per shaft-horsepower 
is not more than a tenth of the steam-consumption of many steam 
winding-engines in regular use. 

Tu summarizing the Kcepe's advantages and disadvantages, 
the following may be taken as the principal considerations: — 

Advantages. 

(1) High efficiency. 

(2) how capital cost. 

(3) Lesser weight of moving parts. 

(4) One rope only required. 

(5) Reduced liability to failure of the winding-rope, due to 
steady winding. 

(6) Compactness of plant. 

(7) Reduced liability to overwinding and the dispensing with 
detaching-hooks. 

(8) Headgear pulleys dispensed with. 

(9) Shorter winding-rope. 
(10) Improved rope lead. 

The latter three considerations only apply if the plant is 
mounted on the headgear. 

Disadvantages. 

(1) The inconvenience resulting from being unable to detach 
either cage for any purpose without securing the winding-rope; 
in short, the plant cannot conveniently be operated at all for any 
purpose, such as raising and lowering machinery, unless both 
cages are attached to the winding-rope. 

(2) The necessity for rope-length adjustment arrangements. 

(3) The necessity, in most circumstances, for a balance-rope. 

(4) The total unsuitability for sinking. 

(5) The comparative inaccessibility of a high tower for the 
replacing of heavy pieces of machinery in case of breakdown. 



1917-1918.] RAW OVERHEAD K(EPE WINDING PLANT. 201 

Tlie latter consideration obviously only applies in the case of 
overhead plants. 

Disadvantages which are frequently urged against the Koepe 
plant after casual investigation are : — 

(1) Slip between the pulley and the winding-rope. 

(2) Probable fall of both cages in case of winding-rope 
failure. 

These alleged drawbacks, the writer considers, need not be 
taken seriously. That there is no positive hold of the winding- 
rope on a drum he admits, but he claims on the other hand from 
the frictional figures submitted that there is an ample frictional 
grip for ordinary winding, even when the rope is well oiled. The 
risk of failure of a Koepe winding-rope the writer counts as 
being so small, due to the steady winding conditions, as to 
entirely counterbalance the disadvantage of the probable cer- 
tainty in such an event of both cages falling to the pit-bottom. 
Incidentally the falling is not necessarily confined to the one 
cage in the event of the failure of a drum winding-rope. 

With regard to the recapping of the rope, the writer is dis- 
posed to regard the Continental custom of allowing a Koepe rope 
to work for two years without recapping, and then scrapping it, 
as unduly rigid practice. He considers that with the British 
periodical recapping of the rope, the cutting off in the case of 
the Koepe rope of 6 inches or so from each end, and using 
Kelianee or similar capels, is more satisfactory, and allows the 
full 3J years' life for the rope. The writer gives it as his opinion 
that a Koepe rope treated in this way will be found to have 
undergone less fatigue in any part than a similar drum winding- 
rope, particularly if the plant is an overhead one. 

So far as the arguments for and against electric versus steam 
winding are concerned, the electric drive is beyond doubt much 
the more satisfactory and efficient for a Koepe plant, given, of 
course, a suitable supply. 

The issue between the modern overhead Koepe plant and the 
drum-winder, steam or electrically driven, can be, in the writer's 
opinion, reduced almost entirely to a comparison of advantage 
Xo. 1 (" efficiency ") against disadvantage No. 1 (" inconveni- 
ence "). 

The balance is, in the writer's opinion, so close that he is 
disposed to regard the choice between the Koepe and the drum 
winder as a matter of personal temperament. This conclusion 
would appear to be borne out by the fact that the Koepe principle 
on the Continent appears to enjoy periodical rather than con- 
tinual favour, so far as new construction is concerned. 

Although the writer's personal inclination is towards the 
simplicity of the drum-winder, either steam or electrically- 

VOL. LXVIIT.— 1017-1918. 15 E 



202 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OP] I I I I I . \ '••! K\ m 

driven according to the available powei supply, he hai no 
alternative bul to state that, sub j eel to the inconveniem red 

to, the electrically-driven overhead Koepe hoisl is capable oi ;« 
high winding efficiency, is quite dependable and reliable, 
particularly suitable for winding men, ;irid is cheaper in I 

ensf . 

iii conclusion, tli< i writer wishes to acknowledge the respon- 
sible and painstaking services of Mr. William Dickinson, the 
colliery engineer, and to express his indebtedness to the si ffs of 
the British Westinghouse Company and Messrs. J. & E. Wright 
& Comp :ny, Limited, for their ready co-operal ion and assistance. 



APPENDIX. 

xotes on the steam-driven overhead k(epk winding plant at adler 
Colliery, Essen, Ruhr, Germany 

The engine was situated in the headgear, and consisted of two steam 
cylinders of 23^-inch stroke by 13§-inches diameter, gearing on to the pulley 
through a 2-to-l reduction gearing. 

riic driving-pulley was lagged with grooved hard-wood segments, and 
was 4 feet 11 inches in groove diameter. No guide-pulley was necessary, 
as 4 feet 11 inches (the diameter of the driving-pulley) was the distance 
apart of the cage and rope centres in the shaft. The windir.g-rope therefore 
engaged with the driving-pulley for exactly half of its circumference, or 
180 degrees, the rope on each side of the pulley leading vertically down on to 
each cage. 

The rope used was an ordinary lay of 42 millimetres (1"654 inches) 
diameter, and as the shaft was dry the rope, although ungalvanized, was not 
oiled. 

The stretch of the winding-rope was corrected by a screw adjustment 
coupled between the winding-rope and the cage chains, being similar to 
that previously described, minus the side links. 

As the winding depth was only 130 yards, no balance-rope was used. 

Each of the two cages carried three tubs of 11 cwts. of coal each. The 
average winding speed was given as 3 yards per second, and the output as 
1,100 to 1,200 tons per day of 16 hours. 

Although the steam-consumption of the engine was in all probability 
high, this plant impressed the writer as being of the utmost simplicity, and 
probably of comparatively trifling first cost. 



Mr. Mark Ford (Washington) asked whether keps were 
used on the surface as well as underground. 

Mr. George Raw (Plenmeller Colliery) replied that they 
were. 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College, Xewcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that the Institute was fortunate in having this 
description of a form of winder that was very little known in 
this country, and, it would appear, deserving of rather more 
attention than had been ffiven to it. He had viewed the winder 



1917-1918. J DISCUSSION OVERHEAD Kffil'E WINDING PLANT. 203 

with a certain amount of prejudice, but Mr. Raw's description 
had put its reliability in a rather more favourable light. Like 
everyone else, Mr. Raw had called it the " Koepe " winder, and 
said that it was first introduced by Koepe in Westphalia ; but, like 
many other German inventions, it was cribbed. It was 
first described by Lemielle in Belgium in 1862, but was not 
followed up there; it was taken up by Koepe in Westphalia fully 
20 years after the first Belgian plant was put up. With regard 
to the coefficient of friction, they would find coefficients of fric- 
tion given in a number of text-books, but these were mostly taken 
one from the other, so that there was nothing like the experi- 
mental information that they should have on the subject. 
The figures given by most people were something like half 
the figure that Mr. Raw had obtained. One of the 

best authorities he (Prof. Louis) knew — Habets, the Belgian 
engineer — gave, as the coefficient of a well-greased steel rope on 
oak, 0'158, and the same figure had been adopted in many of the 
Westphalia n calculations. The Trenton Iron Rope Company 
of America gave the figure for a well-greased rope as 0'14. Mr. 
Raw's figures were quite double that. He did not propose to 
question them, but he thought that they deserved attention. It 
was quite possible that the oiling might have the same effect as 
running the rope on wet wood, which it was said increased the 
figure to about 0'25. Another point was that the guide-pulley 
might have an effect. It was not easy to see how much such an 
effect could be, but it was certain that there was friction 
between the rope and the pulley. That was a possible solution of 
the increase of the coefficient. Another point was that, as he 
gathered from Mr. Raw's paper, the winding-rope slipped to a 
> considerable extent on the driving-pulley. The accepted formula 
that Mr. Raw had used was, however, based on the supposition 
that there was no slip, and it was quite possible that if there 
were any considerable slip, that formula would have to be 
modified. The other point that struck him was the difficulty 
in regard to the capping of the rope. Mr. T. E. Pirrington 
some years ago* had described an attachment to the cages, in 
which he carried an iron draw-bar through the cage between the 
tubs and attached the ropes to either end of it. If the same idea 
were carried out in a Koepe winder — that was, if they had, say, 
two or four tubs on each floor of the cage, ran an endless rope 
through the middle of the cage, and simply secured the cage by 
clamping it to the rope — that would frei over the difficulty. 

Mr. Mark Halliday (Durham) said that some of the figures 
were very interesting and instructive, but he would like to see a 

* Trans. Inst. M. K, 1903-1904, vol. xxvi., page 294. 



201 i i: \.\s LOTIONS) l HE noici n 01 ENGLAND [NSTTT1 1 B. | Vol. Ixvm 

diagram allowing the powers during the accelerating, full-speed, 
and retarding periods, and to have Borne ides oi the moving 
masses relative to < lie coal thai w&i raised. One oi the apparent 
advantages of the Koepe system iras thai the moving ma 
were smaller than in the ordinary winder, especially in the over- 
bead system, as the pulleys were dispensed with. It was a n 
important point, because a1 such collieries as Plenmeller, where 
generating plan! had to be installed, it musi be large enough to 
take tli<> peak-load, and even ;il collieries connected to a power 
company's inains the high peaks increased the size of the 
electricnl apparatus and hence the capital cost. Be had tested an 
electric winder of the ordinary type a few months ago. The 
depth was 720 feet and the consumption 11 units per ton raised, 
a figure about the same as Mr. Raw's. 

Mr. Raw, in answer to Mr. Ford, said that they found it 
desirable to put in " Bein " disappearing keps at the shaft-top 
and bottom. With regard to Prof. Louis's remarks on the figures 
for friction, it seemed to him that Prof. Louis had solved the 
difficulty by suggesting that a rope oiled without being what he 
termed " well greased " gave very much the same effect as a wet 
rope running on wood. The rope was internal!}' lubricated, and, 
therefore, just required rubbing or dressing with oil from time 
to time. He was personally quite satisfied with the figures, 
which were borne out by the further test made with the smaller 
rope, although it was quite possible, as Prof. Louis had suggested, 
that the guide-pulley had more effect than merely just increasing 
the proportion of the periphery to which the guide-pulley forced 
the rope on the driving-pulley. With regard to the endless rope, 
Prof. Louis had mentioned that matter some time ago to him, 
and it had always occurred to him since that this would be a 
possible solution of the recapping difficulty with the Kcepe 
rope under the conditions indicated by Prof. Louis. With 
respect to Mr. Halliday's remarks, the peak-load, unless 
there was an Ilgener set, was distinctlv troublesome, and they 
occasionally had had their main switches at the generating 
station tripping out. To give all the details suggested by Mr. 
Halliday would have meant a considerable lengthening of what 
was, possibly, already a sufficiently lengthy paper. 




Wood Memorial Hall, and Offices of The North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



OF 




wing ani Pecjpral dfegmeers. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 



AND 



ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR 1917-1918; 

LIST OF 

COUNCIL, OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

FOR THE YEAR 1918-1919; ETC., 
AND ROLL OF HONOUR. 



1917-1918. 




NEWOA.STLE-UPON-TYNE: PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 

Printed by Andrew Reid & Company, Limited, Londox and Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

1918. 



C N T E N T S. 



PAOB. 

Annual Report of the Council, 1917-1918 ... ... ... ... v 

Annual Report of the Finance Committee, 1917-1918... ... ... ... ix 

The Treasurer in Account with The North of England Institute of Mining 

and Mechanical Engineers for the Year ending June 30th, 1918 ... x 
The Treasurer of The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers in Account with Subscriptions, 1917-1918 ... ... xii 

General Statement, June 30th, 1918 ... .. ... ... ... ... xiv 

List of Committees appointed by the Council, 1918-1919 ... ... ... xv 

Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining Engineers, 

1918-1919 xv 

Officers, 1918-1919 xvi 

Patrons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Honorary Members .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xviii 

Associate Members ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xlii 

Associates ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... xlv 

Students ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... li 

Subscribers ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... Hi 

Roll of Honour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. lv 



ANNUAL ItEl'OJiT OF THE COUNCIL. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1917-1918. 



The Institute has sustained a great loss due to the deaths of 
several members. Prof. George Alexander Louis Lebour, who 
was elected a member in the year 1873, and an honorary member 
in 1879, served on the Council from 1880 to 1888, and acted as 
Secretary from 1888 to 1891. He contributed several papers to 
the Transactions. 

Mr. William Armstrong, who was elected a member in 1867, 
became a member of the Council in 1875, a vice-president in 
1897, and was elected President in 1898. Mr. Simon Tate, who 
was elected a member in 1875, a member of the Council in 1891, 
and a Vice-President in 1917. 

The Council also deplore the loss of the following members, 
killed in the European War: — Charles Percy Almond, William 
Ernest Avery, David Macdonald Chambers, Bernard Hedley 
Charlton, Samuel Coade, James Heslop, George Herbert Stanton 
Kent, Claude Frank Bell Simpson, Thomas Albert Thirlwell, 
Frank Thornton, Francis Math win Weeks, Maurice Hewson 
Wilkinson, and Charles Young; and of the following gentlemen 
who died during the year : — His Grace the Duke of Northumber- 
land, John W. Ainsworth, Philip Archer, Charles Rollo Barrett, 
Harris Bigg- Wither, Daniel Cullen, Samuel Dean, William 
Dixon, James Douglas, Charles Henderson, Rokusaburo Kondo, 
John Lancaster, Hugh Latimer, Robert Peel, and James 
Howard Walker. 

The resignations (17) include the following: — Members: 
William John Charlton, Nicholas Cheesman, Matthew Heckels 
Douglas, Ernest Charles Dunkerton, William Hopwood, William 
Lee, Stanley Robert Mutch, Ernest Edward Noble, John 
William Thompson, and Peregrine Oliver Wilson. Associate 
Member: Richard Tilden Smith. Associates: William 
Calland, John Fleming Charlton, Mortimer Croudace, and 
Isaac Scobie. Student : Vincent William Corbett. Subscribers: 
Johnasson, Gordon and Company, Limited. 

The following gentlemen (5) have ceased to be members 
during the past year: — Members: John Edwin Breakell, John 
W. Daw, William Kirtley, William Hen wood Trelease, and 
Sydney Ferris Walker. 



m \.\ nmai, I : ruin 01 i ii E 001 \< ii.. 

The Council icL'iri to report b jlighl <!• e id tin- meml 

ship. The additions to the register, and the Li bj death, 

resignation, etc., are shown in the following table: — 

mj. 1914 1915. 1916. 1917. I9le 

Additions 60 55 47 38 101 49 

Losses 91 86 75 02 58 58 

Gain — — _ 43 _ 

Loss 25 31 28 54 9 

The membership for the last six years is shown in the follow- 
ing table : — 



Year ended August lat. 


1913 


1914. 


1915. 


1910. 


1917. 


1911 


Honorary members 


23 


24 


25 


25 


22 


22 


Members... 


874 


846 


824 


780 


804 


793 


Associate members 


.. 100 


97 


91 


88 


85 


85 


Associates 


.. 205 


206 


207 


205 


190 


195 


Students 


38 


34 


31 


26 


18 


15 


Subscribers 


.. 33 


35 


36 


36 


84 


84 


Totals 


... 1,273 


1,242 


1,214 


1,160 


1,203 


1,194 



A list of members serving with His Majesty's Forces at home 
and abroad is being compiled, and, in order to make the same as 
complete as possible, the Council will be pleased to be advised 
of any member serving. 

The Library has been maintained in an efficient condition 
during the year; the additions, by donation, exchange and pur- 
chase, include 84 bound volumes and 17 pamphlets, reports, etc. ; 
and the Library now contains about 15,874 volumes and 622 
unbound pamphlets. A card-catalogue of the books, etc., con- 
tained in the Library renders them easily available for 
reference. 

Useful service to the profession would be rendered by the 
presentation of books, reports, plans, etc., to be preserved in the 
Library, and thereby become available for reference. 

At the suggestion of Captain Sir H. Dennis Bay ley the 
Institute subscribed £100, and the members also contributed 
£322 10s. Od. towards the upkeep of the motor ambulance 
purchased in 1916. 

The Saturday afternoon lectures for colliery engineers, 
enginewrights, and apprentice mechanics arranged to take place 
at Armstrong College are still suspended on account of the war. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas continues to represent the Institute as a 
governor of Armstrong College, and Mr. John Robert Eobinson 
Wilson, in conjunction with the President (Mr. John Simpson), 
represents the Institute on the Council of the College. 

Mr. Thomas Young Greener has been appointed to represent 
the Institute upon the Board of Directors of the Institute and 
Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited. 

The President continues a Representative Governor upon the 
Court of Governors of the University of Durham College of 
Medicine during his term of office. 



ANNUA! ltBPORT OF THE COUNCIL. VU 

The representatives of the Institute upon the Council of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers during- the past year were as 
follows: — Messrs. E. S. Anderson, Sidney Bates, W. C. 
Blackett, R. 0. Brown, W. Cochran Carr, Frank Coulson, 
Benjamin Dodd, T. Y. Greener, Reginald Guthrie, Samuel 
Hare, A. M. Hedley, Philip Kirkup, C. C. Leach, Henry Louis, 
W. C. Mountain, R. E. Ornsby, M. W. Parrington/ Walter 
Rowley, F. R. Simpson, John Simpson, W. 0. Tate, J. R. R. 
Wilson, W. B. Wilson, and E. Seymour Wood. 

Under the will of the late Mr. John Daglish, funds have 
been placed at the disposal of Armstrong College for founding a 
Travelling Fellowship, to be called the " Daglish " Fellowship, 
candidates for which must be nominated by the Institute. No. 
application was made for this Fellowship for the year 1918. 

The G. C. Greenwell gold, silver, and bronze medals may 
be awarded annually for approved papers " recording the results 
of experience of interest in mining, and especially where 
deductions and practical suggestions are made by the writer for 
the avoidance of accidents in mines." 

G. C. Greenwell silver medals have been awarded to Mr. 
Fang Chun Lee for " Some Practical Notes on the Economical 
Use of Timber in Coal-mines," and to the late Mr. Simon Tate 
for " Further Notes on Safety-lamps." 

Prizes have been awarded to the writers of the following 
papers, communicated to the members during the year 1917- 
1918: — 

" A System of Storing and Filling Small Coal, with Remarks upon the 
Prevention of Spontaneous Heating in Coal-heaps." By Mr. John 
Morison, M.I.M.E. 

" Notes on the Overhead Koepe Winding Plant at Plenmeller Colliery, 
Haltwhistle, Northumberland." By Mr. George Raw, M.I.M.E. 

The papers printed in the Transactions during the year are 
as follows : — 

"The Strength of Pit-props." By Mr. Frederic Lancelot Booth, 

M.I.M.E. 
"The Flow of Water in Syphons." By Mr. Mark Halliday, M.I.M.E. 
" Little Namaqualand and its Possibilities as a Further Copper 

Producing Country." By Mr. Frederick William Jenkins, M.I.M.E. 
" Memoir of John Herman Merivale." By Miss Judith Merivale. 
"A System of Storing and Filling Small Coal, with Remarks upon the 

Prevention of Spontaneous Heating in Coal-heaps." By Mr. John 

Morison, M.I.M.E. 
"Notes on the Uniflow Steam-engine." By Mr. Gordon George Thomas 

Poole, M.I.M.E. 
" Notes on the Overhead Kcepe Winding Plant at Plenmeller Colliery 

Haltwhistle, Northumberland." By Mr. George Raw, M.I.M.E. 
"Memoir of John George Weeks." By Mr. Richard James Weeks, 

M.I.M.E, 

The Institute has received a legacy of £500 from the 
executors of the late George May, the income from which is to 



vin aw i \i. REPORT 01 THE < 01 Si 1 1 

be used for purchasing ;i prize or prises to be given annually 
to any of its students as the Council ma\ think fit, inch prize or 
prizes to la' called (lie " George May " Prize or Prizes. 

The rooms ol the Institute have been used, during the year, 
by (he Newcastle-upon-Tyne and District Branch oi the British 
Foundrymen's Association; the Newcastle Local Section of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers; the North-East Coast ' 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders; the Northern Section 
of the Coke <>\cm Managers' Association; the Newcastle Section 
of (he Society oJ Chemical Industry; the North of England 
Branch of (he Association of Mining' Electrical Engineers; the 
North-Eastern Section of the Junior Institution of Engineers; 
and the Society of Glass Technology. 

Xo excursion meetings have been held during- the year. The 
Council hope to re-arrange the postponed excursion to Kskmeals 
on the conclusion of the war. 

Meetings of The Institution of Mining Engineers were held 
in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in September, 1917, and in London in 
June, 1918. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. IX 



ANNUAL REPOET OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE, 

1917-1918. 

A statement of accounts lor the year ending June 30th, 1918, 
duly audited, is submitted herewith by the Finance Committee. 

The total receipts, including £213 Is. 8d. received for 
return of income tax for the years ending April 5th, 1917 and 
1918, were £2,971 4s. 5d. Of this amount £43 5s. was paid as 
subscriptions in advance, leaving £2,927 19s. 5d. as the 
ordinary income of the year, as compared with £2,863 5s. 6d. in 
the previous year. The amount received as ordinary subscrip- 
tions for the year was £2,015 2s., and arrears £339 7s., as 
against £1,962 19s. and £381 Is. respectively in the year 1916- 
1917. Transactions sold realized £1 13s. 9d., as compared with 
£7 0s. 9d., and the amount received for interest on investments 
was £392 7s., as compared with £390 5s. the previous year. 
The income received by the George May Prize Fund for the year 
was £26 6s. 4d., and there were no payments out of this fund. 

The expenditure was £2,480 15s. 8d., as against 
£2,357 4s. 8d. in the previous year. Increases are shown in 
salaries and wages, rent, rates and taxes, heating, lighting and 
water, printing and stationery, postages, telephones, etc., 
incidental expenses, cleaning of hall and offices, reporting, and 
contribution to the Motor Ambulance Fund. Decreases are 
shown in insurance, furniture and repairs, library purchases, 
travelling expenses, and contributions to The Institution of 
Mining Engineers. 

The balance of income over expenditure was £490 8s. 9d., 
and adding to this the amount of £493 12s. 7d. from the 
previous year, and deducting £500 invested in Government 
securities, leaves a credit balance of £484 Is. 4d. 

The names of 8 persons have been struck off the member- 
ship list in consequence of non-payment of subscriptions. The 
amount of subscriptions written off was £122, of which £57 9s. 
was for sums due for the year 1917-1918, and £64 lis. for 
arrears. 

It is probable that a considerable proportion of this amount 
will be recovered and credited in future years. Of the amount 
previously written off £114 lis. was recovered during the past 
year. 

C. C. LEACH, Retiring Vice-President. 

August 10*/i, 1918. 



\( ( 0UWT8 
Dr. Iim Tbbabubbb in kccovvi with Thi Nobth • >! ; 

i OB i ii i Vi \i 



I 1 




183 Lfi 


■> 


• 1 I 


5 



June 80th, 1917. I i s. A. 

To balance of account at bankei - 
in Treasurer's hands 

L2 7 
June 80th, L918. 

To dividend on 207 shares of C2'i each in the Institute 
and Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited, for 
the year ending June 80th, 1918 258 15 

,, interest on mortgage of £1,400 with the [nstitute aud 

Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited ... ... 10 

.. dividend on £340 consolidated 5 per cent, preference 
stock of the Newcastle and Gateshead Water 

Company 17 

.. dividend on £450 ordinary stock of the Newcastle and 

Gateshead Gas Company ... ... ... ... 17 17 2 

.. interest on £823 13s. 9d. 5 per cent, War Loan. 1929 

1947 41 3 8 

.. interest on £500 5 per cent. National War Bonds, 1927 8 11 'l 

992 7 

To sales of Transactions ... ... ... ... ... 1 13 '.• 

„ income tax for years ending April 5th. 1917 and 1918, 

returned 213 1 S 

To Subscriptions for 1917-1918. as follows :— 

646 members & £2 2s. 1,356 12 

68 associate members ... ... @ £2 2s. 142 16 

140 associates ... ... ... ... @ £1 5s. 175 

13 students ® £1 5s. 16 5 

19 new members @ £2 2s. 39 18 

1 new associate member ... ... a £2 2s. 2 2 U 

17 new associates ... ... ... @ £1 5s. 21 5 

4 new students ... ... ... @ £1 5s. 5 

1 new subscribing firm ... ... ... ... 2 20 



1,761 
82 subscribing firms ... ... ... ... ... 254 2 



2.015 2 



Less, subscriptions for current year paid in advance 

at the end of last year 33 12 

1,981 10 

Add. arrears received ... ... ... ... ... 339 7 



2 320 17 
Add, subscriptions paid in advance during current 

year 43 5 

2.36-t 2 

To George May prize fund : 

Balance at bank at June 30th. 1917 2113 7 

Interest received on War Loan ... ... ... 26 6 4 

47 19 11 

£3.512 16 11 



ACCOUNTS. 



XI 



Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineeus 
June 30m, 1918. 



Cr. 



June 30th, 1918. 

By salaries and wages 

,, insurance 

,, rent, rates, and taxes 

„ heating, lighting, etc. 

„ furniture and'repairs 

,, bankers' charges 

„ library 

,, printing, stationery, etc. 

,, postages, telephones, etc 

,, incidental expenses 

,, cleaning of hall and offices 

,, travelling expenses 

,, prizes for papers ... 

,, reporting general meetings 



By subscription to Motor Ambulance Fund 
By The Institution of Mining Engineers : 
Calls, etc. 

Less, amounts paid by authors for excerpts 



By £500 5 per cent. National War Bonds, 1927 
By balance of account at bankers 
)i ,, in Treasm-er's hands 



By George May prize fund : 
Balance at bank 



£ s. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. 


507 18 









23 7 


4 






56 16 


6 






25 11 


4 






3 16 


8 






21 









9 1 


8 






157 18 


1 






143 1 


7 






93 6 


9 






31 5 









16 14 


4 






2 2 









12 12 













1,104 11 


3 










100 





1,277 7 


1 






1 2 


8 










1,276 4 


5 








2,480 15 


8 






500 





419 6 


3 






64 15 


1 










484 1 4 
47 19 11 







£3,512 16 11 



XI 1 ACCOUNTS. 

DB. Tm TBIAIUBBB of 'I'm: NOBTB 01 Km.i.anji IxKint ik of MlNINt; 



To 804 members, 

49 of whom have paid life-compositions. 



755 



6 not included in printed list. 
761 @ £2 2s. 



To 85 associate members. 

10 of whom have paid life-compositions. 



75 



@ £2 2s. 



To 190 associates, 

1 of whom has paid a life-composition. 



189 
4 paid as members. 

185 

1 not included in printed list. 



186 



@ £1 5s. 



To 18 students 

1 not included in printed list. 



19 



To 84 subscribing firms 
To 19 new members 



To 1 new associate member 



To 17 new associates 
To 4 new students 



@ £1 5s. 

@ £2 2s. 
@ £2 2s. 
@ £1 5s. 
@ £1 5s. 



To 1 new subscribing firm 



£ ■. d. £ •. d. 



1 .598 2 



157 10 



232 10 



To arrears, as per balance-sheet, 1916-1917 ... 

Add, arrears considered irrecoverable, but since paid ... 

To subscriptions paid in advance during the current year ... 



23 15 

258 6 

39 18 

2 2 

21 5 

5 

2 2 

442 13 

114 11 



2,270 3 



70 7 



557 4 
43 5 



£2,940 19 



ACCOUNTS. XU1 

and Mbchanioal Entoineebs in Account with Subscriptions, 1917-1918. Cr. 

struck OFF 
PAID. UNPAID. LIST. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

By 646 members, paid @ £2 2s. 1,356 12 

93 „ unpaid ... @ £2 2s 195 6 

4 „ resigned ... @ £2 2s 8 8 

1 ,, excused payment @ £2 2s. 2 2 

10 „ dead @ £2 2s 21 

7 „ struck off list @ £2 2s 14 14 



761 



By 68 associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 142 16 

7 „ „ unpaid @ £2 2s 14 14 



75 



By 140 associates, paid ... 
37 ,, unpaid 

2 ,. resigned 

6 ,, dead ... 

1 ,. struck off list 

186 



By 13 students, paid ... ... @ £1 5s. 16 5 

6 „ unpaid ... @ £L 5s 7 10 



19 



By 82 subscribing firms, paid ... ... 254 2 

2 „ „ unpaid 4 4 



84 



By 19 new members, paid ... @ £2 2s. 39 18 



By 1 new associate member, paid @ £2 2s. 2 2 



By 17 new associates, paid ... @ £1 5s. 21 5 



By 4 new students, paid ... @ £1 5s. 5 



By 1 new subscribing firm, paid ... ... 2 2 



@ £1 5s. 
@ £1 5s. 


175 


46 5 




@ £1 5s. 

(a) £1 5s. 
@ £1 5s. 






2 10 
7 10 
1 5 



2,015 2 267 19 57 9 

By arrears 339 7 153 6 64 11 

2,354 9 
By subscriptions paid in advance during tbe 

current year ... ... ... ... 43 5 



2.397 14 421 5 122 
£2,940 19 



XIV 



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LIST OF COMMITTEES. 



XV 



LIST OF COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL, 

1918-1919. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 

Mr. W. C. Blackett. 

Mr. Frank Coulson. 

Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas. 



Finance Committee. 

Mr. T. E. Forstkr. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. H. M. Parrington. 



Mr. J. B. Simpson. 

Mr. R. S. Tate. 

Mr. J. R. R. Wilson 

Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. Frank Coulson. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. Thomas Douglas. 



Arrears Committee. 

Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. C. 0. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. H. M. Parrington. 



Mr. J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. R. S. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. R. 0. Brown. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. Mark Ford. 



Library Committee. 

Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. R. W. Glass. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. H. M. Parrington. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. W. O. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Frank Coulson. 
Mr. J. H. B. Forster. 
Mr. T. E. Forster. 



Prizes Committee. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. Tom Hall. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. Austin Kirkup. 



Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



Selection and Editing of Papers Committee. 



Mr. J. B Atkinson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson. 
Mr. W\ C. Blackett. 
Mr. H. F. Bulman. 



Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. Austin Kirkup. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 



Mr. W. O. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 



N.B. —The President is ex-officio on all Committees. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE 
INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 

1918-1919. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. R. 0. Brown. 
Mr. W. Cochran Carr. 
Mr. Frank Coulson. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 



Mr. Reginald Guthpie. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Mr. Philip Kirkup. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. R. E. Ornsby. 



Mr. M. W. Parrington. 
Mr. Walter Rowley. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. W. O. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 
Mr. W. B. Wilson. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



XVI OFFK VMS. 

OFFICERS, 1918-1919. 



PA8T.PRESIDENT8 [ex-ofici 

Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Bart., Th€ Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 

Dr. JOHN BELL SIMPSON, Bradley Hall, Wyla.n, Northumberland. 

Mr. THOMAS DOUGLAS, The Garth, Darlington. 

Mr. WILLIAM OUTTERSON WOOD, South Detton, Sunderland 

Mr. THOMAS EMKKSOX FORSTER, 3, Bldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. MATTHEW WILLIAM PARRINGTON, Weannouth Colliery, Sunderland. 

Mr. WILLIAM CUTHBERT BLACKETT, Acorn Close, Sacrist.,,,, Durham. 

Mr. THOMAS YOUNG GREENER, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County Durham. 

Mr. FRANK COULSON, Shamrock House, Durham. 

PRESIDENT. 

Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, Follonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, 
Northumberland. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Mr. MARK FORD, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, County Durham. 

Mr. SAMUEL HARE, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland. 

Mr. ARTHUR MORTON HEDLEY, Eston House, Eston, Yorkshire. 

Mr. FRANK ROBERT SIMPSON, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, 

County Durham. 
Mr. RICHARD LLEWELLY r N WEEKS, Willington, Countv Durham. 
Mr. JOHN ROBERT ROBINSON WILSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 

Grey fort, Westfield Drive, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

COUNCILLOR^. 

Mr. ROBERT SIMPSON ANDERSON, Highfield, Wallsend, Northumberland. 

Mr. HENRY ARMSTRONG, Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood Street, New- 
castle -upon-Tvne. 

Mr. SIDNEY BATES," The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, Northumberland. 

Mr. ROBERT OUGHTON BROWN, Newbiggin Colliery, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
Northumberland. 

Mr. BENJAMIN DODD, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham. 

Mr. JOHN HENRY BACON FORSTER, Whitworth House, Spennvmoor. 

Mr. ROBERT WILLIAM GLASS, Axwell Park Colliery, Swalwell, County 
Durham. 

Mr. TOM HALL, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland. 

Mr. MATTHEW HENRY KELLETT, Eldon, Bishop Auckland. 

Mr. AUSTIN KIRKUP, Mining Office, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses, County 
Durham. 

Mr. CHARLES CATTERALL LEACH, Seghill Hall, Northumberland. 

Prof. HENRY LOUIS, 4, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. WILLIAM CHARLES MOUNTAIN, Sun Buildings, Collingwood Street, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. HENRY MASON PARRINGTON, Dene House, Castletown, Sunderland. 

Mr. ROBERT SIMON TATE, The Old House, Trimdon Grange, County Durham. 

Mr. WALKER OSWALD TATE, Usworth Hall, Washington, Washington Station, 
County Durham. 

Mr. WILLIAM BRUMWELL WILSON, 19, West Parade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. ERNEST SEYMOUR WOOD, Cornwall House, Murton, County Durham. 

TREASURER. 
Mr. REGINALD GUTHRIE, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

HONORARY SECRETARY. 
Mr. MATTHEW WILLIAM PARRINGTON, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
Mr. ALLAN CORDNER, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 






LIST OF MEMBERS. XV11 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 

AUGUST 10, 1918. 



PATRONS. 

The Most Honourable the MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF DURHAM. 

The Right Honourable the EARL GREY. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF LONSDALE. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF WHARNCLIFFE. 

The Right Reverend the LORD BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

The Right Honourable LORD ALLENDALE. 

The Right Honourable LORD BARNARD. 

The Right Honourable LORD RAVENSWORTH. 

The Very Reverend the DEAN AND CHAPTER OF DURHAM. 



HONORARY MEMBERS (Hon. M.I.M.E.). 

* Honorary Members during term of office only. 

Date of Election 

1 JOHN BOLAND ATKINSON, 86, St. George's Terrace, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 2, 1913 

2 RICHARD DONALD BAIN, Aykleyheads, Durham June 10, 1911 

3*Prof. PETER PHILLIPS BEDSON, Armstrong College, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. Transactions sent to c o Basil Anderton, 

Public Library, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 10,1883 

4 THOMAS DOUGLAS, The Garth, Darlington (Past- M Aug. 21, 1852 

President, Member of Council) H.M. Dec. 14, 1912 

5 Prof. WILLIAM GARNETT, London County Council Education 

Office, Victoria Embankment, London, W.C. 2 Nov. 24, 1894 

6*SiR WILLIAM HENRY HA DOW. Armstrong College. New- 
castle-upon-Tyne Feb. 12, 1910 

7 Sib HENRY HALL, I.S.O., Brookside, Chester June 10, 1911 

8* JOHN DYER LEWIS, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 21, 

Stanwell Road, Penarth Dec. 11,1909 

9*Prof. HENRY LOUIS, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. Transactions sent to The Librarian, Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dec. 12,1896 

10*THOMAS HARRY MOTTRAM, H.M. Divisional Inspector 

of Mines, 74, Thome Road, Doncaster ... ... ... ... June 10, 1911 

11 DANIEL MURGUE, Ingenieur Civil des Mines, 54, Boulevard 

des Beiges, Lyons, France ... .. ... June 20, 1908 

12*ROBERT NELSON, H.M. Electrical Inspector of Mines, 18, 

Brook Green, London, W. 6. ... .. ... Dec. 11, 1909 

13»ARTHUR DARLING NICHOLSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector 

of Mines, Astley, Manchester ... ... ... ... ... June 10, 1911 

14*Sir RICHARD AUGUSTINE STUDDERT REDMAY 7 NE, 
K.C.B. , H.M. Chief Inspector of Mines, Mines Department, 
Home Office, Whitehall, London, S.W. 1 Dec. 11, 1909 

15 Dr. AUBREY STRAHAN, Director of the Geological Survey 

of Great Britain, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1. .. Aug. 1, 1914 

16*Prof. HENRY STROUD, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 

Tvne Nov. 5, 1892 

17 Sir JETHRO JUSTINIAN HARRIS TEALL, 174, Rosendale 

Road, West Dulwich, London, S.E. 21. Aug. 1,1914 

18*Prof. WILLIAM MUNDELL THORNTON, Armstrong College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 12, 1910 

19*HENRY" WALKER, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 2, 

Kinnear Road, Edinburgh Oct. 13, 1917 

20* WILLIAM WALKER, H.M. Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Mapledene, Ashtead, Epsom Oct. 14,1905 

B 



xvin LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Dat* of Election. 

21»Prof. ROBERT LUNAN WEIOHTON,2, Park WUm, Oofforth, 

\. w.-iisl le upon-Tvne ... ... .. ... ... April 2 

22*JOHN ROBERT ROBINSON WILSON, lf.M. Divisional In- 
spector of Mines, Greyfortj Westfield Drive, Goaforth, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 2, 1913 



MEMBERS (M.I.M.E.). 

Marked * Lave paid life composition. Date of Election 

and of Traimfer. 

1 Abbott, Ernest William, 21, Pearl Assurance Buildings, 

Northumberland Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... Feb. 10, 1917 

2 Abbott, Henry Arnold, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 18, 

Priory Road, Sharrow, Sheffield Feb. 13,1904 

3 Abel, Walter Robert, A Floor, Milburn House, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne Dec. 8, 1906 

4 Adair, Hubert, Gillfoot, Egremont, Cumberland ... ... April 8, 1905 

5 Adams, George Francis, Chief Inspector of Mines in India, 

Dhanbaid, E.I. Railway, Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, 

India ' Aug. 5, 1905 

6 Ainsworth, Herbert, P.O. Box 1553, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal Feb. 14, 1903 

7 Aldridge, Walter Hull, c/o William B. Thompson, 14, 

Wall Street, New York City, U.S. A Feb. 8,1908 

8 Allison, John Henry, Littleburn Colliery, near Durham A. Feb. 10, 1917 

M. June 9, 1917 

9 Allison, J. J. C, Woodland Collieries, Butterknowle, A.M. Feb. 13, 1886 

County Durham M.June 8,1889 

10 Allison, Lancelot, T'ung Hsing Sino Foreign Coal Mining 

Company, Limited, Men-t'ou-Kou, via Peking, North 

China April 14, 1917 

11 Anderson, Coverdale Smith, Bilton Banks, Lesbury, A. April 10, 1915 

Northumberland M. April 13, 1918 

12 Anderson, Robert Simpson, Highfield, Wallsend, North- S. June 9, 1883 

umberland {Member of Council) ... ... A.M. Aug. 4, 1888 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

13 Anderson, William Thomas, c o Farrer Brothers, 4, London 

Wall Buildings, Blomfield Street, London, E.C. 2. ... Oct. 12, 1912 

14 Andrews Arthur, Woodlands, Riding Mill, Northumber- 

land Aug. 2, 1902 

15 Andrews, Edward William, Shelbrooke, Underhill Road, 

Cleadon, Sunderland ... ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 4, 1906 

16*Ang\vin, Benjamin, 3, Penlu Terrace, Tuckingmill, 

Camborne ... Nov. 24, 1894 

17 Appleby, William Remsen, Minnesota School of Mines, The 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. A. April 14, 1894 

18 Archer, William, Victoria Garesfield, Lintz Green, County A.Aug. 6,1892 

Durham M. Aug. 3, 1895 

19 Armstrong, George Herbert Archibald, Castle View, 

Chester-le-Street April 8, 1905 

20 Armstrong. Henry, Collingwood Buildings, Colling wood A.M. April 14, 1883 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne {Member of Council) ... M.June 8, 1889 

21 Ashmore, George Percy, British Legation, The Hague, 

Holland Feb. 13, 1897 

22*Ashton, Sir Ralph Percy, c'o Kilburn, Brown and Com- 
pany, Orient House, New Broad Street, London, E.C. 2. Aug. 2, 1913 

23 Askew, Alfred Hill, Boulby Grange, Loftus, Yorkshire A. Feb. 9, 1907 

M. April 14, 1917 

24 Atkinson, John Boland, 86, St. George's Terrace, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Oct. 11, 1902 

25 Attwood, Alfred Lionel, Minas Pefia del Hierro, 

Provincia de Huelva, Spain ... ... ... ... Aug. 5, 1905 

26 Bainbridge, Emerson Muschamp, 2, Woodbine Avenue, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 8,1902 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XIX 



27 Barkes, Percy, Elemore Colliery, Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham 

28 Barnard, Robert, The Manse, Armadale, West Lothian... 

29 Barrass, Matthew, Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thorn- 

ley, County Durham ... 

30 Barrett, Omer Smith, Alquife, Por Guadix, Provincia de 

Granada, Spain 

31 Barrett, Rollo Samuel, Brookside, Seaton Burn, Dudley, 

Northumberland 

32 Barrs, Edward, Cathedral Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

33*Bartholomew, Charles William, Blakesley Hall, near 
Towcester 

34 Bartlett, George Pilcher, Theatre Lane, Durban, 

Natal, South Africa ... 

35 Batchelor, Owen Salusbury, c'o Mrs. G. F. Watt, P.O. 

Box 943, Kamloops, British Columbia 

36 Bates, Sidney, The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, North- 

umberland {Member of Council) 

37 Bates, Thomas, West Wylam Terrace, Prudhoe, Ovingham, 

Northumberland 

38 Bateson, Walter Remington, P.O. Box 1051, Halifax, 

Nova Scotia ... 

39 Batey, John Wright, Elmfield, Wylam, Northumberland 

40 Bawden, Ernest Robson, Church Street, St. Day, Scorrier, 

Cornwall 

41 Bayliss, Ernest John, Claudio Coello, 4, Madrid, Spain... 

42 Beard, James Thom, c'o Coal Age, 505, Pearl Street, New 

York City, U.S.A. ' 

43 Beith, John William, Apartado 45, Bilbao, Spain 

44 Bell, George William, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 

Northumberland 

45 Bell. Harold Marmaduke Charles, High Hedgefield 

House, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County Durham ... 

46 Bell, Joseph Fenwick, Eppleton Hall, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

47 Bell, Marshall Blackett, 24, Blackhills Terrace, Horden, 

County Durham 

48 Bell, Reginald, Shildon Lodge Colliery, Darlington 

49 Bell, Walter, c'o Pyman, Bell and Company, Hull 

50 Bell, William Ralph, Hylton Colliery, Sunderland 





Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 


A. 
M. 

S. 
A. 
M. 


June 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Dec. 


12, 1909 

10, 1917 

11, 1897 
9, 1884 
1, 1891 
8, 1900 


S. 
A. 
M. 


Dec 
Dec. 

Aug. 
June 


9, 1916 

9, 1905 

1, 1908 

14, 1913 




Aug. 


7, 1909 




Dec. 


4, 1875 




Dec. 


11, 1909 



June 14, 1913 

A. Feb. 8, 1890 

M. June 8, 1895 

A. April 13, 1907 

M. April 13, 1918 

Feb. 11, 1905 
Feb. 9, 1901 

April 8, 1911 
April 13, 1901 

Feb. 14, 1903 
Feb. 10, 1917 
A. Oct. 14, 1911 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 
A. April 12, 1913 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

April 12, 1902 
A. Dec. 14, 1912 
M. April 14, 1917 

Dec. 13, 1902 
S. Oct. 8, 1889 
M. Feb. 10, 1894 
A. Oct. 13, 1894 
M. Dec. 12, 1903 



Dec. 14, 1912 



51 Bennett, Arthur Edgar, Estacion de Cerro Muriano, 

Provincia de Cordoba, Spain 

52 Bennett, Alfred Henry, The East Bristol Collieries, A.M. April 10, 1886 

Limited, Kingswood Colliery, St. George, Bristol ... M. June 8, 1889 

53 Benson, Robert Seymour, Teesdale Iron Works, Stockton- 

upon-Tees April 8, 1911 

54 Berkley, Richard William, 45. Old Elvet, Durham ... S. Feb. 14, 1874 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June 8, 1889 

55 Best, Earle, 12, Station Road, Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham 

56 Bewley, Thomas, Stobswood Colliery, Acklington, North- 

umberland 

57 Bigge, Denys Leighton Selby, Mercantile Chambers, 

53, Both well Street, Glasgow 

58 Bigland, Hubert Hallam, c/o J. H. Holmes and Company, 

19, Waterloo Street, Glasgow 

59 Bird, Edward Erskine, c'o George Elliot and Company, 

Limited, 16, Great George Street, Westminster, London, A.M. Aug. 5, 1905 
S.W.I ... M. Dec. 14, 1907 



April 13, 1912 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

June 10, 1903 

Dec. 14, 1901 



w LIS! 01 MEMBERS. 

I)at. of I I 
ft ml nf Transfn 

GO" BlBB insii aw , FbEDSBICK Kd.son, Marbella, I'rovincia <le 

Malaga, Spam Dt id. 1910 

<;i Blaokbtt, William Cuthbibt, Acorn Cl< bon, 5, Nov. 4, 1876 

Durham (Past-President, Member of Council) A.M. Aug. I, iss." 

M. June 8. 

62 Blaiklook, Thomas Henderson, The Flatts, near Bishop 

Auckland ... ... ... ... ... ... April 13 

63 Blandford, Thomas, L3, Town Moor Avenue, Doncaeter .. S. Dee. 12 



A. Aug. 3 

M. Jim. L2 
04 Blatchi'-oiu), William Hooper, Grejtown, Natal, South 

Africa Feb. 10 

Go Blenner-Hassett, Geiiald, P.O. Box 914, Durban, Xatal, 

South Africa ... Oct. 14 

6G Booth, Frederic Lancelot, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, S.Feb. 10 
Northumberland ... ... ... ... ... ... A.Aug. 4 

M. April 8 



1901 

1907 
1909 



I 9 1 l' 

101] 

1894 
1900 
1911 

67 Boblase, William Henry, Greenside Lodge, Glenridding, 

Penrith Aug. 4, 1894 

68 Bowen, David, 6S, Prudential Buildings, Park Pow, Leeds April 3, 1909 

69 Bowman, Francis, Moseley House, Birtley, County A. June 8, 1S95 

Durham ' M. Feb. 13, 1904 

70* Bracken, Thomas Wilson, 40, Grey Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne ... Oct. 14, 1899 

71 Braidford, William, Jun., South Garesfield Colliery, 

Lintz Green, County Durham ... ... ... June 14, 1902 

72 Bramwell, Hugh, Great Western Colliery, Pontypridd ... S. Oct. 4, 1879 

A.M. Aug. 6, 1887 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

73*Brinell, Johan August, Nassjo, Sweden June 9, 1 900 

74 Brodhurst, Bernard Lucas, South Brancepeth, Spennv- 

moor ... ... Feb. 10. 1917 

75 Brooksbank, Frank, Kinta Association, Limited, Ipoh, 

Perak, Federated Malay States ... April 4,1914 

76 Broome. ( George Herbert, Wonthaggi, Victoria, Australia Oct. 9, 1897 

77 Brown, Edward Otto Forster, 706-707, Salisbury House, S. Dec. 14, 1901 

Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2 A.Aug. 3,1907 

A.M. Oct. 12, 1907 

M. Dec. 14, 1912 

7S Brown, Isaac, 13, Windsor Terrace, Hexham Feb. 10, 1917 

79 Brown, John, E.I.R. and B.N.Pv. Joint Collieries, Bokaro S. June 8, 1907 

P.O., via Adra, B.N. Railway, Bihar and Orissa, India A. Aug. 7, 1909 

M. Feb. 11, 1911 

80 Brown, John Coggin, Inspector of Mines in Burma, Tavoy, A. M. Dec. 11 , 1909 

Lower Burma, India... ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 7, 1915 

81 Brown, John Connell, Westport Coal Company, Limited, 

Denniston, Buller, New Zealand Feb. 8.1908 

82 Brown, Myles, 4, Beaconsfield Crescent, Low Fell, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... June 14, 1913 

S3 Brown, Robert Oughtox, Newbiggin Colliery, New biggin- S.Oct. 8,1892 
by-the-Sea, Northumberland (Member of Council) ... A.Aug. 3,1895 

M. Oct. 12, 1901 

84 Brown, W. Forster, Guildhall Chambers, Cardiff S. Aug. 6, 1887 

M. Aug. 5, 1893 

85 Browne, Robert John, 5, Westtield Avenue, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dec. 8, 1917 

86 Browning, Walter James, c/o Rio Tinto Company, 

Limited, Rio Tinto, Provincia de Huelva, Spain ... Oct. 12, 1907 

87 Bruce, John, Hill Crest, Whitby S.Feb. 14,1874 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June 8. 1889 

88 Bryham, William, Bank House, Wigan Dec. 8, 1900 

89 Bull, Henry Matthews, Gopalichak Coal Company, 

Limited, Bansjora, E.I.R., Manbhum, Bihar and 

Orissa, India ... ... ... April 9, 1904 





Date of Election 




and of Transfer. 




Feb. 


13, 1892 


8. 


M ay 


2. 1874 


A.M. 


Aug. 


6, 1881 


M. 


June 


8, 18S9 


S. 


Dec. 


6, 1873 


A.M. 


Aug. 


5, 1882 


M. 


Oct, 


8, 1887 




Aug. 


3, 1912 




Feb. 


9, 1889 


S. 


Feb. 


9, 1889 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 1894 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 1S95 


S. 


Aug. 


4, 1S94 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 1901 




June 


8, 1895 




June 


1, 1918 




Dec. 


9, 1905 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXI 



90 Bulman, Edward Hemsley, New Kleinfontein Company, 

Benoni, Transvaal 

91 Bulman, Harrison Francis, Morwick Hall, Acklington, 

Northumberland 

92 Bunning, Charles Ziethen, c/o The British Vice-Consul, 

Pandemia, near Constantinople, Turkey 

93 Burford, James Wilfred, c'o Lobitos Oil-fields, Limited, 

Lobitos, Paita, Peru, South America 
94* Burls, Herbert Thomas, Abele drove, South Street, Epsom 
95*Burn, Frank Hawthorn, 9, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Transactions sent to Pattishall House, Towcester 

96 Burne, Cecil Alfred, c o The Asturiana Mines, Limited, 

Covadonga, Asturias, Spain 

97 Burnett, Ccthbert, Sunny Bank, Trowbridge 

98 Burnside, George. Engineering Works, Shiney Row, 

Fence Houses, County Durham ... 

99 Burton, George Augustus, Hightield, Nunthorpe, York- 

shire 

100 Calder, William, 16, Birchwood Mansions, Fortis Green 

Road, Muswell Hill, London, N. 10 Aug. 2, 1913 

101 Carnegie, Alfred Quintin, 31, Manor House Road, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

102 Carnes, Charles Spearman. Marsden Hall, South Shields 

103 Casson, William Walter, Breeze Hill, Whitehaven 

104 Chambers, R. E., Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, 

Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia 

105 Channing, J. Parke, 42, Broadway, New York City, 

U.S.A. 

106*Chappel, Walter Richard Haighton, Elm Court, 
Starcross, Devon 

107 Charleton, Arthur George, 5, Avonmore Road, West 

Kensington, London, W. 14. 

108 Charlton, William, Guisborough, Yorkshire 

109 Chater, Cecil William, c/o T. Cook and Son, Rangoon, 

Burma, India ... 

110 Cheesman, Edward Taylor. Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, 

County Durham 

111 Cheesman, Herbert. Hartlepool 

112 Cheesman, Matthew Forster, Throckley Colliery, New- 

burn, Northumberland 

113 Chicken, Bourn Russell, c/o R. Martens and Company, 

Limited, 149, Leadenhall Street, London, E.G. 3. 

114 Church, Robert William, Government of India Railway 

Board, Secretariat Buildings, Calcutta, India ... 

115 Claghorn, Clarence R., Claghorn, Indiana County, 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

116 Clark, Henry, Stockton Forge, Stockton-upon-Tees 

117 Clark, Robert, Bracken Road, Darlington ... 

118 Clark. Robert Blenkinsop. Springwell Colliery. Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

119 Clark, William Henry, Fernlea, 100, Crouch Hill, 

Hornsey, London, N. 8. 

120 Clifford, Edward Herbert. Rand Club, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal 

121 Clifford, William, Hedersonville, N.C., U.S. A 

122 Climas, Arthur Bertram, Priory House, Launceston 

123 Clive, Lawrence, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Springfield 

House, Newcastle, Staffordshire... ... Aug. 2, 1913 





Oct. 11, 


1902 




Aug. 1 , 


1891 




Aug. 5, 


1905 




June 9, 


1900 




April 25, 


1896 




Feb. 14, 


1903 




Aug. 6, 


1S92 




Feb. 12, 


1898 




April 13, 


1912 


A. 


Aug. 2, 


1890 


M. 


Aug. 6, 


1802 




Aug. 6, 


1892 


S. 


Dec. 13, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1905 


M. 


April 14, 


1917 




Dec. 12, 


1903 


S. 


Dec. 9, 


1905 


A. 


Aug. 3, 


1907 


M. 


Oct. 12, 


1907 




Aug. 5, 


1S99 




April 8, 


1899 




Feb. 15, 


1896 


s. 


May 3, 


1873 


M. 


Aug. 4, 


1877 




April 28, 


1900 


S. 


Oct. 13, 


1894 


A 


. Aug. 6, 


189S 


M 


. April 8, 


1911 




Feb. 9, 


1895 




Dec. 10, 


1910 



XXII 



LIST HI- MKMMERS. 



124 CLOTHIER, Henry William, 3, Park Villas, The '.reen, 

Wallsend, Northumberland 

125 ClOUGH, BDWASD BtoKOB, Harrington Cottage, Bedlington, 

Northumberland 
L26 CLOUOH, JAME8, Bomartund House, Bomarsund, Bedlington, 
Northumberland ... ... ... ...A 

127 Cochrane, Brodie, Hurworth Old Hall, near Darlington ... 

128 Cochrane, Robert William, Somerset House, Whitehaven 

129 Cockbain,Tom Stkwartson, Usworth Colliery, Washington 

Station, County Durham 

130 Cockburn, John, Trimdon Grange Colliery, County Durham 

131*Collins, Hugh Brown, Auchinbothie Estate Office, Kil- 
macolm, Renfrewshire 

132 Collins, Victor Buyers, 87, Albert Street, Wickham, New 

South Wales, Australia 

133 Colquhoun, Thomas Grant, 7, Marine Avenue, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... 

134 Commans, Robert Edden, Sandy croft, Speer Road, Thames 

Ditton, Surrey 

135 Comstock, Charles Worthington, 514, First National 

Bank Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

136 Cook, George, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Oakbank, White- 

haven ... ... 

137 Cook, Joseph, Washington Iron Works, Washington Station, 

County Durham 

138 Cook, James Falshaw, Washington Iron Works, Washing- 

ton Station, County Durham 

139 Cook, John Watson, Winchester Hall, Bishop Auckland... 

140 Cooke, Henry Moore Annesley, The Ooregum Gold- 

mining Company of India, Limited, Oorgaum, Kolar 
Goldfield, Mysore, India 

141 Cooksey, Wilfrid, East Indian Railway Collieries, 

Giridih, E.I.R., Bihar and Orissa, India .. 
142*Coppee, Evence, The Coppee Company (Great Britain), 
Limited, Kings House, Kingsway, London, W.C. 2. ... 

143 Corbett, Vincent Charles Stuart W 7 ortley, Chilton 

Moor, Fence Houses, County Durham 

144 Cothay, Frank Hernaman, 7, Valebrooke, Sunderland 

145 Coulson, Frank, Shamrock House, Durham (Past-Presi- 

dent, Member of Council) ... ... 

146 Couves, Harry Augustus, Tovil, Westfield Avenue, Gos- 

forth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

147 Cowell, Edward, Horden Colliery, Horden, County 

Durham 

148 Cowell, Joseph Stanley, Vane House, Seaham Harbour, 

County Durham 

149 Coxon, Samuel George, Malton Colliery, Esh, Durham ... 

150 Coxon, William Bilton, Seaton Hill, Boosbeck, Yorkshire 



151 Cragg, James Horace Maitland, c o R. H. Patterson and 

Company, Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne... 

152 Craster, Walter Spencer, P.O. Box 336, Salisbury, 

Rhodesia, South Africa 

153 Craven, Robert Henry, The Libiola Copper-mining Com- 

pany, Limited, Sestri Levante, Italy 

154 Crawford, James Mill, Denehurst, Ferry Hill 

155 Crawford, Thomas, Eighton Banks, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

156 Crookston, Andrew White, 188, St. Vincent Street, Glas- 

gow 





Dat* of Election 




and "i 


1 Ttk 


n»f*r 






12, 


1909 


A. 


Feb 


14, 


1903 


M 


April 


8, 


1911 


S. 


April 


'-, 


1873 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1878 


If. 


June 


8, 


1889 




Dec. 


6, 


1 866 




Aug. 


1, 


1914 


A. 


Dec. 


8, 


1906 


M. 


Feb. 


10, 


1917 


A. 


Apri 


1 9, 


1 904 


M 


April 


114, 


1917 




April 


114, 


1894 




June 


11, 


1904 




Dec. 


14, 


1898 




Nov. 


24, 


1894 




June 


10, 


1905 


S. 


Aug. 


2, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 


5, 


1905 


M. 


Feb. 


10, 


1912 




Oct. 


9, 


1897 




Feb. 


12, 


1898 




Oct. 


14, 


1893 




Dec. 


12, 


1896 




Aug. 


1, 


1914 




Feb. 


9, 


1907 




Sept, 


3, 


1870 




Aug. 


2, 


1913 


S. 


Aug. 


1, 


1868 


M 


■ Aug. 


2, 


1873 




Feb. 


10, 


1906 


A. 


Oct. 


8, 


1904 


M. 


June 20, 


1908 




Dec. 


12, 


1908 


A. 


Feb. 


9, 


1901 


M. 


Feb. 


10, 


1917 


S. 


Feb. 


12, 


1898 


A. 


Aug. 


2, 


1902 


M. 


Feb. 


12, 


1910 




Aug. 


6, 


1910 




Dec. 


8, 


1900 




Feb. 


11, 


1905 




Feb. 


14, 


1903 


A. 


Dec. 


8, 


1906 


M 


. Dec. 


12, 


1914 




Dec. 


14, 


1895 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XX111 



57 Crosby, Arthur, Douglas Colliery, Limited, Mine Office, A.M 

Crown-Douglas Junction, Balmoral, Transvaal... ... M, 

58 Croudace, Francis Henry Lambton, The Lodge, Lambton, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

59 Croudace, Sydney, Errigal, New Lambton, New South 

Wales, Australia 

60 Cruz y Diaz, Emiliano de la, Director-General de 

l'Empresa Minas et Minerales, Limited, Ribas, 
Pro vincia de Gerona, Spain . . 

61 Cullen, Matthew, c/o P.O. Box 1948, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal 

62 Cummings, John, Hamsterley Colliery, County Durham .. 



Dat« of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Aug. 7, 1897 
April 12, 1902 

June 8, 1907 

June 8, 1907 



A. 
M. 

63 Curry, George Alexander, Thornley House, Thornley, 

County Durham 

64 Curry, Michael, Cornsay Colliery, Durham 

65 Dakers, William Robson, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor A.M. 

M. 

66 Dan, Takuma, Mitsui Mining Company, 1, Suruga-cho, 

Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan 

67 Danchich, Valerian, Varvarka, 26, Moscow, Russia 

68 Darlington, Cecil Ralph, 6, Ravenscroft Avenue, Golders 

Green, London, N. W. 4 ... 

69 Darlington, James, Black Park Colliery, Chirk, Ruabon 



70 Davidson, Allan Arthur, c/o F. F. Fuller, 638, Salisbury 

House, London Wall, London, E.C. 2. ... 

71 Davidson, Christopher Cunnion, Hardheads, Egremont, 

Cumberland ... 

72 Davies, David, Cowell House, Llanelly 

73 Davies, William, 230, Halliwell Road, Bolton 

74 Davies, William Stephen, Maesydderwen, Tredegar 

75 Daw, Albert William, 11, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 4 

76 Dean, Harry, 30, Eastbourne Gardens, Whitley Bay, 

Northumberland 

77 Dean, John, The Wigan Coal and Iron Company, Limited, 

Wigan ... 

78 Dew, James Walter Henry, 8, Laurence Pountney Hill, 

Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4. ... 
79*Dewhurst, John Herbert, 28 and 29, Threadneedle Street, 

London, E.C. 2 

80 Dietzsch, Ferdinand, c/o Miss P. Dietzsch, 7, Emanuel 

Avenue, Acton, London, W. 3. ... 

81*Dingwall, William Burleston- Abigail, P.O. Box 179, 

San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 
82*Ditmas, Francis Ivan Leslie, Assistant Director Railway 

Traffic, G.H.Q. (South), British Expeditionary Force, 

France... 

83 Dixon, Clement, P.O. Box 305, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South 

Africa ... 

84 Dixon, David Watson, Lumpsey Mines, Brotton, York- 

shire 

85 Dixon, George, Sejooah Colliery, Sijua Post Office, E.I.R., 

Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India ... 

86 Dobb, Thomas Gilbert, Brick House, Westleigh, Leigh ... 

87 Dodd, Benjamin, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham 

[Member of Council) ... 

88 Donald, William E., Whitchester, Haltwhistle, North- 

umberland 
89*Donkin, William, 19, Hosack Road, Balham, London, 
S.W. 17 



S. 
M. 



A. 
M. 



S. 
A. 
M. 

S. 
M. 



June 14, 1902 

Feb. 12, 1910 
Aug. 2, 1902 
Dec. 14, 1907 

Oct. 12, 1907 
Aug. 6, 1898 

Oct. 14, 1882 
Aug. 3, 1889 

April 14, 1894 
June 10, 1911 

Dec. 10, 1910 

Nov. 7, 1874 
Aug. 4, 1877 

April 13, 1907 

Oct. 10, 1908 

Dec. 9, 1899 

Dec. 9, 1911 

Feb. 14, 1903 

June 12, 1897 

June 10, 1905 

Feb. 13, 1904 

June 10, 1911 

April 2, 1898 

Aug. 5, 1899 

Aug. 4, 1900 

June 11, 1898 
June 14, 1902 

Dec. 14, 1912 

Nov. 2, 1872 

June 13, 1896 

Aug. 6, 1904 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 8, 1894 

May 3, 1866 

Aug. 1, 1868 



..A.M. 
M. 



Oct. 14, 1905 
Sept. 2, 1876 
Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 



XXIV 



LIST OK MlvMI'IKv 



190 Dorm and, i: m.iii Brown, Cunboii House, Cambois, Blytfa 

i!»i Douglas, Arthur Stanley, Bearpark Colliery, Durham 

192 Dover, Thomas William, Sherburn Colliery, Durham 

193 Draper, William, Bilksworth Colliery, Sunderland 

191 DUNCAN, William Shaw, c/o The Capita] and Counl 

Bank, Limited, 22, Fenchurcli Street, London, E.C. 3. 
195 Dunn, George Victor Septimus, [Jaroo Lead Mines, 

Onslow, Western Australia 
190 Dunn, Thomas Bowman, c/o J. Dunn and Stephen, Limited, 

21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow 
197 Durham, Thomas Stanley, Highland View, Bransty, 

Whitehaven ... 



und of Ti.< 

A. Dec. 9, 

M. Aug. 3, 1 It'll 

13, 1901 

April 4, 1914 

A. Dec. 14, 1889 

M. Dei . 12, 1903 

Oct. 14, 1905 

June 20, L908 

Aug. 6, 1910 

Feb. 10, 1917 



198 EASTLAKE, Arthur William. Grosmont, Palace Road, 

Streatham Hill, London, S. W. 2. ... 

199 Ede, Henry Edward, Rectory Chambers, Norfolk Row, 

Sheffield 

200 Edmond, Francis, Moorland House, Haigh, Wigan 

201 Edwards, Edward, Ystradfechan, Treorchy, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

202 Edwards, Herbert Francis, 104, Stanwell Road, Penarth 

203 Edwards, Owain Tudor, Fedwhir, Aberdare 

204 Edwards, William John, 29, Oppidans Road, Primrose 

Hill, London, N.W. 3 

205 Elder, Moses, Hafod House, North Side, Workington 

206 Eliet, Francis Constant Andre Benoni Elie du, 

15, Rue St. Pierre, Lorient, France 
207*Elsdon, Robert William Barrow, co Anglo South 
American Bank, Reconquista No. 78, Buenos Aires, 
Argentine Republic, South America 

208 Eltringham, George, Eltringham Colliery, Prudhoe, 

Ovingham, Northumberland 

209 Embleton, Henry Cawood. Central Bank Chambers, 

Leeds ... 

210 Englesqueville, Rene d', 62 bis, Rue de la Tour, Paris, 

XVI 1 ', France 

211 English, John, North Learn, Felling, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

212 English, William, Ferneybeds Colliery, Morpeth 

213 Eskdale, John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

214 Etherington, John, 39a, King William Street, London 

Bridge, London, E.G. 4. 

215 Evans, John, Great Cobar, Limited, Lithgow, New South 

Wales, Australia 

216 Evans, John William, Woodlands House, Loughor, 

Glamorgan 

217 Fairbrother, Charles James, The Durban Navigation 

Collieries, Dannhauser, Natal, South Africa 

218 Falcon, Michael, Imperial Buildings, 56, Kingsway, 

London, W.C. 2 

219 Fallins, James, Abermain Colliery, Abermain, via West 

Maitland, New South Wales, Australia ... 

220 Fawcett, Edward Stoker, Giltbrook House, Giltbrook, 

Nottingham ... 

221 *Fen wick, Barnabas, 66, Manor House Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

222 Fergie, Charles, 704, Upper Mountain Street, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada 

223 Ferguson, James, The Cedars, High Wycombe 



June 11. L89-2 

July 14, I - 
Dec. 10, 1910 

Feb. 9. 1895 
Oct. 12, 1901 
Aug. 4, 1900 

June 13, 1914 
A. June 10, 1911 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

Aug. 3, 1901 



April 13, 1901 
A. Dec. 8, 1894 
M. Aug. 2, 1902 



April 14, 


1S94 


Feb. 8, 

Dec. 9, 

Dec. 14, 

A. Oct. 11, 

M. Aug. 3, 


1908 
1899 
1907 
1902 
1912 


Dec. 9, 


1893 


Aug. 1 , 


1914 


April S, 


1911 


A. Feb. S, 
M. Oct. 12, 
S. Oct. 13, 
A. Aug. 4, 
M. June 1, 


1908 
1912 
1894 
1900 
1912 



Oct, 10, 1914 
A. June 11, 1892 
M. Aug. 6, 1904 

Aug. 2, 1866 

Dec. 9, 1893 
Dec. 12, 1896 



LIST OF MKMBKRS. XXV 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

224 Fkvre, Lucien Francis, 91, Rue Saint Lazare, Paris, IX°, 

France Feb. 8, 1908 

225 Field, Benjamin Starks, Layabad Colliery, Kusunda P.O., S.Aug. 2,1902 

E.I.R., Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India A. Aug. 3, 1907 

M. June 14, 1913 

226 Fisher, Edward Robert, Wansbeck, Ammanford, Car- A.M. Aug. 2,1884 

marthenshire ... ... ... ... .. ... ... M. Aug. 3. 1889 

227 Fisher, Henry Herbert, Alta Gracia, F.C.C.A., 

Argentine Republic, South America ... ... ... Oct. 8, 1904 

228 Fleming, Henry Stuart, 1, Broadway, New York City, 

CJ.S.A June 10, 1905 

229 Fletcher. Lancelot Holstock. Allerdale Coal Company, A.M. April 14, 1888 

Limited, Colliery Office, Great Clifton, Workington ... M. June 8, 1889 
230*Fletcher, Walter, The Hollins, Bolton Dec. 14, 1895 

231 Ford, Mark, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham (Vice-President, Member of Council) Aug. 3, 1895 

232 Ford, Thomas, Blaydon Burn Colliery, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, A. Aug. 2, 1902 

County Durham M. April 14, 1917 

233 Forster, Alfred Llewellyn, Newcastle and Gateshead 

Water Company, Engineer's Office, Pilgrim Street, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... June 8, 1901 

234 Forster, Charles, Earls Drive. Low Pell, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne April 9, 1910 

235 Forster, John Henry Bacon, Whitworth House, S. Nov. 24, 1894 

Spennymoor (M ember of Council) ... ... ... ... A.Aug. 7,1897 

M. Feb. 10, 1900 

236 Forster, Joseph William, P.O. Box 56, East Rand, 

Transvaal Feb. 13, 1904 

237 Forster. Thomas Emerson. 3. Eldon Square, Newcastle- S. Oct. 7, 1876 

upon-Tyne (Past-President, Member of Council) ... A.M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

238 Fowler, Robert Norman, Whorlton Terrace, North S. Aug. 2, 1902 

Walbottle, Newburn, Northumberland ... A.Aug. 3,1907 

M. Aug. 4, 1917 

239 Fryar, Mark. Denby Colliery, Derby S.Oct. 7,1876 

A.M. Aug. 4, 1883 
M. June 8, 1889 

240 Fryer, George Kellett, 2, North Road, Dinnington 

Colliery, Dudley, Northumberland Dec. 14, 1901 

241 Futers, Thomas Campbell, 17, Balmoral Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... ... ... Aug 6, 1904 

242 Galloway. Thomas Lindsay. Kilchrist, Campbeltown ... Sept. 2, 1876 

243 Gard, Irving Rider, Washington Collieries Company, 

629-647, Central Building, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Dec. 12, 1914 

244 Garrett, Frederic Charles, Armstrong College, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne April 13, 1912 

245 Gibson, James, Geldenhuis Deep. Limited, P.O. Box 54, A.M. Dec. 9, 1899 

Cleveland, Transvaal ... ... ... .. ... M. Feb. 13. 1904 

246 Gibson, Richard, Seaham No. 1 Colliery, West Wall send, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia ... ... Auo\ 5,1911 

247 Gifford, Henry J., The Champion Reef Gold-mining Com- 

pany of India, Limited, Champion Reefs P.O., Mysore, 

India ... Oct. 14, 1893 

248 Gilchrist, James, 3, Roman Road North, Middlesbrough June 13, 1914 

249 Gill, David Fritz, 36, Lowther Street, Whitehaven ... Dec. 12, 1914 

250 Gillman, Gustave, Aguilas, Provincia dc Murcia, Spain Aug. 2, 1902 

251 Glass, Robert William, Axwell Park Colliery, Swalwell, S. June 10, 1899 

County Durham (Member of Council) A.Aug. 1,1903 

M. Oct. 12, 1907 

252 Goninon, Richard, Menzies Consolidated Gold-mines, 

Limited, Menzies, Western Australia June 10, 1906 

253 Goodwin, William Lawton, School of Mining, Kingston, 

Ontario, Canada Feb. 11, 1899 



XXVI 



LIST "I MINI 1*1 



254 Gouldie, Joseph, 62, Standard Bank Chambers, Joham 

burg, Transvaal 

255 Grace, William Gbaoe, Elton Minei, Baton, Yorkshire .. 



256 Graham, Kdward, .Tun., Bedlington Colliery, Bedlington, 

Northumberland 

257 Gray, Edmund, 150, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor 

258 Green, John Dampier, P.O. Box 1341, Durban, Natal, A 

Sou tli Africa . . . 

259 Greener, Herbert, West Lodge, Crook, County Durham 

260 Greener, Thomas Yoono, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County 

Durham (Past-President, Member of Council) .. ... A. 

261 Greener, William James, c'o Bird and Company, Char- 

tered Bank Buildings, Calcutta, India ... 

262 Greenwell, Allan, 9, Durham Villas, Kensington, 

London, \V. 8. 

263 Greenwell, Alan Leonard Stapylton, Park House, 

Windlestone, Ferry Hill 

264 Greenwell, George Clementson, Beechfield, Poynton, 

Stockport 

265 Greenwell, George Harold, Woodside, Poynton, Stock- 

port 

266 Gregson, George Ernest, 13, Harrington Street, Liverpool 

267 Grey, John Neil, c/o Naworth Coal Company, Limited, 

Hallbankgate Offices, Brampton, Carlisle 

268 Griffith, Thomas, Maes Gwyn, Cymmer, Porth, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

269 Griffith, William, Waterloo House, Aberystwyth 
270*Grose, Frank, 109, Alexandra Road, Ford, Devonport ... 
271*Grundy, James, Ruislip, Teignmouth Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N.W. 2. Transactions sent to The Secretary, 
Mining and Geological Institute of India, Calcutta, 
India ... 

272 Gummerson, James M., 5, Hillcrest Road, Acton, London, A 

W. 3 

273 Guthrie, James Kenneth, Coal Trade Offices, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

274 Haas, Frank, Fairmont, West Virginia, U.S. A 

275*Haddock, William Thomas, c/o H. C. Morton, 2nd Street, 

Gezina, Pretoria, Transvaal ... ... ... ...A. 

276 Haggie, John Douglass 

277 Hailwood, Ernest Arthur, The Towers, Churwell, Leeds 

278 Haines, Charles George Padfield, 9, Picton Place, 

Swansea 

279 Halbaum, Henry Wallace Gregory, 177, City Road, 

Cardiff 

280 Hall, John Charles, Black Boy Colliery, Bishop Auckland 

281 Hall, Joseph John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

282 Hall, Joseph Percival, Shotton Colliery, Castle Eden, 

County Durham 

283 Hall, Robert William, Llambed Fawr Farm, Llanharran, 

Pontyclun, Glamorgan 

284 Hall, Tom, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland {Member of Council) 

285 Hallas. George Henry, Claremont, Huyton, Liverpool ... 

A. 



S. 
A. 
M. 



M. 
M. 

S. 

M. 

M. 



S. 
A. 
M. 

S. 
M. 

S. 
A. 
M. 

A. 
M. 



Mate of Election 

an<l of Transfer 



',, 1893 

U 1907 
Aug. 1. I!) 14 
Feb. JO, 1917 

Aug. 1, 1896 

June 19, 1915 
14, 1901 
Aug. 2, 1002 
Feb. 13, 1909 
Julv 2, 1872 
Aug". 2, 1879 
.lune 8, 1889 

June 11, 1910 

Aug. 4, 1900 
Oct. 8, ls98 
Aug. 5, 1905 
Dec. 14, 1907 
March 6, 1869 
Aug. 3, 1872 
Dec. 12, 1903 
Aug. 4, 1906 
April 8, 1911 
Aug. 7, 1915 
June 10, 1905 
Feb. 10, 1912 

April 9, 1904 
Dec. 9, 1893 
April 9, 1910 



M. 
M. 



A. 
M. 



S, 
A 

M. 

A. 

M. 

s. 

M. 
M. 



June 13, 1896 
June 10, 1899 
Dec. 12, 1903 

Dec. 14, 1912 

Oct. 14, 1911 
Oct. 7, 1876 
Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 
Dec. 11, 1909 
April 12, 1913 

Oct. 8, 1910 

April 8, 1899 
Dec. 14, 1889 
Aug. 3, 1895 



Dec. 10, 
Oct. 9, 
Aug. 2, 
Oct. 9, 
Dec. 13, 
June 8, 
June 8, 
Oct. 7, 
Aug. 4, 
June 8, 



1904 
1897 
1902 
1909 
1902 
1907 
1889 
1876 
1883 
1889 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXVll 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

28(5 Halliday, Mark, 59, Old Elvet, Durham Aug. 5,1916 

287 Hallimond, William Tasker, P.O. Box 5191, Johannes- 

burg, Transvaal Dec. 14, 1889 

288 Hamilton, James, Hill Crest Villa, Castle Eden, County 

Durham Oct. 10, 1908 

289 Hance, Henry Malkin, c o Grindlay and Company, 54, 

Parliament Street, London, S.W. 1 Oct. 12,1907 

290*Hancock, Henry Lipson, Wallaroo, South Australia ... Dec. 14, 1895 

291 Hands, John, The Kajang Central Rubber Factory, 

Limited, Kajang, Selangor, Federated Malay States... Dec. 14, 1912 

292 Hann, Robert, Jun., Harton House, Harton Colliery, 

South Shields Oct. 14,1895 

293 Hannah, David, 14, Marine Parade, Penarth Feb. 9, 1895 

294 Hare, George, Fairlawn, Leeholme, Bishop Auckland ... A. Feb. 12, 1898 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

295 Hare, Samuel, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland (Vice- S. Aug. 2, 1879 

President, Member of Council) ... ... M.Aug. 1,1891 

296 Harle, Peter, South Grange, Shincliffe, Durham Oct. 8, 1892 

297 Harris, David, Tendega Collieries, Vryheid, Natal, South A.M. June 12, 1897 

Africa M. April 13, 1901 

298 Haselden, Arthur, Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain ... A.M. Dec. 11, 1897 

M. April 2, 1898 
299*Hawker, Edward William, Eagle Chambers, Pirie Street, 

Adelaide, South Australia Oct. 12,1895 

300 Hawkins, Thomas Spear, c'o The St. John del Rey Mining 

Company, Limited, Villa Nova de Lima, Estado de 

Minas, Brazil, South America ... ... ... ... Aug. 6, 1904 

301 Hay, Douglas, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 34, Old Elvet, 

Durham Dec. 14, 1912 

302 Hedley, Arthur Morton, Eston House, Eston, Yorkshire A. Nov. 24, 1894 

(Vice-President, Member of Council) M.Dec. 12,1903 

303 Hedley, Morton, Stobbilee House, Langley Park, Durham A. Feb. 13, 1909 

M. Aug. 2, 1913 

304 Hedley, Septimus H., Langholme, Roker, Sunderland ... S. Feb. 15, 1879 

A.M. Aug. 1, 1885 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

305 Henderson, William, Alston House, Littletown, Durham Aug. 7, 1909 

306 Hendy, John Cary Baker, Etherley, via Darlington ... Oct. 14, 1893 

307 Henriksen, Gudbrand, Inspector of Mines, Minde, near 

Bergen, Norway Aug. 6, 1904 

308 Herdman, William, St. John's Chapel, County Durham ... April 11, 1908 

309 Heron, George Patrick, Pont Head House, Leadgate, 

County Durham April 8,1911 

310 Herrmann, Henry J. A., a Ai'n-Sedjera, par Lafayette, 

Algeria Dec. 10, 1898 

311 Heslop, Christopher. Woodside. Marske Mill Lane, S. Feb. 1, 1868 

Saltburn-by-the-Sea M. Aug. 2, 1873 

312 Heslop, Michael, Rough Lea Colliery, Willington, County A. Feb. 10, 1894 

Durham M. June 21, 1894 

313 Heslop, Septimus, 212, Redland Road, Durdham Park, 

Bristol Oct. 12, 1895 

314 Heslop, Thomas, Randolph Colliery, Evenwood, Bishop S. Oct. 2, 1880 

Auckland A.M. Aug. 4, 1888 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

315 Heslop, Wardle, 20, East Parade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne S. Dec. 10, 1904 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. June 14, 1913 

316 Heslop, William Taylor, St. Georges Colliery, Hatting 

Spruit, Natal, South Africa Aug. 3,1895 

317 Hewlett, Alfred, Haseley Manor, Warwick March 7, 1861 

318 Hewlett, Alfred, The Cossall Colliery Company, Limited, 

Cossall, near Nottingham June 20, 190S 

319 Hewlett, Erne, Ammanford Colliery Company, Limited, 

Ammanford, Carmarthenshire Oct. 10, 1896 

320 Higson, Jacob, Rossland, Northwood, Middlesex Aug. 7, 1862 



XX VI II 



I I OF Ml-. MM I If- 



321 Bill, Frank Ctril Gibson, Oakdene, Oxford Road, 

M o elej | Birmingham 

322 Hill, William, The Briars, Hinckley Road, Nuneaton 

:)2:\ Hilton, Thomas Worthington, Wigan Coal and Iron 
( 'oi'iip.iiiN , Limited, Wigan 

324 Hindmarsh, Joseph Pakkrr, Corrimal, South Coa 

South Wales, Australia 

325 Eindson, George, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

326 Hindson, Thomas, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

327 Eodgkin, Jonathan Edward, Shellej i, Darlington 

328 Hogg, John, .Jan., 154, Proapec Perrace, bSston, Yorkshire 

329 Holland, Charles Henrt, P.O. Box 415, Auckland, New 

Zealand 

330 Holliday, Martin Forstek. Park House. Durham 

331 Holliday, Norman Stan lev, Langley Old Hall, Langley 

Moor, Durham 

332 Holman, Nicholas, The Gibraltar Consolidated Gold-mines, 

Limited, Sheppardstovvn, New South Wales, Australia 

333 Hood, George, 9, Agents Terrace, Boldon Colliery, County 

Durham 

334 Hood, William Walker, Tredean. near Chepstow 

335 Hooper, Albert Henry, P.O. Box 152, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 

South Africa ... 

336 Hoofer, James Augustus, Springfield, Lydney 

337 Hop wood, Howell Arthur, Lever Brothers, Limited, 

H.C.B. Department, Rnyal Liver Buildings. Liverpool 

338 Hornsby, Demster, Choppington Colliery, Choppington, 

Northumberland 

339 Horswill, Frederick J., 1094, Sixteenth Street, Oakland, 

California, U.S.A. 

340 Hoso, Shonosuke, The Matsushima Colliery, West 

Sonokigun, Nagasaki, Japan 

341 Hotchkis, Daniel, Coal Cliff Collieries, Limited, Clifton, 

New South Wales, Australia 

342 Howes, Frank Tippett, St. Michaels' House, Brunswick 

Road, Gloucester 

343 Howl, Thomas Ernest, Oakeley House, Leeswood, Mold 

344 Howson, Charles, Mainsforth, Ferry Hill 



345 Hoyle, Henry Patrick, 46, North Bailey, Durham 

346 Humble, Ernest, Killingworth Colliery, West Wallsend, 

New South Wales, Australia 

347 Humble, John Norman, Whin Fell Terrace, New Shildon, 

County Durham 

348 Humble, William, Lawson Street, Hamilton, Newcastle, 

New South Wales, Australia 

349 Humphris, Henry, Blaenau Festiniog 

350 Hunter, Christopher, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth 

351 Hunter, John, Norton House, Chester-le-Street 

352 Hunter, Joseph Percy, 7, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

353 Hunter, Robert, Inspector of Mines, Ipswich, Queensland, 

Australia 

354 Huntley, John Johnson, 54, Beacon Street, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

355 Hurst. George,. Lauder Grange, Corbridge, Northumber- 

land 

356 Hutchinson, George Weymouth, Greensburg, Westmore- 

land County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 






April 9, 1910 
A.M. Iium- 9, I - 
M. 1888 

A j. :;. i 

June 20, 10 
h. . 8, 1917 
Dec. 9, 1905 
D 13, 1902 

I) . II, 1915 

April 9, 1910 

May 1. 1875 

8. April 10, 1897 

M. Feb. 13 1904 

Dec. 11, \U i!j 

Dec. 14, 1907 
April 9, 1904 

Feb. S, 1913 
Dec. 12, 1908 

Oct. 12, 1907 
A. Feb. 12, 1898 
M. Feb. 10, 1912 

Oct. 14, 1899 

April 11, 190S 



June 20, 



10. 

14, 

4, 



S. 
A. 



A. Dec. 
M. Oct. 

Aug 

Dec. 14, 

Aug. 4, 
M. June 8, 

Dec. 12, 
S. Feb. 14, 
A. Aug. 3, 
M. April 11, 
S. Aug. 2, 
A. Aug. 5, 
M. Feb. 10, 



1908 
1892 
1893 
1917 
1901 
1906 
1907 
1914 
1903 
1907 
1908 
1902 
1905 
1912 



Oct. 14, 1893 

Oct. 13, 1900 

A. Dec. 10, 1892 

M. Dec. 12, 1903 

Feb. 9, 1918 
A. April 8, 1911 

M. Dec. 12, 1914 

June 14, 1902 

A.M. Dec. 14, 1912 

M. April 12, 1913 

S. April 14, 1883 

M. Aug. 1, 1891 

Aug. 7, 1909 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 



XXIX 



357 Hutton, John George, Barfield, East Maitland, New 

South Wales, Australia 

358 Hylton, Frederick William, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland 

359 Hynd, Thomas, Metcalfe Street, Wallsend, New South 

Wales, Australia 



Date of Election 
and <>f Transfer. 



Dec. 10, 1904 

Aug. 3, 1907 

A. April 12, 1913 

M. Feb. 9, 1918 



360 I'Anson-Robson, William Leonard, Emerson Chambers, 

Blackett Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

361 Ide, Kenroku, Imperial University, Kioto, Japan 

362 Inskipp, Dudley J ames, 1, Broad Street Place, London, E.C.2. 

363 Jackson. Edgar Arthur, Clipsley Lodge, Haydock, St. 

Helens ... 

364 Jackson, Walter Geoffrey, Prestwick, Witley, Godalming 

365 Jacobs, Montagu, 25, Mapesbury Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N.W. 2. ... ... 

366 Jameson, John Raine, Chilton Hall, Ferry Hill 

367 Jamikson, John William, South Hetton, Sunderland 

368 Jefferson, Frederick, Whitburn Colliery, South Shields 

369 Jeffreys, James Henry, Umtali, Rhodesia, South Africa ... 

370 Jenkjns, Frederick William, 05, Victoria Street, West- 

minster, London, S.W. 1. ... 

371 Jenkins, William, Ocean Collieries, Treorchy, llhondda, 

Glamorgan 

372 Jennings, Albert, 12, Swinburne Road, Darlington 

373 Jobling, Charles Ernest, Oaklands, Chobham, Woking 

374 Joblin<;, John Beresford, c o Charles Ernest Jobling, 

Oaklands, Chobham, Woking 
375*Johns, John Henry, Thorsden, Guildford Road, Woking 

376 Johnson, Edward, Trebanog Colliery Company, Porth, 

Rhondda, Glamorgan 

377 Johnson, Henry Howard 

378 Johnson, James, Boldon Lodge, East Boldon, County 

Durham 

379 Jones, Allan Andrew Dennis, c o Mrs. F. James, Bliw 

House, Sibpur, Howrah. India 

380 Jones, Evan, Plas Cwmorthin, Blaenau Festiniog ... 

381 Jones. Jacob Carlos. Wollongong. New South Wales, 

Australia 

382 Jones, Thomas, 5, Little George Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 1 

383 Jones, Walter, East Moor House, Trimdon Colliery, 

County Durham 

3S4 Joynes, John James, Ferndale, Lydbrook, Gloucestershire 



Aug. 
Feb. 
June 


6, 
14, 

8, 


1910 
1914 
1907 


Aug. 

J une 


7, 
7 5 


1915 

1873 


Oct. 

June 

Aug. 

Dec. 

Oct. 


9, 

13, 

2, 

11 

8, 


1909 
1914 
1902 
1897 
1904 


April 


14, 


1917 


Dec. 
June 
Dec. 


6, 

20, 

9, 


1862 
1908 
1916 


Dec. 
June 


9, 
21, 


1916 

1894 


Dec. 

Feb. 
A. Aug. 
M. Dec. 


9, 
13, 

6, 
12, 


1905 
1904 
1898 
1903 


April 14, 
April 13, 


1917 
1907 



Aug. 6, 1892 

June 12, 1897 
S. Feb. 9, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

Aug. 6, 1904 



385 Karashima, Asahiko, Engineering Department, The Mitsui 

Bussan Kaisha, Limited. Surugacho, Tokio, Japan 

386 Kayll, Alfred Charles, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

387 Kellett, Matthew Henry, Eldon, Bishop Auckland 

(Member of Council) -. 

388 Kelsick, Robert, Aberdare Colliery, Cessnoek, New South 

Wales, Australia 

389 Kennaway, Thomas William, Caledonian Collieries, 

Limited, Watt Street, Newcastle, New South Wales, 
Australia 

390 Kennedy. Percy Joseph Emerson, 4, St. Nicholas' Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

391 Kidd, Thomas, Jun., Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain ... 

392 Kirby, Matthew Robson, 16, Old Elvet, Durham 



Aug. 7, 1915 
S. Oct. 7, 1876 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 
s. April 11, 1891 

M. Aug. 3, 1895 

June 1, 1912 



Aug. 6, 1910 

June 11, 1910 

Aug. 3, 1895 

S. June 9, 1900 

A. Aug. 1, 1903 

M. Oct. 12, 1907 



xxx i.tst 01 III IfBl R* 

anfl of Transfer. 

393 Kirk, Alfred Edwin, Aberdare I y, 

Cesinook, New South Wale • i ... ... ... . 14, lorj 

304 Kirkby, William, e/o Aire and Calder Navigation, Leedi A.M. April 2, IS9S 

M. Aug. 6, 1001 

395 Kirkup, Austin, Mining Office, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses, Lpril 9, 

County Durham (Member of Council) ... M.June 12, . 

396 Kirkup, Frrderic Octavius, Medomsley, County Durham pril 9, 

A.M. April 25, 1 80s 
M. Feb. 14, 10 13 

397 Kirkup, Philip, Leafield House, Birtley, County Durham l2, 1878 

A.M. Aug. 7, 
M. Aug. 3. 

398 Kirsopp, John, FaLrholme, Gateshead-upon-Tyue June 9, 1900 

399 Kirton, Huch, Kimbles worth Colliery, Choster-le-Street \prii 7. 

A.M. Aug. 1, 
M. June 8, 

400 Kitchin, James Bateman, Luchana, Egremont, Cumber- 

land Aug. 5, 1905 

401*Knowles, Robert, Ednaston Lodge, near Derby April 10, ! 

40'2 Korte, Christian, 10, Avenue Crescent, Harehills Avenue, 

Leeds Feb. 13, 1909 

403*K\vang, Kwong Yung, Lincheng Mines, Lincheng, Chihli 

Province, Kin-Han Railway, via Peking, North China June 8, 1895 

404 Lacey, Frank Philip Sleigh April 12, 1913 

405 Laird, John, 2, Woodville Place, Maryfield, Dundee ... June 13, 1914 

406 Lancaster, John, Auchenheath, Hamilton ... ... Sept. 7, 1878 

407*Landero, Carlos F. de, 1" Alamo, 4, Mexico City, Mexico Feb. 15, 1896 
408 Langslow-Cock, Edward Arthur, Chief Inspector of 

Mines, Naraguta, Bauchi Province, Northern Nigeria, A.M. Aug. 2, 1902 

West Africa M. April 12, 1913 

409*Laporte, Henry. 151, Chaussee de Charleroi, Brussels, 

Belgium May 5, 1877 

410 Lathbury, Graham Campbell, Giridih, E.I.R., Bihar and 

Orissa, India Feb. 14,1903 

411 Lawn, James Gunson, c/o The Standard Bank of South 

Africa, Limited, 10, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, 

London, E.C. 4. ... July 14, 1896 

412 Lawson, John, The East Tanfield Colliery Company, Limited, A. Oct. 10, 1908 

East Tanrield, Tantobie, County Durham M.Feb. 9,1918 

413 Lawson, William, 23, Ballast Point Road, Balmain, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ... ... ... Aug. 6,1910 

414 Leach, Charles Catterall, Seghill Hall, Northumber- S. March 7, 1874 

land [Member of Council) A.M.Aug. 6,1881 

M. Aug. 4, 18S3 

415 Leck, William, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Cleator Moor, 

Cumberland ... Nov. 24, 1894 

416 Leck, William John, Nigerian Eastern Railway, Port 

Harcourt, West Africa, via Liverpool ... .. ... Dec. 12, 1914 

417 Ledger, William, Mount Nicholas, Tasmania ... ... Aug. 5, 1911 

418 Lee, John Wilson Richmond, 70, St. Helens Gardens, 

North Kensington, London, W. 10. Aug. 5,1893 

419 Lee, Percy Ewbank, Westfield, Annfield Plain, County 

Durham Feb. 11, 1905 

420 Leech, Arthur Henry, 11, King Street, Wigan Feb. 9, 1901 

421 Lennox, Alfred, 13, Park View, Wallsend, Northumber- 

land June 9, 1917 

422*Lessner, Charles, Carril, Pontevedra, Spain Oct. 14, 1911 

423 Lidster, Ralph, Langley Park Colliery, Durham April 4,1903 

424 Lightley, John, New Brancepeth Collierv, Durham ... A. April 25, 1896 

M. Aug. 4, 1917 

425 Lisboa, Miguel Arrojado Ribeiro, Caixa Postal, 829, 

Pvio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America ... ... Aug. 5,1905 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXI 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 



426 Lishman, Tom Alfred, Horden Dene, Easington, Castle S. Nov. 24, 1894 

Eden, County Durham A.Aug. 7,1897 

M. April 13, 1901 

427 Lishman, William Ernest. 73, Osborne Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... June 10, 1893 

428 Lister, John Alfred, The Anchorage, Hinderwell, York- S. Dec. 8, 1906 

shire A.Aug. 6,1910 

M. Feb. 10, 1917 

429 Liveing, Edward FT., Brookfield House, Long Stanton, S. Sept. 1, 1877 

Cambridge A.M. Aug. 2, 1884 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

430 Lockwood, Alfred Andrew, 55, Kilmorie Road, Forest 

Hill, London, S.E. 23 June 12, 1897 

431 Long, Ernest, Sterndale, Romiley, Stockport Aug. 4, 1906 

432 Longridge, John, The Bungalow, Ginteen, Castlecomer, A. Feb. 11, 1905 

County Kilkenny M. April 14, 1917 

433 Longworth, William, Ocean House, Moore Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales, Australia ... ... ... ... June 11, 1910 

434 Louis, Henry, 4, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

{Member of Council) Feb. 15, 1896 

435 Lowdon, Thomas, Hamsteels, near Durham ... ... ... Dec. 14, 1889 

436 Lyall, Edward, 19, Victoria Road, Darlington Oct. 14, 1905 

437 Ly all, William, 15, Bracken Road, Darlington Feb. 13,1909 

438 McCarthy, Edward Thomas, 10 and 11, Austin Friars, A.M. Oct. 8, 1887 

London, E.C. 2 M.Aug. 3,1889 

439 McCowan, Robert David, Roseneath, near Whitehaven ... Dec. 11, 1909 

440 McGeachie, Duncan, West Wallsend, New South Wales, 

Australia Nov. 24, 1894 

441 MacGrkgor, Donald, Bentley Colliery, Doncaster S. Feb. 9, 1901 

A. Aug. 1, 1908 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

442 McInerny, Augustin Joseph, 7, rue Blanche, Paris, France Aug. 4, 1906 

443 Mackintosh, James, Mihijam, E.I.R., Sonthal Pergunnahs, 

Bihar and Orissa, India ... ... ... ... Oct. 12,1895 

444 McIntosh, Stewart, 24, Oaklands, Gosforth, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Feb. 12, 1910 

445 McLellan, Neil, Idsley House, Spennymoor Dec. 13,1902 

446 McMurtrie, George Edwin James, Radstock, Bath ... S. Aug. 2, 1884 

M. Dec. 12, 1891 

447 McVee, Robert, Inspector of Mines, Jones Street, Collie, 

Western Australia ... ... ... ... June 1, 1912 

448 Manderson, Joh>t Thomas, Shotton Colliery, Castle Eden, 

County Durham ._ Dec. 10,1910 

449 Manning, Arthur Hope, P.O. Box 88, Heidelberg, Transvaal Dec. 11, 1897 
450*Markham, Gervase Edward, Acton House, Darlington ... S. Dec. 4, 1875 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June 8, 1889 

451 Marks, Arthur Tristman, 7, Cascade Avenue, Muswell 

Hill, London, N. 10 June 12, 1909 

452 Marks, Herbert T., 57, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. 2. Oct. 12, 1901 

453 Marley, Frederic Thomas, Monkscroft, St. Bees, Cum- S. Oct. 8, 1898 

berland... ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

454 Marr, James Heppell, Castlecomer, County Kilkenny ... A. Feb. 13, 1897 

M. Dec. 12, 1903 
455*Marriott, Hugh Frederick, c/o The Central Mining and 
Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E.C. 2 Dec. 12,1896 

456 Marsh, Thomas Aspinall, Leaders Buildings, Wigan ... Oct. 10, 1908 

457 Marshall, Alexander Gilchrist, Denniston, Buller, 

New Zealand Dec. 10,1910 

458 Martin, Henry Stuart, c/o H. Eckstein and Company, 

P.O. Box 149, Johannesburg, Transvaal April 13, 1907 

459 Martin, Tom Pattinson, Seaton Park, near Workington... April 4, 1903 



XXXII 



LIST <H \1|.\1 l:| !• 



180 MATSUBAYASHI, Vamkima, I l.-tim yokoji, iinaelii, 

Sagaken, Japan 
nil Matthews, Frederick Berkley, Westerhall, Langholm A 

162 Maurice, William, star Works, ¥otu et, Sheffield 

163 MAW80N, Robert Bbyham, Elm Bank, Wigan 

Mil Mein, Henri Johnson, Carterthorne Colliery, Toft Bill, 

Bishop Auckland 
165 Mellon, Henry, Brook I. I kam, Lancashire ... 
4(i6 Mkhi yale, Charles Herman, Middleton Hall, Middleton, 

Leeds 

467 Mkrmod. Loois, a Segre, Maine-et-Loire, Prance 

J(is Merz, Charles Hesterman, 32, Victoria Street, \\ > 

minster, London, S.W. I. ... 
409 Mesurier, George James Brooke Le, Ballarpur, Chanda, 

Central Provinces, India 

470 Middleton, John Thomas, '28, Victoria Street, West 

minster, London, S. W. 1. ... 

471 Milburn, Edwin Walter, 3, Haven View, Newbiggin-by- 

the-Sea, Northumberland ... 

472 Millar, Stanley John, 19, Woodbine Road, Oosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

473 Mills, Frederick Peter, 854, Scotswood Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

474 Milne, Norman Boarek, Inspector of Mines Office, Boks- 

burg, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

475 Minns, Thomas Tate, Ouston House, Birtley, County 

Durham 

476 Minto, George William, Harraton Colliery, Chester-le- 

Street 

477 Montgomery, Alexander, Department of Mines, Perth, 

Western Australia ... 

478 Moore, Frederick George. 63, Parliament Hill, Hamp- A. 

stead, London, N.W. 3. 

479 Moore, Robert Thomas. 142, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow 
4S0 Moore, William, Westfield. Loftus, Yorkshire ... ...A. 

481 Moreing, Charles Algernon, 20, Copthall Avenue, 

London, E.C. 2. 

482 Morgan, Griffith Rees, 178, Commercial Street, Sen- 

ghenydd, Cardiff 

483 Morgan, John, Stanley Villa, Crook, County Durham 

484 Morgans, Godfrey Ewart, Superintendent, National Pro- 

jectile Factories, Quebec Chambers, Leeds 

485 Morison, John, 18, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne A 

486 Morland-Johnson, Edward Thomas, The Limes, 6, Hart- 

ington Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester 

487 Morris, John, 15, Brynmill Crescent, Swansea 

488 Morris, William, Waldridge Colliery, Chester-le-Street ... 

489 Morse, Willard S. , Seaford, Delaware, U.S.A. ... 
490*Mort, Arthur, Khost, N. W. R. , Baluchistan, India 

491 Morton, Reginald Charles, 4th Battalion, Northumber- 

land Fusiliers, 31st I.B.D., A. P.O. S. 17, British 
Expeditionary Force, France 

492 Morton, William Rostern, 37, Shortridge Terrace, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

493 Mountain, William Charles, Sun Buildings, Collingwood 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne {Member of Council) 

494 MtTNDLE, Arthur, Cathedral Buildings, Dean Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 





; 

and of T™ 




1 • . 


12. 


, L916 


..\L 


Dec. 




1882 


M. 


June 




1 389 




Dec 


14, 


L907 




June 


II, 


1892 




Dec 


9, 




- 


, June 




1896 
1900 


A. 


Aug. 




1904 


M. 




l i. 


1 907 




April 


13, 


I '.US 




June 


10, 


1 903 




Aug. 


1, 


1914 




1 )fC. 


10, 


1910 


S. 


Feb. 


10, 


1900 


A. 


Aug. 


5, 


19 5 


M. 


June 


9. 


1917 




Feb. 


9, 


1918 




April 


4, 


1914 




Dec. 


11, 


1909 


S. 
A. 
M. 


April 
Aug. 
Feb. 


10, 

1, 

12, 


1897 
1903 
1910 


A 


, Oct. 


10, 


1891 


M 


. Feb. 


1-1, 


1914 




Dec. 


9, 


1899 


M. 


Dec. 


i j 


1909 


M. 


Dec. 


13, 


1913 




Oct. 


8, 


1892 


M. 


Xov. 


19, 


1881 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 




Nov. 


"• 


1874 




Aug. 
Dec. 


7, 

9, 


1915 
1905 




Dec. 


12, 


1914 


M. 


Dec. 


4, 


1880 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 


A 
M 


April 
. April 
. Aug. 

Oct. 


10, 
4, 
6, 

8, 


1897 
1903 
1904 
1892 




June 


13, 


1896 




Dec. 


9, 


1899 




Aug. 


3, 


1907 




Aug. 


7, 


1909 


S. 


April 
June 


9, 
5, 


1892 
1875 


M. 


Aug. 


4, 


1877 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXX111 



495 
496 
497 

493 
499 

500 

501 

502 

503 
504 
505 
506 
507 

508 

509 



Murray, William Cuthbert, Framwellgate Colliery, 
Durham 

Murray, William John, Victor American Fuel Company, 
311, E. and C. Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. ... 

Musgrove, William, Heddon Colliery, Wylam, North- 
umberland 



Nagazumi, Junjiro, Kannonsaki, Shimonoseki, Japan 
Nakagawa, Shin, c/o Bureau of Mines, Department of 

Agriculture and Commerce, Kyobashi-ku, Tokio, Japan 
Nelson, Charles Anthony, Battle Hill, Willington Quay, 

Northumberland 
Nelson, George Catron, Holly Garth, Brandon Colliery, 

County Durham 
Nesbtt, John Straker, Marley Hill Colliery, Swalwell, 

County Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 



June 10, 1903 

June 13, 1914 

S. June 8, 1895 

A. Aug. 1, 1903 

M. Feb. 10, 1917 

Dec. 12, 1908 

Oct. 13, 1917 



Dec. 14, 1912 
A. Feb. 8, 1902 
M. Feb. 10, 1912 
S. Oct. 9, 1897 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 
M. Oct. 12, 1907 
Newbery, Frederick, Throgmorton House, Copthall A.M. April 2, 1898 

Avenue, London, E.C. 2 M. Feb. 13, 1904 

Nevvbigin, Henry Thornton, 3, St. Nicholas' Buildings, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Oct. 13, 1894 

Newman, Austin Fred, 29, Tyrrel Street, Newcastle, New 

South Wales, Australia Aug. 4,1917 

Nicholas. Benjamin, Levant Mining Company, Levant 

Mine, Pendeen, Cornwall ... 
Nicholson, Arthur Darling, H.M. Divisional Inspector 
of Mines, Astley, Manchester 



Nicholson, John Hodgson, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth 
Nisbet, Norman, Harperley Hall, Tantobie, County Durham 



510 Noble, Thomas George, Sacriston Colliery, Durham 

511 

512 



Nomi, Aitaro, No. 2, 7 Chome, Kitamachi, Aoj'ama, 

Tokyo, Japan ... 
Northey, Arthur Ernest, Mina Dario, Mnga de Sayago, 

Zamora, Spain 



513 

514 

515 
516 

517 

518 

519 

520 

521 
522 



Oates, Robert Joseph William, c'o Bank of New South 
Wales, Launceston, Cornwall, Tasmania 

Oliver, Ernest Hunter, Durham House, Murton Colliery, 
County Durham 

Oliver, Robert, Falcon Terrace, Wylam, Northumberland 

Olsen, Arnold Carl Louis, P.O. Box 2, Florida, 
Transvaal 

Ornsby, Robert Embleton, 7, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Orr, Herbert Parker, P.O. Box 903, New Glasgow, 
Nova Scotia ... 

Oughton, Ernest, Baluchistan Chrome Company, Limited, 
Hindubagh, Baluchistan, India ... 

Owens, William David, Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 239, 
Philadelphia Avenue, Pittston, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 



Oct. 8, 1910 
S. June 13, 1885 
A. Aug. 4, 1894 
M. Feb. 12, 1898 
S. Oct. 1. 1881 
A. Aug. 3. 1889 
M. April 8, 1893 
S. Nov. 24, 1894 
A. Aug. 3, 1901 
M. Aug. 6, 1904 
A. Feb. 13, 1892 
M. June 8, 1895 

Aug. 5, 1899 

June 10, 1903 

S. Feb. 10, 1883 

A.M. Aug. 1, 1891 

M. Dec. 12, 1891 

S. Feb. 8, 1902 

A. Aug. 1, 190S 

M. Oct. 9. 1909 

Dec. 11, 1915 

Dec. 9, 1905 

June 11, 1898 

June 9, 1917 
A. Dec. 11, 1909 
M. Aug. 5, 1911 

Feb. 11, 1905 



Palmer, Claude Bowes, Wardley Hall, Pelaw, Newcastle- A.M. Nov. 5, 1892 
upon-Tyne M. June 8, 1895 

Palmer, Harry, The Red House, Guisborough, Yorkshire S. June 14, 1902 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. Dec. 12, 1914 

c 



WMV LIST 01 Ml Ml'.l ftS. 

&n<l of Tn 

523 Pambly, Caleb, 64, Cromwell Road, Bristol ... ... -. Sept. 5, I 

M. 

524 Pampmn, Eliah George, Cherry Hinton, Cambi ... Aug. 1,1903 

525 Parish, Chablbs Edward, <J3, Han Baling, 

London, W. 5. ... 10, L900 

526 Parkin, Robert, Hartford Colliery, Cramlington, North- 

umberland ... ... ... ... ... Feb. 10, 1917 

.V27 Pabrinoton, Henry Mason, Dene House, Castletown, S. Feb. 13, 1904 

Sunderland (M ember of Council) ... ... A.Aug. 3, l 

M. Aug. 7, 1909 

528 Parrington, Matthew William. Wearmouth Colliery, Sun- 

derland (Past-President, Honorary Sf.orktary, 8. Dec. I. 
Member of Council) ... ... M.Aug. 6, l 

529 Parrinoton, Thomas Elliot, Carley Hill, Monkwear- B. Aug. 3, 1895 

mouth, Sunderland ... ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. I, 1903 

M. Oct. 12, 1907 

530 Parsons, Hon. Sir Charles Algernon, K.C.B., Heaton A.M. June 12, 1- 

Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... M. Au_r. 3, 1889 

531 Pasquier, Arthur Edmund du, The British Westinghouse 

Electric and Manufacturing Company, Limited, Con- 
solidated Buildings, .Johannesburg, Transvaal ... ... Dec. 11, 1915 

532 Paterson, John, 57, Laburnum Avenue, Wallsend, North- 

umberland 

533 Pattison, Charles Arthur, Even wood, Bishop Auckland 

534 Peake, R. Cecil, Cumberland House, Redbourn, St. Albans 

535 Pearson, John Charlton, Butt Bank House, Fourstones, 

Northumberland 

536 Pearson, Reginald George 

537 Pedelty, Simon, 3, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope Colliery, 

Sunderland 

538 Percy, Frank, Mining and Technical College, Wigan. 

Transactions sent to The Librarian, Wigan Free 
Library, Wigan 

539 Phillips, Henry Archibald Allen, Westmancote, 

Uplands Terrace, Swansea ... 

540 Phillips, Percy Clement Campbell, Hall's Collieries, 

Limited, Swadlincote. Burton-upon-Trent 

541 Pockson, Melville John Hastings, Headquarters, Ail- 

miralty National Shipyards, Sedbury, near Chepstow... 

542 Pollitzer, Samuel Joseph. Terrj-s Chambers, 14, Castle- 

reagh Street, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ... April 12, 1902 

543 Poole, Gordon George Thomas, Appleby Iron Company, A.M. Oct. 11, 1913 

Limited, Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire ... ... ... M.Dec. 12. 1914 

544*Poore, George Bentley, Ross, Marin Countv, California, A.M. Dec. 10, 1898 
U.S.A ' M. April 8, 1899 

545 Porter. John Bonsall, McGill Universitv, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada Dec. 8, 1900 

546 Powell, Charles Henry, Mount Biggenden Bismuth 

Mine, Biggenden, Queensland, Australia... ... ... June 14, 1902 

547 Prest, John Joseph, Hard wick Hall, Castle Eden, Countv 

Durham Feb. 9, 1901 

548 Price, Frederick James, Inspector of Mines, 123, Ward 

Street, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia ... 

549 Price, Stephen Richard, Dilston House, Corbridge, 

Northumberland 





Feb. 


10, 


1917 


s. 


April 


13. 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 


5. 


1905 


M. 


Apri 


14, 


1917 


s. 


Feb. 


7, 


1880 


A.M. 


Aug. 


7, 


1886 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 


A. 


Feb. 


14, 


1903 


M 


Feb. 


10, 


1917 




Feb 


12, 


1910 


A. 


Dec. 


10, 


1892 


M. 


Dec. 


14, 


1907 




Dec. 


12, 


1903 




June 


1, 


1912 




June 


10, 


1903 




Oct. 


8. 


1910 



550 Price, Samuel Warren, The Wern, Peterston-super-Ely, 

Cardiff 

551 Priest, William Hall, Auton Field, Beat-park, Durham... 

552 Pringle, John Archibald, Mysore Mine. Mairikuppam, 

Mysore, India Dec. 10,1898 





Oct, 


11, 


1913 


s. 


Nov. 


3, 


1877 


M. 


Aug. 


1, 


1885 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 




Aug. 


3, 


1895 




Feb. 


10, 


1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXV 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



553*Prior, Hon. Edward Gawler, Victoria, British Columbia. 
Transactions sent to Thomas R. Stockett, Western 
Fuel Company, Nanaimo, British Columbia ... ... Feb. 7,1880 

554 Pullon, Joseph Thomas, Rowangarth, North Park Road, 

Roundhay, Leeds Feb. 11,1905 

555 Rae, John Livington Campbell, Lisgar, 75, King Street, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia ... ... Oct. 14,1899 

556 Raine, Frederick James, The New Copley Collieries, S. Feb. 15, 1896 

Limited, Cockfield, County Durham ... .. ... A. Aug. 6, 1904 

M. Feb. 9, 1907 

557 Ramsay, John, Tursdale Colliery, Ferry Hill A. April 27, 1895 

M. Feb. 13, 1901 
55S Ramsay, William, The Redlands, Ibstock, Leicester ... Feb. 12, 1910 

559 Raw, George, Usworth Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... June 13, 1914 

560 Redman, Sydney George, Collingwood Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ' Feb. 10, 1906 

561 Redwood, Sir Boverton, Bart., The Cloisters, 18, Avenue 

Road, Regent's Park, London, N.W. 8 June 21, 1894 

562 Reed, William Fenwick, 16, Princes Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... April 8, 1916 

563 Rees, Robert Thomas, Gland.ue, Aberdaro Aug. 7,1897 

564 Rees, William Thomas, Maesyffynon, Aberdare A.M. Oct. 9, 1897 

M. Feb. 12, 1898 

565 Rhodes, Charles Edward, The Bungalow, Lane End, 

Rotherhani Aug. 4, 1883 

566 Richardson, Nicholas, c oMissD. Richardson, 3, Summer- S. Dec. 12, 1896 

hill Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne .. ... ... ... A. Aug. 3, 1901 

M. Dec. 14, 1901 

567 Riddle, James Edward, 6, Loraine Terrace, Lemington, 

Scotswood, Northumberland ... ... ... ... Oct. 11, 1913 

568 Ridge, Harry Mackenzie, 2, Great Winchester Street, 

London, E.C. 2 Dec. 14, 1907 

569 Ridley, George Dinning, Linton Colliery, Ashington, A. Feb. 8, 1890 

Northumberland M. Feb. 10, 1917 

570 Ridley, James Cartmell, Cathedral Buildings, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Dec. 14, 1912 

571 Ridley, Norman Backhouse, Union Chambers, 32, 

Grainger Street West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... June 8, 1895 

572 Ridpath, Thomas Rossiter, Blaydon Burn, Blaydon-upon- S. June 8, 1901 

Tyne, County Durham ... ... A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. April 9, 1910 

573 Rigby, Thomas Henry, Leaders Buildings, King Street, 

Wigan Dec. 12, 1908 

574 Ritson, John Ridley, Burnhope Colliery, Lanchester, S. April 11, 1891 

Durham A.M.Aug. 3,1895 

M. Feb. 14, 1903 

575 Ritson, Utrick Alexander, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... Oct. 7, 1871 

576 Ritson, Willtam Henry, C.M.G., Springwell Hall, Durham A.M. Dec. 11, 1915 

M. June 3, 1916 

577 Roberton, Edward Heton, Sibpur College, Calcutta, 

India Dec. 12, 1914 

578 Roberts, James, Jun., Perran House, Perranporth, 

Cornwall Dec. 14, 1895 

579 Roberts, John, 31, Graigyfedw, Abertridwr, Cardiff ... Feb. 10, 1912 

580 Roberts, William, Bella Vista, Perranporth, Cornwall ... Aug. 4, 1906 
5S1 Robertson, Daniel Alexander Wilberforce, Fairhaven, 

Park Road, Burwood, New South Wales, Australia ... Aug. 6, 1892 

582 Robertson, David Wilson, Vanduara, Kirribilli Point, 

near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia April 8,1916 

583*Robertson, James Robert Millar, 38, Pitt Street, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Aug. 2, 1890 



X \ X V I 



ir i 01 IfEMRKIl 



584 # Roi iu\ ii. Matthew, Netherleigh, T ' , llfra. 

oombe. Transactions sent to Thoma R. Stockett, 
Western Fuel Company, Nanaimo, British Columbii 

f>sf> Robinson, Georob, Bofdon Colliery, County Durham 
8 Robinson, George Henry, Jun., The (tabira Iron 

Company, Limited, c/o Wilson, Sons and Company, 
Limited, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil, South Amei 

587 Robinson, John Thomas, South M ey Colli" 

Dipton, ( lonnty Durham 

588 Robinson, John William, Bill Cre bill, Willington 

Quay, Northumberland 

589 ROBINSON, Stanley, Colliery Office, Bunker Hill, Fence 

Houses 

590 Rochester, William, Highfield, Beechwood Avenue, 

Ryton, County Durham- .. 

591 Rogers, John, Tanfield Lea House, Tantobie, County 

Durham 

592 Ronaldson, James Henry, 4, London Wall Buildings, 

London, E.C. 2 

593 Rosenplaenter, Carlos Bernard, c'o Henry S. King 

and Company, 65, Cornhill, London, E.C 3. 

594 Routledge, William Henry, Glanbaiden, Gilwern, 

Abergavenny ... ... ... ... ... ... ... A 

595 Rowe, Joseph Seymour, Metropolitan Colliery, Helens- 

burgh, New South Wales, Australia 

596 Rowley, Walter, 20, Park Row, Leeds 

597 Rumbold, William Richard, Oruro, Bolivia, South 

America, via Buenos Aires i Tupiza 

598 Russell, Robert, Coltness Iron Works, Newmains, 

Lanarkshire ... 

599 Rutherford, Hooper, y Llanerch, Rhymney, Cardiff 



- 



! 
Jnne l" 

M April 



600 Rutherford, Robert, The Lawn, Rhymney, Cardiff 

601 Rutherford, Thomas Easton, New Brancepeth Colliery, 

Durham 







13, 






April 12, 


1902 




Aug. 




1905 


M. 




1 1, 


1014 




Oct. 


12, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1908 


M. 


June 


1. 


1912 


A. 


Dec. 


10. 


l^Os 


M. 


Dec. 


12, 


1908 




April 


8, 


1 899 


A 


Aug. 


4, 


1906 


M 


Feb. 


U, 


1911 




Aug. 


6, 


1892 



602 Ryle, Percy, South View, Crook, County Durham 
603*Saise, Walter, Stapleton, Bristol 



June 1, 1912 

s. Oct. 7, 1876 

M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

Aug. 3, 1907 
Aug. 5, 1893 

June 14, 1902 

Aug. 3, 1878 
S. Dec. 11, 1909 
A. Aug. 2, 1913 
M. June 9, 1917 

Oct. 11, 1902 

S. June 10, 1899 

A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. Aug. 4, 1917 

April 14, 1917 



. A. M. 
M. 



604 Sam, Thomas Birch Freeman, Domkodu, Cape Coast 

Castle, Gold Coast Colony, West Africa ... 

605 Samborne, John Stukely Palmer, Timsbury House, 

Bath 

606 Sample, James Bertram, Coolbawn, Castlecomer, County 

Kilkenny 

607 Sampson, William, Coast Water Supply, Kapar, Selangor, 

Federated Malay States 
608*Samwell, Nicholas, P.O. Box 385, Rangoon, Burma, India 

609 Sandow, William John Josiah, c o Post Office, Eiffel Flats, 

Gatooma. Southern Rhodesia, South Africa 

610 Saner, Charles Benjamin, Luipaards Vlei Estate and 

Gold-mining Company, Limited, P.O. Box 53, Krugers- 
dorp, Transvaal 
611*Sawyer, Arthur Robert, 826, Salisbury House, London 
Wall, London, E.C. 2 



Nov. 3, 1877 
Aug. 3, 1889 

Aug. 5. 1893 



S. 
A. 
M. 



Aug. 
Jan. 

Aug. 
Oct, 



1, 1891 
19, 1895 

4, 1900 
10, 1903 



A. 

M. 

S. 

A.M. 

M. 



Oct. 9, 1909 
April 13, 1901 

Feb. 8, 1908 

April 10, 1897 
June 10, 1911 
Dec. 6, 1873 
Aug. 2, 1879 
June 8, 1889 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXXV11 



612 Sawyer, Stanley John, 10, Bourke Street, West Maitland, 

New South Wales, Australia. Transactions sent to 
c o Allan Cordner, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-T} ne 

613 Schnabel, Leberecht Ferdinand Richard, Sun Buildings, 

Corner of Bourke and Queen Streets, Melbourne, 
Victoria, Australia ... 

614 Scott, Anthony, Netherton Colliery, Nedderton. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

615 Scott, Charles F. , Newbell, Consett, County Durham ... 

616 Scott, Ernest, 42, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

617 Scott, Edward Charlton, Woodside Cottage, Totley Rise, 

Sheffield 

618 Scott, Herbert Kilburn, 46, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 4 

619 Scott, William Angus, 102, St. Mary Street, Cardiff 

620 Scott, Walter Robert, The Limes, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham 

621 Sedcole, William John, 17, Westoe Road, South Shields 

622 Sethxa, Nanaphoy Rustomji, c'o Midland Coal, Coke and 

Iron Company, Limited, Apedale, Newcastle, Stafford- 
shire 

623 Severs, Joseph, North Walbottle, Newburn, Northumber- 

land 

624 Severs, William, Beamish, County Durham 

625 Shanks, John, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada 

626 Sheafer, Arthur Whitcomb, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 

U.S. A 

627 Shibl, Francis Robert Archibald, Rosebank, Burnoptfeld,, 

County Durham 

628 Simon, Frank, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

629 Simpson, Charles Liddell, 13, Montagu Place, Montagu 

Square, London, W. 1. 

630 Simpson, Francis L. G. , Mohpani Coal-mines, Gadawarra, A 

C.P., India 

631 Simpson, Frank Robert, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon- 

Tyne, County Durham (Vice-President, Member of 
Council) 

632 Simpson, John, Follonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland (President, Member of 
Council) 

633 Simpson, John Bell, Bradley Hall, Wylam, Northumber- 

land (Past-President, Member of Council) 

634 Simpson, Robert Rowell, Inspector of Mines, Dhanbaid, 

E.I.R. , Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India 

635 Simpson, Thomas Ventress, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 

Northumberland 

636 Skertchley, Sydney A. R., c/o The Institution of Mining 

and Metallurgy, 1, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2. 

637 Slater, Thomas Edward, Ystradgynlais, Breconshire . 



S. 
M. 

A. 

M. 



A 
M. 



.M. 
M. 

S. 
M. 

S. 
M. 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



Dec. 8, 1917 



April 13, 1907 

April 8, 1905 
April 11. 1874 
Aug. 4, 1877 
April 9, 1892 
Oct. 8, 1892 
Feb. 11, 1899 

Oct. 11, 1902 
June 10, 1911 

April 4, 1914 
April 4, 1914 



Oct. 10, 1914 

June 8, 1901 
Nov. 5, 1892 

Dec. 8, 1900 
Aug. 5, 1905 

Aug. 4, 1894 

June 10, 1911 
Dec. 14, 1895 

April 8, 1893 
Dec. 13, 1884 
Aug. 3, 1889 



Aug. 
Aug. 



4, 1883 
1, 1891 



S. 

A 

M. 

S. 

A 
M. 



638 Sloan, Robert Patrick, Craiglea, Graham Park Road, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

639 Smallwood, Percy Edmund, The Garth, Medomsley, 

County Durham 

640 Smart, Alexander, 4, London Wall Buildings, London 

Wall, London, E.C. 2 

641*Smith, Richard Clifford, Grovehurst, Tunbridge Wells 
642 Smith, Robert Fleming, Melwyn, Cleator Moor, Cumber- 
land 



S. 
A. 
M. 



A 
M. 



Dec. 6, 1866 
Aug. 1, 1868 

Oct. 4, 1860 
Aug. 3, 1895 
Aug. 2, 1902 
Oct. 11, 1902 
Dec. 14, 1895 
Aug. 2, 1902 
Dec. 13, 1902 

April 13. 1901 
April 13, 1907 
Aug. 2, 1913 
April 14, 1917 

Oct. 8, 1910 
Oct. 11, 1902 
Oct. 12, 1907 

Feb. 10, 1894 
Dec. 5, 1874 

Aug. 6, 1904 



HXXV111 LIST (il MK\ll;l.l(S. 

- 

643 Smith, William, !'.<». Box 653, Johannesburg, Ti Oct. LI, 1902 

t;n Smith, William Woodend, I, Vie'torL 

( Cumberland . . Aug. 0, 1904 

645 Snodgrass, Benjamin Walter, Di lorado, U.8 June 13, 1914 

646 Sopwith, Arthur, 30, Handsworth Wood Road, Han 

worth, Birmingham ... ... ... ... Aug. 

647 Southern, Charles, Radatock, Bath fune 10, 1903 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. Aj.nl 14, 1917 

648 Southern, Edmund Octavius, North Beaton Hall, 8. Dec. 5, l>74 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland... .. A.M. Aug. I. 

M. Jun< 

649 Southern, It. W. A., 33, The Parade, Cardiff ... Aug. 3, 1866 

650 Southern, Stephen, Heworth Colliery, Felling, Gateshead- 3. 1 k . I4 ; 1895 

upon-Tyne A. Aug. 3, 1901 

M. Dec. 12, 1914 

651 Southwood, Reginald Thomas Enfield, Nether House, 

Spencer Road, Putney, London, S.W. 15. ... Feb. 10, P>06 

652 Spence, Robert Foster, Backworth, Newcastle-upon-Tvne S. Nov. 2. 1878 

A.M. Aug. 2. 1884 
M. Aug. 4. 1889 

653 Stainton. William, Bank Chambers. Mold Feb. 13,1909 

654 Stanley, George Hardy, South African School of Mines and 

Technology, P.O. Box 1176, Johannesburg, Transvaal April 12, 1902 

655 Steavenson, Ciiari.es Herbert, Redheugh Colliery. Gates- 8. April 14, 1883 

head-upon-Tyne A. Aug. ], 1891 

M. Aug. 3,' 1895 

656 Steel, Robert, Wellington Colliery Office, Whitehaven ... Aug. 5, 1905 

657 Stephenson, Ralph, Fern Cottage, Poolstock Lane, Wigan Dec. 10, 1904 

658 Stewart, William, Brodawel, Caerleon, Newport, Mon- 

mouthshire ... .. ... ... ... ... ... June 8, 1895 

659 Stobart, Frank, Selaby Hall, Gainford, Darlington ... S. Aug. 2, 1873 

A.M. Aug. 5, 1882 
M. June 8, 1889 

660 Stobart, Henry Temple, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland S. Oct. 2, 1880 

A.M. Aug. 4, 1888 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

661 Stobart, William Ryder, Colliery Office, Etherley, 

Bishop Auckland - ... Oct. 11,1890 

662 Stoker, Arthur P., 52, Holywell Avenue, Monkseaton, S. Oct. 6, 1877 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland A.M.Aug. 1,1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

663 Stokoe, James, Herrington Lodge, West Herrington. via A. Nov. 24. 1894 

Sunderland ... M. Dec. 10, 1904 

664 Stokoe, John George, Woodside, Maltby, Rotherham ... A. Dec. 9, 1899 

M. Feb. 11, 1911 

665 Stokoe, Robert, Eppleton House, Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham Feb. 10, 1917 

666 Stone, Arthur, Heath Villas, Hindley, Wigan June 13, 1S96 

667*Stonier, George Alfred, 726, Salisbury House, London 

Wall, London. E.C. 2 June 11, 1904 

668 Storey, William, Urpeth Villas, Beamish, County Durham April 12, 1902 

669 Stow, Audley Hart, Pocahontas, Virginia, U.S.A. ... Feb. 13, 1909 

670 Straker, J. H. , Howden Dene, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland •. Oct. 3, 1874 

671 Streatfeild, Hugh Sidney, Ryhope, Sunderland ... A.M. June 8, 1889 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

672 Stuart, Donald McDonald Douglas, 25, Woodstock Road, 

Redland, Bristol June 8,1895 

673 Suggett, Arthur, Ivy House, Witton-le-Wear, County 

Durham June 13, 1914 

674 Summerbell, Richard, Preston Colliery, North Shields . A. Dec. 9, 1905 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

675 Sutcliffe, Richard, Horbury, Wakefield ... ... • June 14, 1902 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXXI X 



676 Sutton, William, Grosmont, 46, Palace Road, Streatham 

Hill, London, S.W. 2 

677 Swallow, Frederick Charles, Amphion House, Don- 

caster ... 

678 Swallow, John, 2, Percy Gardens, Tynemouth, North 

Shields ... 

679 Swallow, Ralph Storey, Park House, Duffield Road, 

Derby ... 

680 Swallow, Wardle Asquith, Seahani Colliery, New Sea- 

'ham, Seaham Harbour, County Durham ... 

681 Swann, Joseph Todd, 1, Tyne View, Throckley, Newburn, 

Northumberland 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 



April 28, 1900 
Dec. 9, 1911 



A. 

M. 

S. 
A. 
M. 

S. 
A. 
M. 

682 Swinburne, Umfreville Percy", Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Union of South Africa, P.O. Box J132, Johannesburg, A.M. 
Transvaal ... ... ... ... ... ... ... M. 

683 Swindle, Jackson, North Bank, Beech Grove, Whickham, 

Swalwell, County Durham .. 
681 Symons, Francis, Ulverston 



May 2, 
Dec. 9, 
Dec. 12, 
Dec. 9, 
Aug. 3, 
Aug. 2, 
Dec. 13, 
Aug. 4, 
Feb. 10, 



1874 
1899 
1903 
1893 
1901 
1902 
1902 
1906 
1917 



685 Tallis, John Fox, Llantarnam Grange, Pontnewydd, New- 

port, Monmouthshire 

686 Tate, Robert Simon, The Old House, Trimdon Grange, 

County Durham [Member of Council) 

687 Tate, Walker Oswald, Usworth Hall, Washington. 

Washington Station, County Durham (Member of 
Council) 

688 Taylor, Henry William, 28, Lombard Chambers, St. 

George's Terrace, Perth, Western Australia 

689 Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, Northum- 

berland 

690 Teasdale, Thomas, Oaklands, 17, Nortli Lodge Terrace, 

Darlington 

691 Templeton:, John Clark, c'o Anglo-Persian Oil Company, 

Limited, 23, Great Winchester Street, London, E.C. 2. 

692 Tennant, John Thomas, Mitchell Street, Merewether, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia . 

693 Terry, Arthur Michael, 1, Clifton Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

694 Thom, Archibald, Risehow, Flimby, Maryport 

695 Thomas, David Lewis, Glanyrafon, Slate Street, Morriston, 

Glamorgan 

696 Thomas, Ernest Henry, The Hollies, Trecynon, Aberdare 

697 Thomas, Iltyd Edward, Glanymor, Swansea 

698 Thomas, J. J., Hawthorn Villa, Kendal 

699 Thomas, Richard, Cambria Villa, Stockton, New South 

Wales, Australia 

700 Thomlinson, William, Seaton Carew, West Hartlepool ... 

701 Thompson, Robert Reginald, c/o Strick, Scott and Com- 

pany, Limited, Mohammerah, Persia, via Bombay and 
Persian Gulf ... 

702 Thomson, Thomas, Ngaruawahia, Auckland, New Zealand 

703 Thornton, Norman Muschamp, 301, Tegler Building, 

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 



701 Thornton, Thomas, Blackhall Colliery, Castle Eden, 

County Durham 
705 Todd, John Thomas, Blackwell Collieries, Alfreton 



Aug. 4, 1894 
June 14, 1902 

June 14, 1902 
Feb. 11, 1899 



S, 
A. 
M. 

S. 

A 

M 

A. 

M. 



Dec. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Dec. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 



12, 1903 

3, 1901 

4, 1906 

11, 1909 

12, 1895 

1, 1903 

13, 1904 

2, 1902 
2, 1913 



S. 
A. 
M. 



706*Townsend, Harry Poyser, Village Deep, Limited, 
P.O. Box 1064, Johannesburg, Transvaal 



S. 
A.M. 
M. 



July 2, 1872 

April 9, 1892 

Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 12, 1903 

Aug. 6, 1904 
Aug. 5, 1905 

Aug. 2, 1913 
Feb. 10, 1900 
Feb. 10, 1900 
June 21, 1894 

Feb. 11, 1899 
April 25, 1896 



Dec. 10, 1910 
Feb. 8, 1908 
April 27, 1895 
Aug. 2, 1902 
June 10, 1903 

Feb. 10, 1912 
Nov. 4, 1876 

Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 

April 12, 1902 



1, 1ST <H MKMIihKS. 






707 Tbevob, Baele w i.1,1 i oto» ' ii c/o 'I'll'- Peri 

Syndicate, Limited, 5, The Sanctuary, Weetmin 
London, 8. Wi I. 

708 TrEWARTHA-JaMES, William BSNRY, Manor 

4, Grove End Road, ^t. John's Wood, London, X. V. 

709 Trotman, Hkma Leigh, Capital and Conntiee Bank, 

Dawlish, Devon 

710 Tulip, Samuel, Bunker Hill, Fence Bouses... 

711 TURNBULL, JAMES, L82, Harrington Road, Workington 

712 Turn hull, James Armstrong, Parkaide, Hawick 

713 Turnbull, John James, L35, Osborne Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

714 Turnbull, John James, Jan., Asansol, E.I.R. , Burdwan, 

Bengal, India ... 

715 Turnbull, Robert, Usworth Colliery, Washington, Wash- 

ington .Station, Count}' Durham ... 
716*Tyers, John Emanuel, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, A.M. 
B.N.R., Central India 

717 Tyers, John Emanuel, Jun., Rewah State Collieries, 

Umaria, B.N. R. , Central India ... 

718 Varty, Armstrong, Liverton Mines, Loftus, Yorkshire ... 

719 Verey, Joseph Crosby, British Club, Apartado423, Mexico 

City, Mexico ... 

720 Verny, George, Pont d'Aubenas, Ardeche, France 

721 Wadham, Walter Francis Ainklie, Millwood, Dalton-in- 

Furness, Lancashire 

722 Wales, Henry Thomas, Bank Chambers, Castle Square, 

Swansea 

723 Walker, Henry, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 

2, Kinnear Road, Edinburgh 

724 Walker, Thomas A., Pageiield Iron Works. Wigan 

725 Walker, William Edward, Croft End, Bigrigg, Cumber- 

land 

726 Wall, William Henry, 748, Burrard Street, Vancouver, 

British Columbia 

727 Walsh, George Paton, 3, Sarphatikade, Amsterdam. 

Holland 

728 Walton, Arthur John, Rose Deep, P.O. Box 6, Germiston, 

Transvaal 

729 Walton-Brown, Stanley, Seghill Park, Seghill, Dudley, 

Northumberland 

730* Ward, Thomas Henry, Giridih, East Indian Railway, Bihar 
and Orissa, India 

731 Ware, Francis Thomas, The Croft, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland 

732 Watson, Claude Leslie, Dunkerton House, Tunley, Bath 

733 Watson, John, Blackball, New Zealand ... 

734 Watson, Thomas, Trimdon Colliery, County Durham 

735 Watson, William, Settlingstones Mines, Fourstones, 

Northumberland 

736 Watts, James, Morro Velho, Villa Nova de Lima, Minas, 

Brazil, South America 

737 Webster, Alfred Edward, Manton, Worksop 

738 Wedderburn, Charles Maclagan, 8, East Fettes Avenue. 

Edinburgh 

739 Weeks, Richard James, Bedlington, Northumberland ... 

740 Weeks, Richard Llewellyn, Wellington, County Durham 

(Vice-President, Member of Council) ... 
741*Weinberg, Ernest Adolph, c'o C. W. Moore. 5. London 
Wall Buildings, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2. 



Aug. 2 
12 







13, 


1904 




June 


12, 






D< 


13, 


1 9 1 3 








1917 










- 




- 


L908 


A. 


Dec. 


9, 


1911 


M. 


April 


8, 


191G 




Aug. 


o 


1002 


M. 




10,' 


1^77 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 



Aug. 2 
April 12 
April 9 



L902 



1913 
1913 



1910 





Oct, 


8. 


1898 




Dec. 


10, 


1S98 




Feb. 


11, 


1893 




June 


8, 


1907 




June 


8, 


1895 




Nov. 


19, 


1881 




June 


14, 


1902 




Nov. 


24, 


1894 


s. 


Feb. 


12, 


1898 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1903 


M. 


April 


9, 


1910 


S. 


June 


20, 


1908 


A. 


Aug. 


3, 


1912 


M. 


June 


14, 


1913 


A.M. 


Aug. 


5, 


1882 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 




June 


11, 


1910 




Dec. 


8. 


1900 




Dec. 


12. 


1908 




Oct. 


11, 


1890 




April 


U, 


1917 


A. M. 


Feb. 


11, 


1911 


M 


Aug. 


1, 


1914 




June 


12, 


1897 




Oct. 


14, 


1905 




Oct. 


8, 


1910 


A.M. 


June 


10, 


1882 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 


A.M. 


Feb. 


12, 


1898 


M. 


Oct. 


8, 


1898 



LIST OF MEMBEES. 



xli 



742 Welch, William Hall, Talbot House, Birtley, County 

Durham 

743 Welsh, Thomas, Maindee House, Upper Pontnewydd, 

Monmouthshire 

744 Welsh, Thomas, Holly Terrace, Stanley, County Durham 

745 Welton, William Pitt ..." 

746 White, Charles Edward, Wellington Terrace, South Shields 



S. 
A. 
M. 



S, 
A.M. 
M. 



Mate of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Feb. 10, 190(5 
Aug. 2, 1913 
June 9, 1917 

Feb. 14, 1903 
Aug. 3, 1912 
9, 1905 
4, 1876 
1, 1885 
3, 1889 



747 Whitehead, Harold Joshua, Abram Coal Company, 

Limited, Bickershaw, Wigan 

748 Whitehead, Percy Colin, 9, Lisburne Crescent, Torquay 

749 Widdas, Frank, Thrislington Hall, West Cornforth, A. 

County Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... M. 

750 Widdas, Henry, Whitehaven Castle Estate, Somerset 

House, Whitehaven ... 

751 Widdas, Percy, Oakwood, Cockrield, County Durham 

752 Wight, Frederick William, 5, Bondicar Terrace, Blyth .. 

753 Wight, Robert Tennant, Deaf Hill Terrace, Trimdon 

Colliery, County Durham ... 

754 Wilbraham, Arthur George Bootle, 2, Laurence S. 

Pountney Hill, Cannon Street, London, E.G. 4. ... M. 

755 Wild, Matthew Brown, 37, Arthur Road, Erdington, 

Birmingham ... 

756 Wilkinson, John Thomas, East Hetton Colliery, Coxhoe, 

County Durham 
757* Wilkinson, William Fischer. Hurstbourne Priors, 
Whitchurch, Hampshire 

758 Willey, Joseph Leonard, P.O. Box 3, Brakpan, Transvaal 

759 Williams, Foster, Miniera di Libiola, Sestri Levante, A. 

Italy M. 

760 Williams, Griffith John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Coed 

Menai, Bangor 

761 Williams, John, Dolavon, Llanrwst, Denbighshire 

762 Williams, Robert, Friars House, New Broad Street, 

London, E.C. 2 

763 Willis, Edward Turnley, 3, The Drive, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

764 Wilson, Anthony, Brenthwaite, Keswick A.M 

M 

765 Wilson, Frederick, 4, Brandling Terrace, Felling, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

766 Wilson, James, Wellington House, Edmondsley, Durham 

767 Wilson, .John Robert Robinson, H.M. Divisional In- 

spector of Mines, Greyfort, Westfield Drive, Gosforth, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Vice-President, Member of 
Council) 

768 Wilson, John Reginald Straker, 3, St. Nicholas' Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

769 Wilson, Joseph William, 118, Abington Avenue, North- 

ampton... 

770 Wilson, William Brumwell, 19, West Parade, New- S. 

castle-upon-Tyne (Member of Council) ... ... ... M. 

771* Wilson, William Brumwell, Jun., Greenhead Terrace, 
Chopwell, Ebchester, County Durham ... 

772 Wilson, William Smith, 54, Queens Road, Jesmond, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... . . 

773 Winchell, Horace Vaughan, 505, Palace Building, Min- 

neapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 

774 Wood, Ernest Seymour, Cornwall House, Murton, County 

Durham (Member of Council) 

775 Wood, John, Coxhoe Hall, Coxhoe, County Durham ... S. 

A. 
M. 



Dec. 

Nov. 
Aug. 
Aug. 



Dec. 9, 1911 

Feb. 13, 1915 

Dec. 8, 1900 

Feb. 10, 1917 

April 7, 1906 
Aug. 6, 1904 
Aug. 5, 1905 

Oct. 13, 1900 
Dec. 11, 1897 
Feb. 8, 1902 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Dec. 8, 1900 

Oct. 10, 1896 
Aug. 1, 1908 
April 13, 1907 
June 20, 1908 

Aug. 2, 1902 
Oct. 8, 1904 

June 13, 1896 

June 10, 1911 
Feb. 10, 1900 
Dec. 13, 1902 

Dec. 12, 1908 
April 13, 1901 



Dec. 11, 1915 

Dec. 13, 1913 

June 10, 1911 
Feb. 6, 1869 
Aug. 2, 1873 

Feb. 9, 1901 

Feb. 8, 1913 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Oct. 10, 1891 
June 8, 1889 
Aug. 4, 1894 
Aug. 3, 1895 



Xlll 



MSI 01 m i | IU H 



776* Wood, Sir Lindsay, Bart., The FTermita 
(Past President, Mtmbtr of Council) 

777 Wood, Richard, Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan 

778 Wood, Roi Olympia Gardeni Morpeth 

779 Wood, Thomas, ]. Abbotaford Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

780 Wood, Phomas Outterson, Cramlington M ramling- 

ton, Norl humberland 

781 W'ooi), William Outterson, Sou h FTetton, Bunder] 

(Past-President, Member of Council) 

782 Woodbdrne, Thomas Jackson, Bultfontein Mine, l 1 B 

Consolidated Mines, Limited, Kimber ley, South Africa 

783 Worlby, Robert, Rose Mouse Hellfield Road, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

784 Wraith, Charles Osborn, Polygon House, Southampton 

785 Wright, Abraham, East Indian Railway, Engineering 

Department. Giridih, Bihar and Orissa, India ... 

786 Wrightson, Sir Thomas, Bart., Stockton-upon-Tees 

787 Wrightson, Wilfrid Ingram, Ivy Cottage, Norton, l 

Stockton-upon-Tees . 
7SS Wynne, Frederick EoRTON, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 
9, Northbank Terrace, Glasgow, W. 

789 Youll, Gibson, Dicksonia, Victoria Street, Mayfield, New 

South Wales, Australia 

790 Young, Andrew, Westview, Broomhill, Acklington, 

Northumberlaml 

791 Young, George Ellis, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

792 Young, John Andrew, Joseph Crawhall and Sons, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. Transactions, etc., sent to 3, Fountain 
Avenue, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

793 Young, John Huntley. Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland 



!>»»• ' 



June 1 i. 18 
April 13, 1907 

M. Aug. ■ 1-71 

;.. 14, 1903 

Nov. 7, IS 

-. 10, 1894 

April 13, 1919 
8. June 10, 1003 
A. Aug. 5, 1911 
M. Dec. 8, 1917 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Sept. 13, 1873 

M. Dec. 9, IS99 

M. Feb. 8, 190S 

Oct. 11, 1913 



Oct. 12, 1901 

Dec. 11, 1909 

Aug. 3, 1901 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Feb. 14, 1914 

A.M. Dec. 10, 1887 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

June 21, 1894 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Assoc. M.I.M.E.). 

Marked have paid life composition. 

1 Ainsworth, George, The Hall, Consett, County Durham 

2 Armstrong, John Hobart, 31, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

3 Atkinson, (George Blaxland, Edinburgh Buildings, 

21, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

4 Barrett, Sir William Scott, 11, Old Hall Street, Liver- 

pool 
5*Bell, Sir Hugh, Bart., Middlesbrough 

6 Benson, Walter John, Collingwood Buildings, Colling- 

wood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

7 Bleloch, Robert, co Royal Colonial Institute, North- 

umberland Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 

8*Broadbent, Denis Ripley, Royal Societies Club, St. James' 
Street, London, S.W. 1. Transactions sent to The 
Library, Roj^al Societies Club, St. James' Street, 
London, S.W. 1 

9 Brutton, P. M., 17, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

10 Cackett, James Thoburn, Pilgrim House, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

11*Carr, William Cochran, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

12*Chewings, Charles, Eton Street, Malvern, South 
Australia 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Dec. 9, 1905 

Aug. 1, 1885 
Nov. 5, 1S92 

Oct. 14, 1899 
Dec. 9, 1882 

Feb. 8, 1913 

June 9, 1917 



Oct. 14, 1896 
Oct. 13, 1900 



Oct. 10, 1903 
Oct, 11, 1890 
April 25, 1896 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xliii 



13 Cochrane, William James, York Chambers, Fawcett 

Street, Sunderland ... 

14 Cook, Arthur Geoffrey Harold, Collingwood Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

15 Cooper, R. W., Newcastle-upon-Tyne... 

16 Cope, William Henry, The University, Birmingham 

17 Corder, Herbert Scott, 55, Osborne Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

18 Cordner, Allan, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Assistant Secretary. 3f ember of Council) 

19 Cory, Sir Clifford John, Bart., eo Cory Brothers and 

Company, Limited, Cardiff 

20 Dillon, Malcolm, Dene House, Seaham Harbour, County 

Durham 

21 Edwards, F. Henry, Bath Lane, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

22 Elcoate, John, 16, Marton Road, Middlesbrough ... 

23 Fenwick, Featherstone, County Chambers, Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

24 Ffennell, Raymond William, coThe Central Mining and 

Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C. 2. 

25 George, Edward James, Beech Grove, Consett, County 

Durham 

26 Gibson, George Ralph, Tyne Saw Mills, Hexham 

27 Gibson, Thomas William, Bureau of Mines, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 

28 Giddy, Thomas Grantham James, Kenilworth, Samdon 

Street, Hamilton, New South Wales, Australia 
29*Graham, John, Findon Cottage, near Durham 

30 Graham, James Parmley, Sun Insurance Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

31 Gray, William Edwin, 17-19, Archer Street, Camden 

Town, London, N.W. 1 

32 Greenwell, Hubert, 30 and 31, Furnival Street, Holborn, 

London, E.C. 4 

33 Gregson, George Arthur, 12, Hesketh Road, Southport 

34 Gunn, Scott, 27, Quayside, Newcastle-upon-Tyne .. 

35 Guthrie, Reginald, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Treasurer, Member oj Council) ... 

36 Haggie, Peter Norman Broughton, c/o Haggie Brothers, 

Limited, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

37 Heckels, Matthew Octavius, Star Buildings, 26, North- 

umberland Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne... 

38 Heeley, George, East Avenue, Benton, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

39 Henzell, Robert, Northern Oil Works, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

40 Hesketh, Richard, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

41 Hopper, George William Nugent, The Ropery, 

Thornaby-upon-Tees, Stockton-upon-Tees 

42 Jeffrey, Joseph Andrew, c/o The Jeffrey Manufacturing 

Company, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 

43 Jeffries, Joshua, Abermain Colliery, New South Wales, 

Australia ... 
44*Joicey, James John, The Hill, Witley, Godalming 

45 Jopling, Ford Stafford, Jun., 8, Thornhill Terrace, 

Sunderland 

46 Krohn, Herman Alexander, 103, Cannon Street, London, 

E.C. 4 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



April 3, 1909 



Oct. 9 
Sept. 4 
Dec. 9 

Feb. 10 

June 19 

Dec. 11 

Dec. 14 

June 11 
April 13 

June 8 

April 9 

Dec. 9 
June 20 

June 8 

April 8 
Oct. 9 

Dec. 8 

Oct. 11 

Feb. 14 
Aug. 7 
Aug. 6 

Aug. 4 

Oct. 10 

Dec. 12 

Dec. 14 

April 11 
Feb. 13 

Oct. 10 

Dec. 11 

Dec. 10 

Oct. 10 

Feb. 12 
Oct. 14 



1909 
1880 
1905 

1917 

1915 

1897 

1912 

1887 
1912 

1907 

1904 

1905 
1908 

1901 

1911 
1897 

1906 

1913 

1914 
1915 
1910 

1888 

1908 

1914 

1895 

1891 
1909 

1908 

1897 

1898 
1891 

1910 
1893 



xliv ■ 



I Ol Ml-. Ml I 



»n>i <,r .' 
17 Lamb, Kdmund Gbobgb, Borden Wood, Lipbuok, Ban 

shirs Feb. 12, I 

is LAMBERT, CUTHBBBT Al.iuih, North hallway 

Offices, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon I Deo. 12, l • 

im Latimer, William, 3, St. Nicholas' Blinding ircastle- 

upon-Tvne \ 14, II 

50 Ijvwsdn, Henry Alfred, oo Robert I Sons, 

Limited, Milburn Hon.", Newcastle-upon I April H, Ifill 

51 Leake, Percy Collinson, c/o Deanbank Chemical Com- 

pany, Kerry Hill ig. 3, 1' 

52 LuMSDEN, Hinkv Cook, 48, Kothwell Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... 10, 1014 

53 MAJOB, Herbert, 11, Belle Vue, Mowbray Road, Sunder- 

land June 1, 1912 

54 Mansfield, Francis Tubquand, 17 1st Tunnelling Com- 

pany, Royal Engineers, British Expeditionary Force, A. Oct. 14. 1916 
France A.M.Feb. 10,1917 

55 Mobbing, Algernon Eenbt, 62, London Wall, London, 

K.C. 2. Oct. 14. 1911 

5G Morris, Percy Copbland, 79, Elm Park Gardens, Chelsea, 

London, S.W. 10 Feb. 14,1903 

57 Oliver, James Stuart, 21, Tankerville Terrace, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 10. 1912 

58 Palmer, Sir Alfred Molyneux, Bart., John Bowes and 

Partners, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Nov. 24, 1894 

59 Patterson, Robert Oliver, Thorneyhoime, Wylam, North- 

umberland Feb. 12, 1910 

60*Pickup, Peter Wright Dixon, Rishton Colliery, Rishton, 

Blackburn Feb. 12, 1898 

61 Prior-Wandesforde. Richard Henry, Castlecomer House, 

Castlecomer. County Kilkenny ... ... ... Dec. 9, 1905 

62*Proctor, John Henry, 29, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... June 8, 1889 

63 Raine, Winfred, Inglewild, Pity Me, Durham Dec. 13, 1913 

64 Ramsey, John Harry, Westcot, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... April 8, 1916 

65 Reid, Sidney, Printing Court Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne Dec. 13, 1902 

66 Rogers, Isaac Bowman, 69, Holywell Avenue, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... ... ... April 13, 1912 

67 Rogerson, John Edwin, Oswald House, Durham ... ... June 8, 1895 

68 Russell, James, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Feb. 13. 1904 

69 Sadler, Basil, Craigmore, Lanchester, Durham ... ... Feb. 11, 1905 

70 Samuel, David, Arcade Chambers, Llanelly Dec. 13, 1902 

71 Sanders, Charles William Henry, Fawnlees, Wolaing- 

ham, County Durham Dec. 14,1901 

72 Simpson, Horace Sydney Kendal, P.O. Box 56, Dundee, 

Natal, South Africa April 14, 1917 

73 Smith, Arthur Herbert, Broad Street House, New Broad 

Street, London, E.C. 2 ... June 14, 1902 

74 Steuart, Douglas Stuart-Spens, Royal Societies Club, St. 

James' Street, London, S.W. 1 June 10, 1S99 

75 Strzelecki, Algernon Percy Augustus de, 39, Victoria 

Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 1 Dec. 12, 1908 

76 Todd, James, 20, Royal Arcade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Aug. 6. 1S92 

77 Waley, Frederick George, The Bellambi Coal Company, 

Limited, 9, Bridge Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 

Australia Feb. 9, 1907 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



xlv 



78 Walker, Frederick Tillotson, 27, Woodbine Avenue, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

79 Watson, John Robert, Thorndene, Hill Crest, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland 

80 Watts, John, Blytheswood North, Osborne Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

81 Welford, Thomas, Wallarah Colliery, Catherine Hill Bay, 

New South Wales, Australia 

82 Whitehead, Thomas, Brindle Lodge, Preston 

83* WILLIAMS, Henry, Llwyngwern, Pontardulais, Glamorgan 
84'" Wood, Arthur Nicholas Lindsay, The Hermitage, Chester- 

le-Street 
85 Wood, Hugh Nicholas, Sun Buildings, Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 



ASSOCIATES (Assoc. I.M.E.). 

Marked * has paid life composition. 

1 Adam, Thomas Walter, 239th (A. T.) Company, Royal 

Engineers, British Expeditionary Force, France. 
Transactions sent to c o Rev. H. T. Adam, 14, West 
Beach, Lytham 

2 Adams, Robert, 3, Oswin Road, Forest Hall, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

3 Aldis, Gerald 

4 Alexander, Arthur Cecil, Harraton Colliery, Chester- 

le-Street 

5 Allan, Herbert Durham, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, 

Bengal Nagpur Railwa}^, Central India ... 

6 Allen, Francis Richardson, 201, Hugh Gardens, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

7 Atkinson, William Henry, Dans Castle, Tow Law, 

County Durham 

8 Bamborough, Jacob, New Monckton Collieries, Barnsley 

9 Banson, Charles Henry, 4, Rising Sun Cottages, 

Willington Quay, Northumberland 

10 Barber, Norman Elsdale '. 

11 Bary-English, Henry Edward, 22, Avenue Raphael, 

Paris, XVI, France 

12 Bates, Johnson, 5, Grange Villa, County Durham ... 

13 Battey, Thomas, Station Road, Shiremoor, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

14 Bayfield, Henry, 41, Westcott Road, Tyne Dock, South 

Shields 

15 Benson, Herbert Sydney, Seaton Burn Colliery, Seaton 

Burn, Dudley, Northumberland ... 

16 Bkrryman, Thomas, Enys Road, Camborne ... 

17 Bewley, George, 46, Kingsley Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

18 Blackbtt, Geoffrey Elliot, Acorn Close, Sacriston, 

Durham 

19 Blunden, Philip Sidney, Glencrag, Mainsforth Road, 

Ferry Hill 

20 Blythman, John, East View, High Heworth, Gateshcad- 

upon-Tyne 

21 Booth, James Frederick 

22 Bootiman, Frank Cecil, Woodside, Westoe, South Shields 

23 Boutland, Thomas, 25, First Row, Ashington Northumber- 

land 

24 Brandon, Geoffry 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



April 14, 1917 

April 9, 1910 

April 8, 1911 

June 10, 1903 
June 12, 1897 
Dec. 9, 1905 

July 14, 1896 

Oct. 12, 1912 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



S. April 3, 1909 
A. Dec. 10, 1910 

April 13, 1918 

S. Feb. 14, 1914 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. June 10, 1911 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 

Feb. 10, 1906 



Feb. 


10, 


1917 


S. Aug. 
A. Aug. 


7, 
5, 


1909 
1916 


Oct. 


8, 


1904 


April 
S. June 


13, 

20, 


1918 
1908 


A. Aug. 
S. Aug. 
A. Feb. 


2, 

7, 

11, 


1913 
1909 
1911 


Feb. 


11, 


1905 



Oct. 13, 1894 

Feb. 12, 1916 

S. Feb. 11, 1905 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

Feb. 8, 1913 

Feb. 10, 1917 
S. Aug. 1, 1914 
A. Aug. 10, 1918 

June 8, 1907 

Dec. 12, 1914 

Dec. 11, 1909 

S. Feb. 10, 1912 

A. Aug. 4, 1917 

June 1, 1918 
S. Dec. 8, 1900 
A. Aug. 3, 1907 



x I vi 



J.I XI (.1 MKMIIl 



'2f) Bbooks, Douglas Rot, 5, Kensington Garden*, Moi 
W'liii ley Bay, Northumberland 

26 Browell, Jaspeb Geoffbey, Lo* Trewhitt, Rothbury, 

Northumberland 

27 BBOWN, .John CECIL, 9, Kasl View, South Shields 

28 Bbown, Joh» William, 2, Dene Bridge, Ferrj Hill 

29 Brown, Dhomas, II. M. Bub-Inspector of Mines, 186, 

Dilston Road, Newcastle -upon Tyne 
.SO Brown, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Min 2 Sidney 

Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
31 Hurt, Thomas, Hill House, Washington, Washii 

Station, County Durham 

:V2 Carroll, John, Hillcre.st, Newfield, Willington, County 

Durham 

33 Cheesman, Edward Taylor, Jan., Clara Vale Colliery, 

Ryton, County Durham 

34 Chen. Pao Kin, c/o Kaotze, Chen and Company, 58, North 

Soochow Road, Shanghai, China ... 

35 Cheung, Wing Po, 21, Sanderson Road, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

30 Chicken, Ernest, Sea View, Horden, County Durham ... 

37 Clement, John, Castleton, Grosmout, Yorkshire 

38 Clephan, Guy, 1, Otterburu Villas North, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

39 Coulson, William Hall, 2, Pimlico, Durham 

40 CoxoN, Samuel Bailey, 3, Percy Terrace, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

41 Chawhall, John Stanhope. Westcroft, Stanhope, County 

Durham 

42 Crowle, Percy J., Mysore Mine, Ko ar Goldfields, Mari- 

kuppam, Mysore, India 

43 Cruz y Diaz, Federico de la, Societe des Mines de 

Malabau, Villardonnel, Aude, France 

44 Cummings, William, 2, Dene View, Burnopfield, County 

Durham 

45 Cusson, Charles Frederick, Greenfield House, Station 

Road, Washington Station, County Durham 

46 Dakers, Edgar Walton, Weardale Mines and Quarries, 

Stanhope, County Durham ... 

47 Dales, John Henry, 2, Derwent View, Burnopfield, County 

Durham 

48 Daniell, Henry Edmund Blackburne, 7, Wallace Terrace, 

Ryton, County Durham 

49 Davies, Daniel John, c/o E. Davies, The Pines, Corrimal, 

New South Wales, Australia 

50 Davis, James E. , South Medomsley Colliery, Dipton, 

County Durham 

51 Davison, Francis, Ash Grove House, Hedley Hill Colliery. 

near Waterhouses, Durham 

52 Devenport, Christopher, 112, Talbot Road, South Shields 

53 Dick-Cleland, Archibald Felce, 75, York Mansions, 

Battersea Park, London, S.W. 11. 

54 Dixon, Matthew, 9, Otterburu Avenue, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

55 Douglas, Albert Edward, Rose Villas, Shotton Collier}^, 

Castle Eden, County Durham 

56 Douglas, John, 2, The Villas, Dean Bank, Ferry Hill ... 

57 Dunnett, Samuel, West View House, Coomassie Road, 

Waterloo, Blyth 

58 Dwane, Francis Cecil, Ballarpur, Chanda, Central 

Provinces, India ... 



•)Cl\<Jll 

ai.'l of Tra 

- IX . 14, 1907 

3, 1912 

8, 1010 

i. 1917 

10, L912 

A. Aug. 4, 1917 
10, 1917 

Feb, 13, 1915 

June 14, 1913 

April 4, 1909 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Dec. 10, 1910 
S. Dec. 11, 1915 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 

June 1, 1918 
Oct. 8, 1910 
Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 10, 1910 

Dec. 14, 1912 

S. Oct. 12, 1907 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. Feb. 14, 1914 

A. Aug. 10, 1918 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Oct. 11, 1913 

Oct, 13, 1917 

Oct. 10, 1914 

S. Dec. 14, 1907 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 

April 4, 1914 
S. Aug. 3, 1907 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Feb. 12, 1898 
Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 11, 1915 
S. Aug. 1, 1903 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 

Aug. 4, 1917 

June 8, 1895 
Aug. 2, 1913 



LIST OF MEMBERS . 



xlvii 



59 Eadie, John Allan, Jun., Eller Bank, Harrington, 

Cumberland ... 

60 Elliot, Arthur, 40, West' Kensington Mansions, West 

Kensington, London, W. 14. 

61 Elliott, George, Oakwood, Catchgate, Annfield Plain, 

County Durham 

62 English, Thomas Weddle, 1, Osborne Avenue, Hexham 

63 Fletcher, Daniel, 3, Victoria Terrace, Hamsterley 

Colliery, County Durham ... 

64 Flint. Frederic John, 48, Beaconsfield Street, Blyth 

65 Ford, Eric Loufwin, 3i, Cobden Road, Chesterfield 

66 Ford, Leo Dorey, E.I.R. and B.N.R. Joint Colliery, 

Bokaro, Gumujan P.O., Hazaribagh, Bihar and Orissa, 
India 

67 Forster, Edward Baty, Ingleside, Ryton, County Durham 

68 Fowler, Albert Ernest 



69 Gallon, Joseph, 71, Seventh Row, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

70 Gallwey, John Payne, Royal Engineers' Experimental 

Station, Porton, Salisbury ... 

71 Gilchrist, George Atkinson, South Pelaw Colliery, 

Chester-le-Street 

72 Gould, George Donald, c'o Mrs. John Gould, 58, Ebers 

Road, Nottingham 

73 Graham, Robert, 1, Park Street, Willington, County 

Durham 

74 Graham, William, Jun., 6, Victoria Road, Whitehaven 

75 Graydon, George Watson 

76 Guthrie, Kenneth Malcolm, 73, Cleveland Road, North 

Shields ... 

77 Halkier, Robert, The Villas, Hartford Colliery, Cram- 

lington, Northumberland ... 

78 Hall, Rowley, Station House, South Hylton, Sunderland 

79 Hanlon, Henry Charles Hubekt, 7, Mark Lane, White- 

haven ... 

80 Hann, Thomas Cummins, 5, The Villas, Ferry Hill Village, 

Ferry Hill 

81 Hare, Alfred Bessell, Howlish Hal), Bishop Auckland ... 

82 Hare, Ralph Victor, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland ... 

83 Harris, Francis Edwin, Woodbine Terrace, New Br&.nce- 

peth Colliery, Durham 

84 Hawkins, John Bridges Bailey, Staganhoe Park, 

Welwyn ... ... ... • ... 

85 Heatherington, Arnold, Ouston House, Pelton, County 

Durham 

86 Hedley. George William, Kimblesworth House, Chester- 

le-Street 

87 Hedley, Rowland Frank Hutton, Percy Villa, Salisbury 

Place, South Shields 

88 Henderson, Cfiristopher Gregory, Shoreswood, Ash- 

ington, Northumberland 

89 Herdman. Fred. G., Main Street, Haltwhistle, Northumber- 

land 

90 Herriotts, Joseph George, 6, Station Road, Easington 

Colliery, County Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 

S. Oct. 10, 1903 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 

S. Dec. 13, 1902 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

June 8, 1907 
Feb. 11, 1905 



Feb. 9, 1918 

Aug. 7, 1909 

S. April 11, 1908 

A. Feb. 8, 1913 



Feb. 8, 1913 

April 7, 1906 

S. Oct. 12, 1907 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 

S. Oct. 9, 1909 
A. Aug. 1, 1914 
S. Oct. 11, 1913 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 
S. Dec. 14, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

April 8, 1916 

Oct. 12, 1907 

S. Oct. 13, 1906 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 

Feb. 10, 1917 

S. Aug. 5, 1911 

A. Dec. 13, 1913 



Feb. 10, 1917 

S. Dec. 14, 1912 

A. Aug. 10, 1918 

April 8, 1916 

April 10, 1915 

Dec. 14, 1912 

S. Dec. 10, 1910 

A. Aug. 4, 1917 

Aug. 4, 1917 

S. Dec. 13, 1902 

A. Aug. 6, 1910 

S. Dec. 9, 1911 

A. Aug. 10, 1918 

Dec. 13, 1902 
S. April 4, 1903 
A. Aug. 7, 1909 

June I, 1912 
S. Dec. 14, 1907 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

April 28, 1900 



xlviii 



LIST Ol \U-.M HEB 






!t! Exslop, Gioboi, The Vereeniging Efistatea, I . i n 1 1 l< < i , < 
nflia Colliery, Viljoen'i Or it l, Orange Free 8 
South Africa ... 

92 Hi i. "i', WHliam, koac Cottage, Burnopfield, County 

Durham 

93 Hindmabsh, Gxobgx Mason, Railway Street Corrimal, 

New South Wales, Australia 
<)4 ETindson, Donald, Pramwellgate Colliery, Durham 

95 EOOKADAY, .Ions BELLAMY, 8, Derwent Street, Stanley. 

County Durham 
iiii Holliday, Albert Edward David. Dunelm, Aehington, 

Northumberland 

97 Hood, Charles Attwood, Fox Hall, Butterknowle, County 

Durham 

98 Hudson, Mark, Albion House, Cockton Hill, Bishop 

Auckland 

99 Humble, William Henry, Waldridge Colliery, Chester- 

le-Street 

100 Hunter. Andrew, 3, Westcott Avenue, South Shields ... 

101 Button, Allan Robinson Bowes, Daw Wood, Bentley, 

Doncaster 

102 Hyde, George Alfred, I, Albert Street, Victoria Gares- 

field, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

103 Inman, William St. John, Thornfield, Ryhope Road, 

Sunderland 

104 Jefeery, Albert John, Hedworth House, Barn Hill, 

Stanley, County Durham ... 

105 Jobling, John Swanstone, Wellington Terrace, Edniond- 

sley, Durham ... 

106 Kelly, John, North Biddick Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham 

107 KlRKLEY, AlDAN 

108 Kirkup, Ernest Hodgson, Eighton Lodge, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ~ ... 

109 Lee, Fang Chun, 19, Wansbeck Terrace, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

110 Leebetter, William, Edith Avenue, Usworth Colliery, 

Washington Station, County Durham ... 

111 Leybourne, Elliot Angus, Birchholme, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

112 Logan, Reginald Samuel Moncrieff, 28, Simpson Terrace, 

Blucher Colliery, Newburn, Northumberland ... 

113 Loudon, George, 1, Office Buildings, Harton Colliery, 

South Shields ... 

114 Lowry, Joseph Thompson, Oak Lea, Cramlington, North- 

umberland 

115 McKensey, Stanley, 39th Fortress Company, A.E., 

Nobby's Road, Newcastle, New South Wales, 
Australia 

116 McLaren, Ronald Henry, Offerton Hall, Sunderland 

117 Magee, Stanley Sharpe, Sharpe's House, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

118 Marr, Joseph, Ashleigh House, Sheriff Hill, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

119 Martin, David, 7, East View, Blackhills Road, Horden, 

County Durham 

120 Martin, Tom Pattinson, Jun., Seaton Park, near Work- 

ington 

121 Mkrivale, Vernon, Middleton Hall, Middleton, Leeds 



Feb. 
Dec. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

April 
A. Aug. 
S. Feb. 
A. Aug. 

S. Feb. 
A. Aug. 



9, 1909 

1 , 1914 
9, 1918 

10, 1917 

12, 1913 

10, 1917 
9, 1905 

14, 1907 

13, 1897 
8, 1905 

3, 1912 
13, 1909 

5, 1911 

11, 1911 

4, 1917 



April 28. 1900 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Feb. 10, 1917 

June 11, 1910 

s. April 13, 1907 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 

Dec. 9, 1916 

Dec. 9,1911 

S. April 2, 1913 

A. Aug. 7. 1915 

S. Feb. 9, 1901 

-A. Aug. 1, 1903 

Feb. 12, 1916 

April 3, 1909 

s. Oct. 14, 1911 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. Feb. 10, 1912 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

April 13. 1912 

Feb. 10, 1917 

Feb. 10, 1917 
S. June 13, 1914 

A. Aug. 5, 1916 
S. Oct. 8, 1910 

A. Aug. 5, 1916 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlix 



122 Milburn, William, Hill House, Ouston. Birtley, County 

Durham 

123 Millne, David, 41, Shiney Row, Bedlington, North- 

umberland 

124 Mirza, Khurshid, Mining Engineer, Hyderabad, Deccan, 

India 
125*Mitchell- Withers, William Charles 

126 Murray, Robert Wallace, 8, Lintz Colliery, Burnopfield, 

County Durham 

127 Mycock, William, Front Street, Shotton Colliery, Castle 

Eden. County Durham 

128 Nattress, George, Redheugh Colliery, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne ' ... 

129 Nichols, Henry Herbert, Kibblesworth, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

130 Nicholson, George Thompson, Dene House, Scotswood, 

Northumberland 

131 Oliver, William, 4 Quality Row, Harton Colliery, South 

Shields 

132 Oswald, George Robert, Sritarmarat, Nakon, Siam 

133 Owen, Arthur Lewis Scott 

134 Owens, George, Westerton Village, Bishop Auckland 

135 Paddon, Neville Blackmore, c'o B. L. Brodhurst, South 

Brancepeth, Spennymoor 

136 Parish, Charles, Charlaw, Sacriston, Durham 

137 Parker, Joseph William, Cornelia Colliery, Viljoen's 

Drift, Orange Free State, South Africa 

138 Parrington, Matthew Lilburn Hill House, Monkwear- 

mouth, Sunderland ... 

139 Peel, George. Jim., 27, Langley Street, Langley Park, 

Durham 

140 Penney, Isaac, Deaf Hill Colliery, Trimdon Grange, 

County Durham 

141 Pollard, Thomas Hardwick, 24, First Row, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

142 Portrey, James, West Thornley, Tow Law, County 

Durham 

143 Pumphrey, Charles Ernest, Ryton Old House, Ryton, 

County Durham 

144 Pye, Herbert James, Dunelm House, Middlefield, Ushaw 

Moor, Durham 

145 Ramsay, John Gladstone. Oak lea, Bowburn, Coxhoe, 

County Durham 

146 Reed, John Thomas, 2, Ivy Terrace, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham 

147 Richardson, Frank, Rossington Colliery, Rossington, 

Doncaster 

148 Richardson, Henry, Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, County 

Durham 
1"49 Ridley, Henry Anderson, Burnbrae, Blaydon Burn, 
Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County Durham 

150 Ridley, William, 10, Railway Street, Tow Law, County 

Durham 

151 Ridley, William, Jun., Clifford House, Hamsteels, Quebec, 

Durham 

152 Rivers, John, The Villas, Thornley, County Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



June 8, 1895 

Aug. 3, 1907 
S. June 13, 1914 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 
S. April 28, 1900 
A. Aug. 2, 1902 

Oct. 13, 1917 

Oct. 10, 1908 



April 14, 1917 

Aug. 3, 1907 
S. Dec. 10, 1904 
A. Aug. 5, 1911 



April 8, 1916 
S. June 9, 1900 
A. Aug. 3, 1907 
S. June 12, 1909 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

Oct, 9, 1909 



Dec. 

Aug. 

June 
S. Oct. 
A. Aug. 

April 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Oct. 
S. Dec. 
A. Aug. 



14, 1907 

4, 1917 

11, 1910 
9, 1909 

5, 1916 

4, 1903 

9, 1911 

10, 1917 

12, 1912 
10, 1904 

4, 1906 



Aug. 4, 1917 



Dec. 10, 1892 

April 4, 1914 
S. Oct. 12, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 14, 1907 

S. Aug. 1, 1908 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

Dec. 8, 1906 
Feb. 9, 1895 



LIST Ol \||- Ml" 



158 Robinson, Thomas Lbb, Office Hon e, Newton Cap Colliery, 

near Bishop Auckland 
i .. i Rodwat, Willi \m . Soutfa Row, Bedlington, Northumberland 

155 Roqebs, JosBPB Nblsos Octavius, c/o Austin Kirkup, 

Manor Hon baw, Fence Houses, County Durham 

156 Roosb, Bubbrt Pbanois Gabdnib, 14, Sunderland 'I • 

Bayswater, London, W. 2. ... 

157 Rose, Albxandeb, Front Street, Orange Villa, County 

Durham 

158 Saint, Thomas Arthur, Blackgate House, Coxhoe, County 

Durham 

159 Scott, Charles Weathkritt, 6, Evelyn Terrace. Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

160 Scott, John Linton, 2, Melton Terrace, New Hartley, 

Seaton Delaval, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

161 Scott, Thomas Amour, Station Road, Broomhill, Ack- 

lington, Northumberland ... 

162 Severs, Jonathan, Hebburn House, Hebburn, County 

Durham 

163 Sheel, Harry, 11, St. Cuthbert's Terrace, Dean Bank, 

Ferry Hill 

164 Simpson, Joseph, Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thornley, 

County Durham 

165 Snaith, Joseph, Fell House, Burnhope. Durham 

166 Snowdon, Thomas. Jun.. Oakwood, Cockfield, County 

Durham 

167 Southern, John. 9, Egremont Drive, Sheriff Hill, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

168 Spence, John Henry, 61, Caroline Street, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

169 Stewart, Roland 

170 Stobart, Thomas Carlton, Ushaw Moor Colliery, 

Durham 

171 Stoker, John, 1, Office Street, Wheatley Hill, County 

Durham 

172 Stoker. Nicholas, South Pelaw Colliery, Chester de-Street 

173 Strono, George Adamson, Kibblesworth Hall, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

174 Strong, John William, Maplethorpe, Bloxwich, Walsall 

175 Suggett, Ernest Hughes, School House, Leamside, Fence 

Houses, County Durham 

176 Summerside, Edward, 2, Woodlands, Hexham 

177 Swan, William Edward, Rygnald Cottage, Smithy 

Houses, Derb}' 

178 Thomas, Robert Clark, North Biddick Colliery, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 

179 Thompson, John Ballantyne, 166, Westoe Road, South 

Shields 

180 Turnbull, John, 1, South View, Sacriston, Durham 

181 Turnbull, William, West Holywell, Back worth Colliery, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

182 Varty, William Lawrence, Quay House, Scotswood, 

Northumberland 

183 Varvill, Wilfred Walter, c o Dowson and Wright, 13, 

Weekday Cross, Nottingham 

184 Wainwright, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 

West View, Fieldhouse Lane, Western Hill, Durham ... 

185 Walker, Arthur, 4, Fatfield Road, Washington, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 



1 . 



April 12. 1913 
.Dm'; 14, 1913 

April 4, 191 1 

8. I- 1899 

mg. :: 1997 

10, 1917 

\ug. 3, L912 

A. Aug. 5. 1016 

9, 191 1 

10, 191 ^ 

8. De . 12, L908 

Lng. 3, 1912 

9, 1909 

>. June 8. 
A. Aug. 4, 1900 

June 9. 1917 
S. June 10, 1905 
A. Aug. 2, 1913 

Oct. 12, 1907 

S. June 12, 1897 

A. Aug. 3, 1901 

Dec. 14, 1889 

Dec. 8, 1917 
Aug. 6, 1910 

Aug. 2, 1902 

June 3, 1916 
Feb. 13, 1904 
S. Aug. 2, 1902 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 
S. Oct. 9, 1909 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 





Oct. 


9, 


1915 




Dec. 


11, 


1909 




April 


9, 


1904 


S. 


Aug. 


3, 


1907 


A 


. Aug. 


6, 


1910 


S. 


Feb. 


10, 


1912 


A. 


Aug. 


10. 


191s 




Aug. 


4, 


1917 



Oct. S, 1904 



April 13, 1918 
S. Dec. 12. 190^ 
A. Aug. 2, 1913 



April 2, 1898 
April 10, 1915 



LIST OF MEMBERS. ll 

Date of Election 
and of Transfei . 

186 Walton, Isaac, 3, West Street, Tantield Lea, Tantobie, 

County Durham Dec. 14,1907 

187 Watson, Thomas, Jun., Rosebank, Darlington S. June 8, 1907 

A. Aug. 5, 1911 

188 Watts, Hubert, Blytheswcod North, Osborne Road, S. June 8, 1907 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne A. Aug. 1, 1914 

189 Welsh, Arthur, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope, County 8. Aug. 1, 1896 

Durham A. Aug. 1, 1903 

190 Wigham, John Shiells, Bcaconsfield Cottage, Low Fell, S. June 13, 1914 

Gateshead- upon-Tyne A. Aug. 10, 1918 

191 Wile, John William, Rising Sun Colliery, Wallsend, 

Northumberland June 9, 1917 

192 Wood, George, South Farm, Cramlington, Northumber- 

land April 13, 1907 

193 Wood, Octavius, Woodbine Terrace, New Brancepeth 

Colliery, Durham Aug. 4, 1917 

194 Wood, Raymond Hewison, 14, Alexander Street, Shildon, 

New Shildon, County Durham Dec. 8,1917 

195 Young, William Robert, Bomarsund, Choppmgton, 

Northumberland ., Feb. 10, 1917 



STUDENTS (Stud.I.M.E.). 

Date of Election. 

1 Anderson, Robert Wylie, Highfleld, Wallsend, North- 

umberland Feb. 14, 1914 

2 Blenkinsopp, William Oswald, 10, Pilgrim Street, Murton 

Colliery, County Durham ... ... ... ... ... June 1, 1918 

3 Dawson, Arthur Kenneth, Holme House, West Auckland, 

Bishop Auckland ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Dec. 11, 1915 

4 Dillon, Norman Margrave, Dene House, Seaham Harbour, 

County Durham Oct, 10,1914 

5 Dixon, Norman, Shilbottle Colliery, Lesbury, Northumberland April 10, 19J5 

6 Gibson, John Fenwick, Bentinck House, Ashington, Northum- 

berland Aug. 1, 1914 

7 Johnson, Ernest Case, 19, Pavilion Terrace, Burnhope, 

Durham Feb. 10, 1917 

8 Kirkup, Philip, Jun., Leafield House, Birtley, County 

Durham Dec. 9, 1911 

9 Mutch, Edward Roderick, 3, Roseburn Place, Edinburgh ... April 10, 1915 

10 Paxton, Robert Stanley, Hill Crest, Windlestone, Ferry Hill Dec. 8, 1917 

11 Ranken, Charles Thompson, Coanwood, Roker, Sunderland ... Aug. 5, 1911 

12 Shapley, Cecil Edward William, Santry, Chelston Road, 

Torquay Aug. 7, 1915 

13 Taggart, John, View House, Denton Burn, Scotswood, 

Northumberland Oct. 13, 1917 

14 Welch, John Walter, 1, Milne Terrace, Durham Road, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... June 13, 1914 

15 Wilson, Henry Lawrence, Cradock Villas, Bishop Auckland ■ Dec 8, 1917 



1ST OF Ml M BEES. 



SUBSCRIBI 



1 The Ashinoto Coal Company, Limited, Milburn Hoi 

Tyne. 

2 The dbarpark Goal and Oo] lhany, Limited, Royal I. 

M iddlesbrough, 

3 The Bebsidb Coal Company, Limited, 'J3, Queen Street, ble-upon 

Tyne. 

4 Tii k Bbdlingtom Coal Company, Limited (4), Wat Bulletin 

jtle-upon-Tyne. 
.) Bell Beothers, Limited (4), Middlesbrough, 

6 Wm. Benson and Son, Limited (5), Collingwood Buildings, Col! 

Street, Xeu cast le-upon-Tyne. 

7 The Birtley Ikon Company (6), Birtley, County Durfa 

8 Bolckow, Vauohan and Company, Limited (4), Middlesbrough. 

9 John Bowes and Partners, Limited (4), Milburn Ho nrcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

10 The Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Limited, 3, Croat Wine) 

Street, London, E.C. 2. 

11 Broomiiill Collieries, Limited (5), Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood 

Street , Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

12 Brunner, Mond and Company, Limited, Northwich. 

13 The Burradon and Coxlodge Coal Company, Limited, Hanover House, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

14 The Most Honourable the Marquess of Bute, Bute Estate Offices, Aberdare. 

15 Cargo Fleet Iron Company, Limited, Middlesbrough. T ns, etc., 

sent to W. A. Caddick, Cargo Fleet Iron Company, Limited, Middles- 
brough. 

16 The Carlton Iron Company, Limited (3), Carlton Iron Works, via Ferry 

Hill. 

17 The Carterthorne Colliery Company, Limited, Zetland Buildings, 

Middlesbrough. 

18 The Charlaw and Sacriston Collieries Company, Limited, 34, Grey 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

19 The Consbtt Iron Company, Limited (o), Consett, County Durham. 

20 M. Coulson and Company, Limited, Merrington Lane Iron Works, Spennymoor. 

21 County Borough of Gateshead Public Library, Swinburne Street, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne. 

22 The Cowpen Coal Company, Limited (4), F, King Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

23 The Cramlington Coal Company, Limited (4), West Hartley Main Fitting 

Office, Newcastie-upon-Tyne. 

24 Crompton and Company, Limited, Pearl Buildings, Northumberland Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

25 Dominion Coal Company, Limited, Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. 

26 The Right Honourable the Earl of Durham (4), Lambton Offices, Fence 

Houses, County Durham. 

27 The Easington Coal Company, Limited (5), Whitworth House, Spennymoor. 

28 The East Holywell Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

29 The Right Honourable the Earl of Ellesmere (4), Bridgewater Offices, 

Walkden, Manchester. Transactions sent to Charles Hardy, Bridge- 
water Offices, Walkden, Manchester. 

30 The Elswick Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

31 The Framwellgate Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Milburn House, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

32 Gent and Company, Limited, Faraday Works, Leicester. 

33 D. H. and G. Haggie, Wearmouth Patent Rope Works, Sunderland. 

34 The Hardy Patent Pick Company, Limited, Heeley, Sheffield. Transaction*, 

etc., sent to C. 1'ennett, 6, Lawson Terrace, Durham. 

35 The Harton Coal Company, Limited (6), Harton Collieries, South Shields. 

36 Thomas Hedley and Brothers, 4, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

37 The Heworth Coal Company, Limited, Deans Primrose Office, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

38 The Horden Collieries, Limited (4), Castle Eden, County Durham. 

39 International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S. A 

40 Joseph Johnson (Durham), Limited, 74, New Elvet, Durham. 

41 James Joicey and Company, Limited (4), Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. UH 

42 Kirkpatrick AND Barr, Maritime Buildings, King Street, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. Transactions, etc., sent to J. A. Donkin, 12, Ashgrove Terrace, 
Gateshead-upon- Ty ne. 

43 The Lambton and Hetton Collieries, Limited (10), Cathedral Buildings, 

Dean Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

44 Joseph Laycock and Company, Seghill, Dudley, Northumberland. 

45 The Most Honourable the Marquess of Londonderry (8), c/o Vincent Charles 

Stuart Wortley Corbett, Londonderry Offices, Seaham Harbour, County 
Durham. 

46 Mavor and Coulson, Limited, 47, Broad Street, Mile-End, Glasgow. 

47 The Mickley Coal Company, Limited (3), Mickley Offices, Stocksfield, 

Northumberland. 

48 The Moresby Coal Company, Limited, near Whitehaven. 

49 The Netherton Coal Company, Limited (3), Cathedral Buildings, Dean 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

50 The Newbiggin Colliery Company, Limited, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, North- 

umberland. 

51 The North Bitchburn Coal Company, Limited, Darlington. 

52 The North Brancepeth Coal Company, Limited, Crown Street Chambers, 

Darlington. 

53 The North Walbottle Coal Company, Limited, Akenside House, Quay- 

side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

54 Osbeck and Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

55 Pease and Partners, Limited (5), Darlington. 

56 The Owners of Pelton Colliery, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

57 The Priestman Collieries, Limited, Victoria Garesfield Colliery, Rowlands 

Gill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Transactions sent to H. Peile, The Priestman 
Collieries, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

58 Robey and Company, Limited, Globe Works, Lincoln. 

59 The Ryhope Coal Company, Limited (4), Ryhope Colliery. Sunderland. 

60 Sir S. A. Sadler, Limited, Middlesbrough. 

61 Sir B. Samuelson and Company, Limited, Middlesbrough. 

62 Walter Scott, Limited, Victoria Buildings. Grainger Street West, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 

63 The Seaton Burn Coal Company, Limited, Akenside House, Quayside, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

64 The Seaton Delaval Coal Company, Limited (4), Exchange Buildings, 

Quayside, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

65 Siemens Brothers and Company, Limited, 39, Collingwood Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 

66 Wasteneys Smith and Sons, 57 to 60, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

67 South Derwent Coal Company, Limited, West Stanley Colliery, Stanley, 

County Durham. 

68 The South Hetton Coal Company, Limited (4), 50, John Street, Sunderland. 

69 The South Moor Colliery Company, Limited, 4, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

70 Owners of South Pelaw Colliery, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

71 The Stella Coal Company, Limited, Hedgefield, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County 

Durham. 

72 The Sterling Telephone and Electric Company, Limited, 42, Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

73 Henry Stobart and Company, Limited (3), Colliery Office, Etherley, 

Bishop Auckland. 

74 Strakers and Love (4), Brancepeth Colliery Offices, Collingwood Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

75 The Throckley Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

76 The Tynedale Coal Company, Limited, Acomb, Hexham. 

77 The Wallsend and Hebborn Coal Company, Limited, Exchange Buildings, 

Lombard Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

78 The Washington Coal Company, Limited, Washington, County Durham. 

79 The Weardale Steel, Coal and Coke Company, Limited (5), Tudhoe Iron 

Works, Spennymoor. 

80 The Wearmouth Coal Company, Limited (4), Sunderland. 

81 The West Mickley Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



liv 



LIST OF MKM IJEIIS 



82 VVestport Coal Company, Limited (4), Dunedij Z <1. 

83 Wingatb Coal Company, Limited, Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood 

81 reel . Newcasl l«3-upon-Tyn«. 

SI TllK WORKlNGTOh \n>>\ a<i» STEEL COMPANY, LIMITED (4), M" 

Workington. Transactions, etc., tent bo A. Millar, Harrington Colliery, 

Lowca, Whitehaven. 



ENUMERATION 



Honorary Members 
Members ... 
Associate M km bkrs 
Associates 

Students 
subscribers 



August 10. 
22 

\r> 



Total 



1,194 



Members are desired to communicate all changes of address, or any corrections or 
omissions in the list of names, to the Assistant Secretary. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 

OF MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE SERVING WITH HIS MAJESTY'S FORCES 

AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



lv 



Adam, T. W. (Lytham), 239th (A. T.) Company, Royal Engineers (Captain). 

Aldis, Gerald (Seghill), Army Service Corps (Captain). 

Alexander, A. C. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Almond, C. P. (Sunderland), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Killed in 

action. 
Anderson, R. W. (Wallsend), Tyne Electrical Engineers (Captain). Awarded 

the Military Cross. 
Annett, H. C. (Widdrington), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). Killed in action. 
Ashton, Sir Ralph P. (London), 4th Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West 

Surrey Regiment) (Major). 
Atkinson, W. H. (Tow Law), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Avery, W. E. (Birtley), 16th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Lieutenant). Killed in action. 
Bainbridge, E. M. (Gosforth), Army Service Corps (Lieutenant). 
Barber, N. E. (Doncaster), 8th Battalion, King's Royal Rifles (Captain). 
Barrett, R. S. (Dudley), Royal Engineers, Coast Defence (Lieutenant). 
Bell, Marshall B. (Capheaton), Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserves — St. 

John Ambulance Association (Reserve Ward Master). 
Best, Earle (Hetton-le-Hole), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Bigge, D. L. Selby (Glasgow), Northumberland Hussars Imperial Yeomanry 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Blackett, G. E. (Sacriston), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Blackett, W. C, T.D. (Sacriston), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Colonel). 
Blair, R. C. R. (Whitehaven), 5th Battalion, Border Regiment (Captain). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Killed in action. 
Blunden, P. S. (Ferry Hill), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Booth, James F. (Felling-upon-Tyne), Royal Army Medical Corps 

(Captain). 
Bootiman, F. C. (South Shields), 23rd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Bowen, David (Leeds), 8th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment (Lieutenant). 
Bracken, T. W. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Brandon, Geoffry (Benton), 182nd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Brass, J. R. (Sacriston), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Lieutenant). 

Killed in action. 
Brooks, D. R. (Monkseaton), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Browell, J. G. (Rothbury), 1st Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field Artillery 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Brown, John C. (South Shields), 253rd Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Calder, William (London), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 



Ivi BOLL OF honour. 

Carr, W. Cochran (Newca tl« >upon -Tym ■>. Remount Depart 

Chambers, D M (London), Tunnelling Compa Capl 

Killed in action, 
Chablton, B II. (To* Law), 4th Battalion, Forkshire I: ' 

Colonel). Awarded the Military Cross Killed in action. 
Charlton, G. F. II. (Seaton Delaval), LOth Battalion, South Walei Bord 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Chatbb, C. \\ (Rangoon), [ndian A.rmy Reserve of Office 

10th Lancers (Hodson'a Bone) (2nd Lieutenant). 
Clement, .John (Boosbeck, Yorkshire), l-t Battalion, Coldstream GnarcU 

(Private). Discharged through wounds. 
Clephan, Guy (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 4th Northumbrian (Howita •.<}<-, 

Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Clive, Lawrence (Newcastle, Staffordshire), 5th Battalion, North Stafford- 
shire Regiment (Captain). 
Coade, Samuel (Millom), 257th Company, Royal Engineers (Sapper). Killed 

in action. 
Collins, H. B. (Kilmacolm), Royal Engineers (Major). 
Colquhoun, T. G. (Monkseaton), attached Recruiting Staff, 10th Regimental 

Area (Captain). 
Cooke, H. M. A. (Mysore, India). Kolar Groldfield Rifle Volunteers (Captain). 
Cothay, F. H. (Sunderland), Royal Navy (Temporary Engineer Lieutenant). 
Coulson, W. H. (Durham), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Captain). 
Coxon, Samuel B. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Somerset Light 

Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Crawhall, J. S., (Stanhope), Royal Engineers (Major). 
Crichton-Stuart, The Right Hon. Lord Ninian (Falkland, Fife-hire), 6th 

Battalion, Welsh Regiment (Lieut. -Colonel). Killed in action. 
Crowle, Percy J. (Mysore, India), Kolar Goldfield Rifle Voluntcerrs (2nd 

Lieutenant). . 
Daniell, H. E. B. (Ryton), 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineer- 

(Captain). 
Davies, William (Bolton), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers C2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Dawson, A. K. (Bishop Auckland), 179th Tunnelling Company, Roya! 

Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Dick-Cleland, A. F. (Jalisco, Mexico), Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Dillon, N. M. (Seaham Harbour), Heavy Branch, Machine Gun Corps 

(Lieutenant). 
Ditmas, F. I. Leslie (Hammerwich), Assistant Director Railway Traffic. 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the 

Military Cross. 
Dixon, Clement (Bulawayo), Rhodesia Volunteer Reserve Force, South 

African Forces ( ). 

Dixon, George (Newthorpe), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Killed in 

action. 
Dixon, George (Manbhum, India V, Indian Army Reserve of Officers, attached 

to 26th (K.G.O.) Light Cavalry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Dixon, Norman (Lesbury), 7th Reserves, West Yorkshire Regiment (Lance- 
Corporal) . 
Earnshaw, Oscar (Hamsterley Colliery), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 

Killed in action. 
Edwards, O. T. (Aberdare), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 



ROLL OF HONOUR. lvii 

Eliet, F. C. A. B. Elie du (Lorient, France), 1st Regiment du Genie 

(Capitaine Commandant). 
English, H. E. (Roker), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 
English, John (Felling-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Major). 
Ffennell, R. W. (London), Officers' Cadet Battalion (Major). 
Ford, L. D. (Bokaro, India), 2nd Battalion, Queen Victoria's Own Sappers 

and Miners (2nd Lieutenant). 
Fowler, A. E. (Washington Station), 174th Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Gallon, Joseph (Ashington), Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Gallwey, J. Payne (London), 24th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Major). 
Garrett, F. C. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Northern Cyclists' Reserve Battalion 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Gibson, J. F. (Ashington), 18th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Private). 
Gould, G. D. (Nottingham), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Gray, Edmund (Tudhoe), 176th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Greener, W. J. (Calcutta), Indian Army Reserve of Officers, attached to 

34th Sikh Pioneers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Greenwell, G. H. (Poynton), 257th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Greenwell, Hubert (London), Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (Lieutenant). 
Gregson, E. M. (Southport), 4th Battalion, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Gregson, G. A. (Southport), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Guthrie, K. M. (North Shields), Royal Engineers (Captain). Awarded the 

Military Cross. 
Hall, Rowley (South Hylton), 19th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Hance, H. M. (Nagpur, India), 179th Company, Royal Engineers (Major). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the Military Cross. 
Hands, John (Federated Malay States), Kuala Lumpur Civil Guard (Private). 
Hare, A. B. (Bishop Auckland), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Hare, R. V. (Bishop Auckland), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Hay, Douglas (Durham), 50th (Northumbrian) Divisional Ammunition 

Column, Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Heatherington, Arnold (Pelton), 11th Battalion, Border Regiment 

(Corporal). 
Herdman, Fred G. (Haltwhistle), 9th Fore way Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Heslop, James (Acklington), Northumberland Hussars Imperial Yeomanry 

(Trooper). Killed in action. 
Hewlett, Alfred (Cossall), 5th Battalion, Manchester Regiment (Lieut. - 

Colonel). 
Hindson, Donald (Durham), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Awarded 

the Military Cross. 
Hindson, George (Durham), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). Awarded the 

Military Cross. 
Hopper, G. W. N. (Stockton-upon-Tees), 5th Battalion, Durham Light In- 
fantry (Major). 



mil ROLL OF HONOl I 

Howl, T. E2 (Mold), Tunnelling Companies, Boja] i (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Buntkr, J Pnci (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Field artillery (2nd 

Lieutenant) 

I'Anson-IJomson, W. L. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Tynemontli Royal OarrJ ra 

Artillery (Captain). 
Jacobs, G-bobob (Sunderland), Eloya] Aimy liedica] Corpi (Co r poral) 1\HI<<1 

in ncl ion. 
Jobling, J. Bbbbsfobd (Woking), Labour Corps (Captain) 
Johnson, 11. II. (London), 6th Battalion, Royal Busses Regiment ('Captain). 
Jones, A. A. I). (Sibpur, India), 250th Company, Boyal Engineers (Corporal). 

Awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 
Jones, Evan (Blaenau Festiniog), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Jopling, F. S., Jun. (Sunderland), 1st /3rd Scottish Horse (2nd Lieutenant). 
Kayll, A. C. (Gosforth), 6th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Lieut. - 

Colonel). 
Kent, G. H. S. (London), 490th (H. C.) Field Company, Royal Engin 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Kirkley, Aidan (Cleadon), 3rd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 

Awarded the Military Cross. 
Kirkup, E. H. (Low Fell), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 
Kirkup, Philip, Jun. (Birtley), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded the Distinguished Scrrire Order (and Bar), 

and the Military Cross. 
Lacey, F. P. S. (Manchester), Royal Garrison Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Leybotjrne, Elliot Angus (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), 8th Battalion, Durham 

Light Infantry (Captain). 
Logan, R. S. M. (Newburn), 4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Cap- 
tain). 
Lyall, Edward (Darlington), 278th Company, Royal Engineers (Captain). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. 
McKensey, Stanley (New South Wales), 39th Fortress Company, A.E. 

(Lieutenant). 
Magee, S. S. (Hetton-le-Hole), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Mansfield, F. Turquand (East Croydon), 3rd Battalion, Royal West Kent 

Regiment, attached 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Marley, F. T. (St. Bees), 178th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Marr, J. Heppell (Castlecomer), 6th Battalion, Royal Irish. Fusiliers 

(Captain). 
Martin, Tom Pattinson, Jun. (Workington), Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers (Lance-Corporal). 
Merivale, Vernon (Leeds), 7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Major). 

Awarded the Military Cross (and Bar). 
MiLBURN, E. W. (Newbiggin-by-the-Sea), 7th Battalion, Northumberland 

Fusiliers (Major). 
Moore, F. G. (London), Schools of Military Aeronautics (Air Mechanic). 
Moreing, A. H. (London), Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Morgans, Godfrey E. (Leeds), Royal Naval Divisional Engineers (Major). 
Morton, R. C. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 4th Battalion, Northumberland 

Fusiliers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Muse, T. J. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Corporal). Killed in action. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. Hx 

Nelson, Robert (London), Royal Engineers (Captain). 

Nicholson, J. H. (Blyth), Royal G-arrison Artillery (Lieut. -Colonel). 

Oughton, Ernest (Baluchistan), 4th Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Paddon, N. B. (Spennymoor), 253rd Company, Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Palmer, C. B., D.L. (Pelaw), Northumberland Volunteer Medical Corps 

(Lieut. -Colonel), and County Director Volunteer Aid Detachments, 

Northumberland and Durham. 
Parrington, M. L. (Sunderland), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Pearson, R. G. (Paardekop, Transvaal), Botha's Natal Horse Regiment, 

South African Forces (Captain). 
Pringle, J. A. (Marikuppam, India), Kolar Goldfield Rifle Volunteers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Prior-Wandesforde, R. H. (Castlecomer), Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Pumphrey, C. E. (Ryton-upon-Tyne), 10th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Captain). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Ramsey, J. H., T.D. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), late 6th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (Captain). 
Ranken, C. T. (Sunderland), Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Ridley, William (Tow Law), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Ridpath, T. R. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 1st Indian Cavalry Supply Column, 

Motor Transport Section (2nd Lieutenant). 
Ritson, J. R. (Durham), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Major). 
Ritson, W. H., V.D. (Durham), 16th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded Order of St. Michael and St. George. 
Roberts, John (London), 326th Quarrying Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Rogers, J. N. O. (Hetton-le-Hole), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Roose, H. F. G. (Chile, South America), Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Rowley, Walter (Leeds), Royal Engineers (Major). 

Saint, T. A. (Coxhoe), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Lieutenant). 
Sawyer, Stanley J. (New South Wales), 1st Anzac Entrenching Battalion 

(Lieutenant). 
Scott, C. W. (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), 28th Battalion, Northumberland 

Fusiliers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Scott, G. H. H. (Guildford), 7th Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West Surrey 

Regiment) (Captain). Killed in action. 
Scott, Herbert K. (London), Northumberland Hussars Imperial Yeomanry 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Shapley, C. E. W. (Torquay), 3rd Battalion, Devonshire Regiment (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Shiel, F. R. A. (Burnopfield), 1st Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field 

Artillery (Captain). Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. 
Simpson, Claude F. B. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (Captain). Killed in action. 
Simpson, F. R. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Colonel). 
Simpson, Joseph (Thornley), 18th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Sergeant). 
Spence, J. H. (Hetton-le-Hole), Royal Army Medical Corps (Private). 
Stewart, Roland (Whickham), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Swinburne, U. P. (Johannesburg), 7th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Taggart, John (Seotswood), 87th Training Reserve Battalion (Private). 



I\ ROLL Ob JiU.MJl K. 

'I i.iiuv, A. M. ble-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Major). 

Thiiu.wkll, T. A. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Tunnelling Fompnnfrn. Royal 

Engineers (Captain), {.warded tin- Croia Killed in action 

Thomas, R. Clark (Washington)! 9th Battalion Durham Light Infantry ^2nd 

Lieutenant). Awarded the Military dross. 
Thomlinson, WILLIAM (Seaton Carew), l ( Jth Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Major). 
Thompson, J. B. (South Shields), Durham Fortresi Boy*] Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Thornton, Frank (Bishop Auckland), 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (Captain). Killed inaction. 
Thornton, Thomas (Blackhall), Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Varvill, W. W. (Nottingham), 4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Wadham, W. F. A. (Dalton-in-Furness), 4th Battalion, The King's Own 

(Royal Lancaster Regiment) (Lieut. -Colonel). 
Walker, Arthur (Washington), 2nd Artists' Rifles, O.T.C. (Private). 
Walker, F. T. (Gosforth), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Walton-Brown, Stanley (Seghill), Army Service Corps (Captain). 
Watson, C. L. (Bath), 182nd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Watson, J. R. (Monkseaton), Inspector of Ordnance Machinery, Army 

Ordnance Department (Lieutenant). 
Watson, Thomas, Jun. (Darlington), 17th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Watts, Hubert (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Northumberland Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Weeks, F. M. (Craghead), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
White, R. E. (Blyth), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Killed in action. 
Whitehead, Percy C. (Torquay), Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Wilbraham, A. G. B. (London), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Wilkinson, M. H. (China), Royal Engineers (Captain). Awarded the Military 

Cross. Killed in action. 
Wilkinson, W. F. (Whitchurch), Railway Transport (Captain). 
Wilson, H. Russell (Darlington), Durham Light Infantry (Captain). Killed 

in action. 
Wilson, J. R. Straker (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), London Scottish (Private). 
Wilson, W. Smith (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Wood, T. O. (Cramlington), 7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Cap- 
tain). 
Wraith, C. O. (Spennymoor), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Wrightson, W. I. (Stockton-upon-Tees), 5th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Young, Charles (Rowlands Gill), St. John Ambulance Brigade (Sergeant). 

Killed in action. 
Young, J. A. V.D., (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), National Reserve (Major and 
Hon. Lieut. -Colonel). 



In order that the above list may be as complete as possible, members 
engaged in military or naval duties are requested to send particulars of their 
rank and unit in which they are serving, to The Assistant Secretary, The 
North of England Institute op Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Neville 
Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



INDEX. 



INDEX TO VOL. LXVIII. 



Explanations. 

The — at the beginning of a line denotes the repetition of a word; and 
in the case of Names, it includes both the Christian Name and the Surname; 
or, in the case of the name of any Firm, Association or Institution, the full 
name of such Firm, etc. 

Discussions are printed in italics. 

"Abs." signifies Abstracts of Foreign Papers at the end of the 
Proceedings. 

" App." signifies Annual Report of the Council, etc., at the end of the 
Volume. 



A. 



Accounts, 1917-1918, app. i., x. 
Acetylene mine lamps, 98. 
American notes, 65. 
Anderson, J. H., system of storing 

and filling small coal, with remarks 

upon the prevention of spontaneous 

heating in coal-heaps, 179. 
Annual report of council, 1917-1918, 

app. i., v. 
finance committee, 1917-1918, 

app. i., ix. 
Armstrong, William, death of, 177. 



B 



Blackett, W. C, American notes, 76. 
— fOxidizable constituents of coal, 55, 

58. 
— , presentation of The Institution of 

Mining Engineers' medal to, 18. 
Booth, Fred. L., strength of pit- 



Ashworth, James, acetylene mine 
lamps , 99. 

— , American notes, 87. 

Associate members, list, app. i., xlii. 

Associates, list, app. i., li. 

Atkinson, J. B., flow of water in 
syphons, 12. 

— , strength of pit-)>rops, 175. 

— , system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the pre- 
vention of spontaneous heating in 
coal-heaps, 163. 

Automatic compound syphon, 5. 



props, 165. — Discussion, 169. 

Bragge, George S., strength of pit- 
props, 173. 

Briggs, Henry, oxidizable constitu- 
ents of coal, 60. 

Btjlman, IT. F., American notes, 81. 



Carlow, C. Augustus, system of stor- 
ing and filling small coal, with 
remarks upon the prevention of 
spontaneous heating in coal-heaps, 
157. 

Cashmore, S. H., American notes, 82. 

Chambers, W. H., oxidizable con- 
stituents of coal, 59. 

— , spontaneous firing of coal, 95, 97. 

Cliye, Robert, spontaneous firing of 
coal,, 95 

Coal, oxidizable constituents, 37. 

— , small, storing and filling, 154, 178. 

— , spontaneous firing, 92. 



on 



i., 



Coal-heaps, prevention of spontaneous 

heating, 154, 178. 
Coal-mines, some practical notes 

the economical use of timber, 1. 
Committees, 1918-1919, list of, app 

xv. 
Coulson, Frank, Horsley and Nichol- 
son automatic compound syphon, 5, 

6. 
Council, annual report, 1917-1918, 

app. i., v. 
— -of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers, representatives on, 1918- 

1919, list, app. i., xv. 



INDEX 



Dean . Sami el, \ a ei ican notes, 85 

I 'i cussion . 7 1 

. death of, 91. 
Death, William Armstrong, 177. 

, Samuel Dean, 91 . 

. George A Lexander Lou i a Lebour 

L49. 
— , Duke of Noil humberland, I - 
— , Simon Tate, 177. 



I) 



i: 



Douglas, a - pontaru o i of 

coal, 97. 
Dbon, B \\ . oxidizable constitu* 

i>f coal, 

, system of storing </»</ filling 

coal, with remarks npon ih. 

tion of spontaneous heating in coal' 

heaps, L59. 



Economical use of timber in coal- \ mines, some practical notes on, 1 



Filling ;ind storing -mall coal, L64, 

178. 
Finance committee, annual report, 

1917-1918, app i., ix. 
Firing of coal, spontaneous, 92. 
Flow of water in syphons, 11, 117. 
Ford, Mark, flow of water in si/pJwns, 

13. 
— , fresh aspect of intensive mining 



thin .sen ins, L08 

, late William Armstrong, 177. 
, late Simon I ate, 177. 

-. notes on the overhead Koepe wind' 
ing phnit at Plenmeller colliery, 
Haltwhistle, Northumberland, 202 

-, notes on the uniflow steam-engine, 
1 11. 



G. 



General meetings, 1. 9, 15, 103, 149, 
177. 186. 

Gibb, George, fresh aspect of inten- 
sive mining thin seams. Discussion, 

103. 

Gibsow John, A met ican notes, 86. 

Graham, J. Ivon, and James Hill, 
oxidizable constituents of coal, 
Part I., 37. — Discussion. 54. 



Greener, T. Y.. fresh aspect of in fin- 
si re mining thin seams, 106. 

notes on the uniflow steam-engine, 
141. 

— ^oxidizable constituents of coal, 55, 
56. 

Guthrie, Reginald, memoir of John 
George Tl eeks, 153. 



H 



Hadow, W. H., welcome to the mem- 
bers of The Institution of Mining 
Engineers to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
16/ 

Haldane, J. S., spontaneous firing of 
coal. — Discussion. 92. 

Halltday, Mark, flow of water in 
syphons, 9. — Discussion, 11, 117. 

— , notes on the overhear! Koepe 
winding plant at Plenmeller collier;/, 
Haltwhistle, Northumberland, 203. 

— , notes on the uniflow steam-engine, 



139, 141, 142. 

— , strength of -pit-props, 175. 

— , system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the pn 
tion of spontaneous heating in coal- 
heaps, 163. 

Hill, James, and J. Ivon Graham, 
the oxidizable constituents of coal, 
Part I., 37. 

Honorary members, list, app. i.. xvii. 

Horsley and Xicholson automatic com- 
pound syphon. 5 



Institute ambulance fund, 178. 



Intensive mining thin seams, 103. 



Jameson, Alex. H., flow of water in 

syphons, 117. 
Jamieson, J. W., some practical notes 

on the economical use of timber in 



7,' 



Kerr, G. L., American notes, 79. 

— , fresh aspect of intensive mining 
thin scants, 111. 

Kirsopp, John, system of storing and 
filling small coal, with remarks 
upon flic prevention of spontaneous 



coal-mines, 5. 
Jenkins, F. W., Little Xamaqualand 
and its possibilities as a further 
copper producing country, 7, 



heating in coal-heaps, 160. 
Knox, George, system of storing and 

filling small coal, with remarks 

upon the prevention of spontaneous 

heating in coal-heaps, 157. 
Koepe winding plant, overhead. 186. 



INDEX. 



L. 



Lamps, mine, acetylene, 98. 

Leach, C. C, American notes, 78. 

— , fresh aspect of intensive mining 
thin seams, 110. 

— ,Horslcy and Nicholson automatic 
compound syphon, 6. 

— , Institute ambulance fund, 178. 

— , notes on the unifiow steam-engine, 
141, 142. 

— , spontaneous firing of coal, 97. 

— , strength of pit-props, 173, 176. 

— , si/stem of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the preven- 
tion, of spontaneous heating in 
coal-heaps, 163, 183. 

Lebour, George Alexander Louis, 
death of, 149. 

Lee, F. C, some practical notes on the 
economical usi> of timber in coal- 
mines. — Discussion, 1. 

— ,strength of pit^props, 169. 

— , system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the pre- 



vention of spontaneous heating in 
coal-heaps, 183. 

Lees, T. G., strength of pit-props, 173. 

Little Namaqualand and its possibil- 
ities as a further copper producing 
country, 7. 

Louis, Henry, acetylene mine lamps, 
98. 

— , American notes, 78. 

— , notes on the overhead Koepe 
winding plant at Plenmeller col- 
liery, Haltwhistle, Northumberland, 
202. 

— , notes on the unifiow steam-engine, 
142. 

— , strength of pit^props, 174. 

— , system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the pre- 
vention of spontaneous heating in 
coal-heaps, 162, 178. 

Lunn, George, welcome to the mem- 
bers of The Institution of Mining 
Fn^ineers to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 15. 



M. 



MaccalLj W. Tolme, notes on thi 

unifiow steam-engine, 142. 
Maurice, William, acetylene mine 

lamps. — Discussion, 98. 
Mavor, Sa.m, American notes, 74. 
Members, li^t, app. i., xviii. 
Memoir, John Herman Merivale, 146. 
— , John George Weeks, 150. 
Merivale, Judith, memoir of John 

Herman Merivale, 146. 



Merivale, John Herman, memoir, 146. 

Milbourne, R. J., notes on the unifiow 
steam-engine, 139. 

Morison, Johx, notes on the unifloit) 
steam-engine, 141. 

— •, system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the pre- 
vention of spontaneous heating in 
coal-heaps, 154. -Discussion, 157, 
178. 



Nicholson, George R., flow of water 

in syphons, 12, 13. 
— , Horsley and Nicholson automatic 



compound syphon. — Discussion, 5. 
Northumberland, Duke of, death, 
186. 



O. 



Officers, 191X-1919, list, app. i., xvi. 
O'Shea, L. T., oxidizable constituents 
of coal, 57, 59. 



Overhead Koepe winding plant, 186. 
Oxidizable constituents of coal, 37. 



Patrons, list, app. i., xvii. 

Peel, Robert, fresh aspect of iniensive 

mining thin seams, 110. 
Pilling, H., notes on the unifiow 

steam-engine, 138. 
Pit-props, strength, 165. 
Poole, G. G. T., notes on the unifiow 

steam-engine, 121. — Discussion, 137. 



Practical notes on the economical use 

of timber in coal-mines, 1. 
Presentation of The Institution of 

Mining Engineers' medal to Col. W. 

C. Blackett, 18. 
President, election, 1. 
Prevention of spontaneous heating in 

coal-heaps, 154, 178. 
Props, pit, strength of, 165. 



R 



Raw, George, notes on the overhead 
Koepe winding plant at Plenmeller 
colliery, Haltwhistle, Northumber- 
land, 186.— Discussion, 202. 

Representatives on council of The In- 
stitution of Mining Engineers, 1918- 
1919, list, app. i., xv. 



Rhodes, Harry, American notes, 79. 
— ^spontaneous firing of coal, 96, 97. 
Rice, George S., American notes, 88. 
Roll of Honour, app. i., lv. 
Russell, Archibald, acetylene mine 
lamps, 100. 



I Mil- \ 



Simpson, John, death of George Alex- 
ander Lrouis Lebour, 1 19 

— , death of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, 186. 

— ,jioir of water in syphons, 11, 13. 

— , memoir of John George Weeks, L53. 

— , notes on the uniflow steam-engine, 
142. 

— , president, election, 1. 

— , system of storing and filling small 
coal, with remarks upon the preven- 
tion of spontaneous heating in coal- 
heaps', 162. 

— .welcome to the members of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers to 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 16. 

Simpson, T. V., system of storing and 



filling small coal, with remarks ispon 
the prevention of tpontaneout heat- 
ing in '""/ -heap-. , ]<;.',. 17'i 

Small coal, storing and filling 164 

178. 
Spbcokb G , oxidizable constituents of 

coal, 
Spontaneous firing of coal, 
Spontaneous heating in coal-heaps, 

prevent ion, 154, 178. 
Steam-engine, uniflow, 121. 
Storing and filling small coal, 154, 178 
Strength of pit-props, 166 
Students, list, app. i., li. 
Subscribers, list, app. i., lii. 
Syphon, automatic compound, 5. 
Syphons, flow of water, 11, 117. 



T. 



Tate, R. S., system of storing and 

filling small cool, with remarks 

upon the prevention of spontaneous 

heating in coal-heaps, 163. 
Tate, Simon, American notes, 77. 
— , death of, 177. 
— , fresh aspect of intensive mining 

thin seams, 103. 
— , notes on the vniflow steam-engine . 

142. 
-■ — , spontaneous firing of coal, 95, 97. 
The Institution of Mining Engineers. 

accounts, 1916-1917, 26. 
— , annual general meeting, twentv- 

eighth, 15. 
— , council. twenty-eighth annual 

report, 21. 



— , election of officers, 1917-1918, 36. 

— , enemy alien members, 36. 

— , presentation of medal to Col. W. C. 

Blackett, 18. 
— , reception by the Lord Mayor of 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 15. 
— , representatives on council of, 1918- 

1919, list, app. i., xv. 
Thin seams, intensive mining, 103. 
Thorneycroft, Wallace, oxidizable 

constituents of coal, 54, 61. 
— , reply to welcome to the members 

of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers to Newcastle-npon-Tvne, 

17. 
Timber in coal-mines, some practical 

notes on the economical use, 1. 



U. 
Uniflow steam-engine, 121. 

V. 

Varty, Armstrong, notes on the uniflow steam-engine, 142. 



W. 



Wales, Henry T., American notes, 83. 
Walker, G. Blake, notes on the 

uniflow steam-engine, 137. 
Water in syphons, flow, 11, 117. 
Waits, William, flow of water in 

syphons, 117. 
Weeks, John George, memoir, 150. 
Weeks, R. J., memoir of John George 



Weeks, 150. 

Wheeler. R. Y., oxidizable consti- 
tuents of coal, 54. 

Wilson, J. R. R., some practical notes 
on the economical use of timber in 
coal-mines, 1. 

— , spontaneous firing of coal, 92. 97. 

Winding plant, overhead Koepe. 1S6. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF 
MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

[Founded 1852. — Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1876.] 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. LXIX. 



1918-1919. 



EDITED BY THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE 

Printed by Andrew Reid & Co., Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

1919. 
[All rights of publication or translation are reserved.] 



ADVERTISEMENT 



The Institute is not, as a body, responsible for the statements and 
opinions advanced in the papers which may be read, nor in the discussion- 
which may take place at the meetings of the Institute 



contents, hi 



CONTENTS OF VOL, LX1X. 



PAGE. 

Advertisement .. . .. ... ••• •• ••■ • •• ... ... H 

Contents ... ... •• ••• - • ••■ ••• in 



11 



GEX Eft A L MEETINGS . 



1918. PAGE. 

Aug. 10. — Special General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... 1 

Expulsion of Mr. Arnold Lupton ... ... ... ... 1 

Aug. 10.— Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... 1 

Presentation of G. C. Greenwell Medals ... ... ... 1 

Discussion of Mr. George Raw's " Notes on the Overhead 
Kcepe Winding Plant at Plenmeller Colliery, Halt- 
whistle, Northumberland" 
" Record of Gas-pressure from a Borehole." By C. J. 
Fail-brother 

Discussion ... ... ... 

Oct. 12. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 

Discussion of Mr. George Raw's " Notes on the Overhead 
Kcepe Winding Plant at Plenmeller Colliery, Halt- 
whistle, Northumberland " ... ... ... ... ... 11 

Discussion of Mr. Charles J. Fairbrother's " Record of 

Gas-pressure from a Borehole" ... ... ... ... 12 

Dec. 14. — " The Training of Students in Coal-mining, with Special 
Reference to the Scheme of the Engineering Training 

Organization." By F. W. Hardwick, M.A 13 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Discussion of Mr. Charles J. Fairbrother's paper on 

"Record of Gas-pressure from a Borehole" ... ... 28 

1919. 
April 12. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... ... 29 

" Coal-cutting by Electricity and Timbering at Cannock 

Chase Colliery." By W. P. Cheung, B.Sc 29 

Discussion of Mr. Charles J. Fairbrother's " Record of 

Gas-pressure from a Borehole" ... ... . . ... 31 



APPENDIX. 

I. — Annual Report of the Council and Accounts for the year 1918- 
1919; List of Council, Officers, and Members for the Year 
1919-1920; etc., and Roll of Honour i-lix 



Index ... ... ... . .. ... 1-2 



THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



OF 



MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held iv thk Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle -upon-Tyne, 

August 10th, 1918. 



Mr. FRANK COULSON, Past-President, in the Chair. 



EXPULSION OF ME, ARNOLD LUPTON. 

The Honorary Secretary (Mr. M. W. Pnrrington) read the 
following' resolution of the Council : — 

" The Council of The North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers, having considered the case of Mr. Arnold Lupton, of 
7, Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 1, a Member of the Institute, 
who was convicted under the Defence of the Realm Act with the offence of 
having in his possession what the magistrate described as ' a wicked pamphlet 
calculated to prejudice recruiting, and intended to do so,' and who was in 
consequence sentenced to six months' imprisonment, and the Council being 
of the opinion that the said offence renders the said Arnold Lupton unfit to be 
a Member of the Institute, do hereby, in accordance with the powers con- 
ferred upon them by Bye-law 15, ask this Special General Meeting to order 
that the said Arnold Lupton be expelled from the Institute, and his name 
erased from the Li:3t of Members." 

The resolution was unanimously agreed to. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 
Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
August 10th, 1918. 



Mr. FRANK COULSOX, Past-President, in the Chair. 



Mr. John Simpson was unanimously re-elected President for 
the ensuing* year. 



PKESENTATION OF G. C. GBEENWELL MEDALS. 

The Chairman (Mr. Frank Coulson) presented a G. C. Green- 
well Silver Medal (which had been awarded to the late Mr. 
Simon Tate) to Mr. W. 0. Tate for his paper on " Further Notes 
on Safety-lamps." He also presented a similar medal to Mr. F. 
C. Lee for his paper entitled " Some Practical Notes on the 
Economical Use of Timber in Coal-Mines." 



VOL. LXIX.— 1918-1919. 



1 E 



2 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTIT1 11. V<.] ] x ii. 

discission OF MR. GEORGE RAW'S " NOTE8 ON 
THE OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT A'l 
PLENMELLER COLLIERY, HALTWHISTLE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND."* 

Mi-. A. llwr.KY (Sheffield) wrote: With regard to rope 
adjustment, ii seems fco me thai the principle of the extension- 
carriage might be applied to the guide-pulley, by placing the 
latter on a pair of vertical standards. This, where possible, 
would do away with the necessity for cage-chain adjustment- 
links, and would probably allow in tnosi cases sufficient rope for 
the recappings. In the author's plant pulley friction is auto- 
matically provided for, and his experiment demonstrates that 
the coefficient is greater in practice than what is often theoretic- 
ally assumed. This is partly due to the fact that the contact-effort 
between the pulley and the roi)e is one of " striction," not 
" friction." Friction, properly, is the resistance exerted by 
surfaces of bodies in relative motion, and is the result of dynamic 
forces; whilst striction is the resistance exerted by the surfaces 
of stationary or relatively stationary bodies, and is a static force, 
as when a pulley travels at the same rate as the rope or belt. 
In discussing the question of winding, it is necessary not to 
confuse static with dynamical forces. Where slip occurs 
betwee?i the pulley and the rope, there is real friction and differ- 
ential travel of the surfaces in contact. In practice, slip occurs 
between the usual head-frame pulleys and the friction-made flats 
or shiny places on the rope. The chances are that there is less 
" slip " with Koepe than with other pulleys, but this slip, if 
noticeable and incorrectible, is likely to be more significant with 
the Koepe than with other systems. 

Another factor accounting for good contact-effort is due 
to the holding efforts on the Koepe guide and winding-pulleys 
heing reversed at different sections of the rope, and to the length 
of the surfaces pressed being within a certain ratio to the 
surfaces and pressure, thus producing a grip which, according 
to the author's experiments, is 2 - 56 times the pressure used. 
The reversal of the stresses of the rope against the pulleys 
produces this mechanic advantage. This gripping-ratio can be 
increased up to certain limits, if desired, by truncating the 
tread of the pulleys or by adjusting the guide-pulley; so that 
slip is probably not so great a bogie as is often thought. 

Rope-capping. — Mr. Raw appears to have tempted the 
authorities by just nipping off the metalled end of the rope. In 
some districts recapping means cutting off only that part of 
the rope enclosed in the capel ; whilst in other districts the part 
of the rope above the capel likely to be affected by load reaction 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1917-1918, vol. lv., page 170. 



1918-1919.] DISCUSSION OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 3 

is removed. The author has stated that a winding-rope becomes 
most fatigued in the immediate region of the socket, due partly to 
tortional stresses, but doubtless principally to the wave motion in 
the rope having to terminate there, with the resulting tendency, 
very much as in the case of sea-waves breaking on the shore, to 
break the rope at the socket. If this be the case, in cutting off 
the bottom 8 inches of the rope the part of the rope most deterior- 
ated is left in the capel, and the purpose of recapping — to remove 
the fatigued part — does not seem to be fulfilled. There is little 
analogy between sea-wave motion and rope- wave motion. In 
the case of white-metal and some plug capels, wire-force vibration 
— not the wave motion of the rope, which is an effect of the 
wire forces — stops near the socket neck, because it is the dead 
centre where the full reaction effort is exerted. Both action 
and reaction take place there, because the solid metal forms no 
part of the rope. The constant crossing and re-crossing of the 
wire forces at these dead centres tends to fatigue the wire metal, 
and destroy the cohesion of its pai tides, besides producing elonga- 
tion to the point of fatigue. Hence the " snap " at the neck of 
white metal and sometimes other plug capels. 

The author's comparison of the drum aiid Koepe winding is 
difficult to understand. Efficiency has a cost and safety value, 
which is evident from the table given. Inconvenience has a cost 
value only, which time and experience will probably reduce. 

Mr. H. W. G. Halbaum (Cardiff) wrote: The owners of 
Plenmeller Colliery are to be complimented on their enterprise 
in adopting the Koepe system of winding in face of declarations 
recently made by " authorities " that the system is unworkable 
and impossible. According to Prof. Louis, one of these 
"authorities" has gone down before Mr. Eaw's facts, but I do 
not think that this is the case. The coefficients of friction are 
those applying to flat contacts, and it appears obvious that they 
cannot possibly apply to Mr. Raw's deeply-grooved wheels, by 
reason of side friction; but, as Mr. Raw has demonstrated, are 
much higher. It is impossible to entertain seriously the suggest- 
tion that oiling the wheel increases its friction, and I can 
hardly imagine that either Mr. Raw or Prof. Louis is really 
of that opinion. The natural explanation of the fact lies in the 
grooving of the elm segments. 

The owners of Plenmeller Colliery have shown wisdom in 
copying Continental practice where it appears to have any 
advantage over stereotyped British methods, but I think that in 
some respects they might have gone even further. Why, for 
instance, have they elected to use continuous current and the 
Ward-Leonard system ? On a recent visit to Blackhall Colliery, 
I witnessed some tests of the electric winders, and found that at 



4 PRANSA( riONS rHE NORTH 01 ENG] iND INSTITUTE. ' Vol Ixix. 

the South I'll the cage could be run in the shaft ai the low ip 
of '> feel in 9 seconds, when required, which seems to be 
perfect control as could be wished for. The cun 
is alternating (2,900 volts), and there is neither Ward- 
Leonard nor Qgner apparatus on the plai It is rathei 
difficull to understand why anyone should choose— assuming 
that he is free to choose continuous current with Ward- 
Leonard control, rather than alternating currenl with simple 
liquid controllers, such as are in use ai Blackhall, and also ai 
the collieries of the Powell Duffryn Company in South Wales 
(where the loads are moderate, hut still greater than those raised 
at Plenmeller). Of course, where the Loads are nun]) greater, 
it might be better to put in, say. an Qgner set, as was recently 
done at the Britannia Pit of Hie Powell Duffryn Company, where 
the work required is to wind .°)G0 tons per hour from each shaft 
from a depth of 2,190 feet. 

The arrangement of adjusting screws and links in the two 
rope-lines, one set of links with its screw being twice as heavy 
as the set of links on the other side, does not appear to be quite 
ideal, although " borrowed from Continental practice." Is the 
Kcepe system really inseparable from such foreign devices ? 
I do not think so, but think it rather humiliating to borrow 
foreign ideas in their entirety without intermingling therewith 
one solitary original idea of one's own. I am very anxious that 
the Plenmeller scheme should be succesful, and shall be very 
disappointed if it does not prove so. I hope that Mr. Raw will 
be able shortly to put something of his own into the mixture that 
he has borrowed, remove these clumsy links, put something more 
worthy of an engineer's brain in their place, and so give the 
scheme a chance of success, and impart to it a symmetry which 
it lacks at present. 

Mr. H. F. Bulmax (Acklington) wrote: With regard to 
I he consumption of steam in winding-engines, it might interest 
the members to compare the figures given by Mr. Raw with some 
figures previously published in the Transactions. Mr. Raw 
states that " with the plant working at about half capacity, the 
actual steam-consumption is about 23 pounds per shaft- 
horsepower, the colliery generating sets consuming 17 to 18 
pounds of steam per Board-of-Trade unit." It may be noted 
in passing that turbo-generators are now constructed to give at 
full load a guaranteed steam-consumption of 102 pounds per 
Board-of-Trade unit. 

From figures supplied by Mr. W. C. Mountain,* the esti- 
mated steam-consumption of winding-engines at thirteen col- 

* "The Utilization of Exhaust-steam for Collieries, Ironworks, etc., and the 
Cost of Electric Current Generated," Trans. Inst. M. E., 1913-1914, vol. xlvii., 
page 40 ( J. 



1918-1919.] DISCUSSION OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 5 

lieries in various parts of Great Britain ranges from a minimum 
of 43 to a maximum of 178 pounds per shaft-horsepower, the 
average being 111 pounds. Dr. Karl Schultze* gives the steam- 
consumption of three winding-engines, as determined by 
measurement, at from 34*9 to 134'8 pounds per horsepower-hour. 
The engine in the former case is a compound engine working 
condensing, and in the latter a twin engine working exhausting 
into the atmosphere. He states that " the average consumption 
of net winding steam for all three shafts was found to be 87*5 
pounds per shaft-horsepower-hour of saturated steam." These 
figures show by comparison the economy of the electrically- 
driven overhead winding plant described by Mr. Raw. 

Now that the plant at so many collieries is driven entirely 
by electricity, it would be useful if some normal standard of the 
mechanical power required per ton of coal produced and the cost 
could be ascertained. 

Mr. George Hann has given the consumption of power during 
one week in January, 1917, as 282,600 units for .an output of 
10,158 tons of coal, or about 28 units per ton.f During a week 
in November, 1917, it was 400,300 units for an output of 12,529 
tons, or about 32 units per ton. This gives an average of about 
30 units per ton of coal. 

With regard to cost, in a recent discussion before the Mining 
Institute of Scotland} the cost of mechanical power in ordinary 
colliery work is stated to be |d. per horsepower-hour, or £18 
per year. According to Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, of the 
Manchester Steam Users' Association, in a modern factory, with 
fuel at 12s. 6d. per ton, when working about a third of full time, 
the cost of an indicated horsepower is £12 a year. Where 
waterfalls can be utilized, as in Norway and Sweden, the cost 
of continuous power production is said to be as low as 35s. to 5Qs. 
per electric horsepower per year. The cost of a horsepower-year 
generated by a 2,000-horsepower recovery producer-gas plant has 
been estimated by Mr. T. Roland Wollaston to be £2 17s. lid. at 
pre-war prices, allowing credit for the sulphate and tar produced. 
Assuming that 3,000 horsepower is a normal requirement of 
mechanical power of a large colliery, the cost of £18 will be 
£54,000 a year. Evidently there is considerable margin for 
economy, and its importance is increasing as manual labour 
becomes more costly. Perhaps Mr. Raw can supply some infor- 
mation as to the mechanical power required at Plenmeller Col- 
liery, and the cost of it. 



* " Colliery Consumption and Machine Economy at an Upper Sileaian 
Colliery," ibid., page 576. 

+ "Paper on a Modern Colliery," Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of 
Engineers, 1918, vol. xxxiv. , page 215. 

I Trans. Inst. M. E. 1917-1918, vol. lv., page 137. 



ti TRANSACTIONS fHfe NORTH OF ENGLAND DTSTITUTB. [Vol. lxix. 



RECORD OF GAS-PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE. 



By CHARLES J. FAIRBROTHKR. 



I submit the enclosed photographs (Figs. 1 and 2) 
as being of general interest, for, while there are many records 

of high pressures of gas issuing from seams of coal, actual 
photographic representation is rare. 




Fig. 1. — Gas Blowing out of the Borehole while clear of the Rods. 

The Durban Navigation Collieries, Limited, decided to prove 
the continuation of their coal to the west of their present 
property at Dannhauser. A borehole proved a sheet of diorite, 
330 feet in thickness, overlying the seams, and the coal was 
reached at a depth of 773 feet from the surface. 



1918-1919. J FAIRBKOTHER — GAS-PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE. 7 

Two seams of coal occur, the upper being about 3J feet thick 
and the lower about 5 J feet, with one small band of stone near 
the bottom. The two seams are separated by about 2 feet of 
parting. 

The boring had not reached many inches into the upper seam 
when gas began to appear, and before a foot had been penetrated 
it was blowing off at high pressure. The noise was like the 




Pig. 2. — Borehole with Rods in and Water being Blown in all Directions 

by the Force of the Gas. 



blowing-off of a battery of high-pressure boilers, and made it 
quite impossible for the human voice to be heard above the diu, 
so that the borers had to work by signs. 

The photographs were taken while the lower seam was being 
cut. Fig. 1 shows the gas blowing out of the hole while clear of 
rods, whilst Fig. 2 shows the hole with the rods in and the water 
blown by the gas in all directions, 



8 i u \\s \( 'i io\s THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. lxil 

An attempt vv ; t - made to register the pressure with u pressure 
gauge screwed into the top of the casing, and a pressure oi L50 
pounds to the square inch waa reached In a Pew Beconds; but, as 
the casing began 1<» lift, the pressure had to be released, and 
nothing further was done in thai direction. 



The Chairman (Mr. Frank Ooxrlson): The p re s sur e referred 
to is considerably less than has been gol in coal-seams in the 

County of Durham. 

Mr. J. B. Atkinson (Newcastle-upon-Tyne): Sir Lindsay 
Wood has recorded a maximum pressure of 161 pounds to the 
square inch in his experiments.* Mr. Fairbrother speaks of 

" gas issuing from seams of con I," but I do not think that Lin- 
in fiery strata comes only from the seams of coal, but from the 
adjoining strata as well as from the coal, in proportion to its 
capacity to hold gas. It might he that certain strata, such as 
sandstone or post, can actually hold more gas than coal itself, and 
I have seen several cases in which this seeins to he probable. 
Buddie in his account of Wallsend Collieryt said, many years 
ago, that most of the gas with which they were troubled in the 
High Main was contained in the post roof. If gas exists at high 
pressures, it is not conceivable that it should remain confined to 
the coal-seams. It will dissemminate itself, in the course of 
millions of years, over all the adjoining strata. It cannot be the 
gas itself that is seen in Fig. 1, but probably water that was 
blown out by the gas. 

The Chairman: Is it not possible to see the gas? Has 
not the gas frequently come out almost like smoke from a bore- 
hole? I remember a case where in sinking a depth of about 120 
feet, where there were no coal-seams, a large quantity of gas 
was encountered, and in putting in some plank-tubbing a 10-inch, 
a 4-inch, and a 3-inch pipe were all blowing off at high pressure. 
Frequently the black colour of the gas is quite visible, and re- 
sembles a chimney smoking with a fairly dense smoke. 

Col. W. C. Blackett (Sacriston) : I do not think that it is 
gas that is seen. When gas at high pressure is liberated, the 
reduction in temperature is considerable, and any moisture 
present condenses and forms a cloud, and it is this that is seen. 
In a hot place in a mine after an explosion, when the cold air 
is brought in it often appears as though one actually saw the gas. 

* Trans. X.E. hut. 18801881, vol. xxx., page 222. 

t " Mining Records," by John Buddie. Trail*. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1838, vol. ii. , page 326. 



1918-1911).] DISCUSSION — GAS-PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE. 9 

Mr. J. B. Atkinson: I have noticed the same phenomenon, 
and believe that it is the origin of the term " whitedamp." 

Mr. M. W. Parrington (Wear-month): It is difficult to 
realize that a borehole going- into a seam of coal can give off 
gas rapidly enough to cause a noise like a battery of steam 
boilers. Of course, if the borehole in question penetrated into a 
cavity full of gas, this would account for the noise. 

Mr. Atkinson : Probably a fissure connected with consid- 
erable sources of gas was struck in the coal. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) : The great difficulty at Harton 
Colliery was to get the holes made gas-tight. 

The Chairman: Can Mr. Atkinson state whether the gas is 
generated in the coal-seams and fills into the post and other 
strata ? 

Mr. Atkinson: This is not quite certain, but it is most 
probable. Natural gas is sometimes got where there is no coal- 
Seam, but, still, on the whole, the firedamp is probably from the 
coal-seam, although in a long period of time it must have dis- 
seminated itself through the whole of the strata. In descending 
a wet sinking pit that passes through fiery strata, one can hear 
the sides hissing all the way down. I think it quite a fallacy to 
suppose that firedamp is confined to coal-seams, but this is a 
fallacy that seems to be very generally held. 

Mr. Parrington: There is no doubt that gas is contained 
in the soft shales as well as in the coal-seams. Many years 
ago it was desirable to produce as large coal as possible, and I 
conceived the idea of " winding " the coal, that is, draining the 
gas out of it by driving in the soft cover on the top. When a 
place was entered in the soft shale on the top of the coal, it was 
found to be just as soft as the coal itself, and behaved in exactly 
the same way. The gas threw off great " shives " of the shale, 
just as it had thrown off great " shives " of the coal. 

Mr. Atkinson : I suggest that this might have been due to the 
pressure of the strata above. 

A Member : Is it not a fact that oil and gas come off from a 
strata not necessarily associated with seams of coal? I 
remember when travelling through Pittsburgh some years ago 
that they had to go through the Coal-Measures to get into ihe 

gassy strata. 

The Chairman: In cases where there is water-bearing strata, 
and the bottom of that strata is reached, is not the gas met with 

YOL. LXI.X.— 191H-191!'. 2 E 



10 TRANSACTIONS TUBNOBTHO] ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol 1 



xix. 



immediately ;it the same pressure aa the static pressure of the 
water? 

Mr. Atkinson : The Late Mi. A. L. Steavenson - ted thai 

the pressure of gas would be equal to thai of a column of watei 
equal to the depth Prom the surface of point of observation. I 
do not know whether thai statemenl ia true, bul I think thai it 
is Likely. 

The Chaibman: In the Durham Coalfield one frequently 
meets with blowers of gas from the clay, above the Coal- 
Measures altogether, in strata through which one would think 
thai the gas could not pass. At II niton Henry Colliery, for 
instance, some pipes were put in through the walling when the 
pit was opened out a second time to release the gas, which could 
be ignited as it issued from these pipes. I suppose that this 
would be marsh-gas. 

Mr. Atkinson: It was probably firedamp from the foal- 
Measures below. There are or have been places in the County 
of Durham in which, in similar circumstances, the gas could 
be lit at any time. 



19ll8-19i9.] DISCISSION OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT. 11 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

October 12th, 19 IS. 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, President, in the Chair. 



DISCISSION OF MR. GEORGE RAW'S "NOTES ON THE 
OVERHEAD KCEPE WINDING PLANT AT PLENMELLER 
COLLIERY, HALTWHISTLE, NORTHUMBERLAND."* 

Mr. George Raw: Mr. Hanley and Mr. Halbaum are 

evidently both dissatisfied with the rope-adjustment screws and 

links. Mr. Hanley suggests the introduction of "the principle 

of the extension-carriage " and Mr. Halbaum " something more 

worthy of an engineer's brain ' than the " clumsy links. " 

Incidentally, the Plenmeller plant was designed and constructed, 

although not erected, prior to my association with the colliery. 

The principle of the sliding carriage was carefully reviewed, 

but it was found that the new stresses introduced would involve 

reconstruction of the whole lower, so that although admittedly 

clumsy the adjustment-screws and links was the best compromise 

for a completed if unerected plant. The arrangement chosen 

was preferable to the hinged platforms that were frequently 

used on the Continent to overcome the difficulty, which, when 

the winding-rope is too long and the cage in consequence too low, 

cause the tubs to jump into the cage much too vigourously. The 

idea of the extension-carriage is an old one; but, if I had to 

consider an entirely new Koepe winding plant, I am disposed 

to helieve that it would be found to be the most satisfactory 

solution of the problem. Several possible arrangements of an 

adjustable pulley have been suggested from time to time, but 

some of them, in my opinion, largely defeat the object of the 

Koepe system by increasing the mass of the moving parts to 

very nearly that of the ordinary winding-drum. 

I disagree with Mr. Halbaum w 7 ith regard to the side friction 
of the pulley-groove on the rope. The segments, although made 
of hard wood, by wear quickly lose all their wedging tendency 
on the rope; and in any case the fundamental laws of friction 
eliminate any consideration of the extent of the surfaces in 
contact. The corroborative test detailed in the paper supports 
this view when a Lang's lay-rope ]}■ inch in diameter on the 

* Tran*. Inst. M. FJ., 1917-1918, vol. lv., page 170; and 1918-1919, vol. lvi., 
page 1. 



12 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IN STIT1 it Vo\ Ixil 

actual trod of the guide-pullej gave a value of 0'35 foi i> againil 
0*30 for the If -inch diameter flattened strand vrinding-rop 

Mr. Banley's distinction between " friction " and *' striction 
has admittedly a number of well-established relal ive values; but, 
so Par ;i^ the wood-lagged Koepe pulley is concerned, the distinc- 
tion is, I consider, rather a fine one for practical purpos< 

Chert is undoubtedly a greal deal to be urged in favom 
Mr. ffalbaum's remarks with regard to the Ward-Leonard 
control, although the Qgner system bas an undoubted advanl 
in rounding off the load-peaks where such peaks are ol conse- 
quence. 

Mr. Bulman's review of steam and electrical consumption 
figures is of much value, but his request for particulars of the 
colliery's mechanical power and its cost would Unduly extend the 
scope of the paper. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. CHARLES J. FAIRBROTHEK'S 
" RECORD OF GAS PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE."* 

Lieut. -Col. Harry Rhodes (Rotherham) wrote : I am well 
acquainted with the Durban Navigation Collieries, and on 
making an inspection of the mine in question early in 1914, I 
was very much struck by the amount of gas given off in the 
winning-places in the direction where the borehole referred to by 
Mr. Fairbrother lias since been put down. At tin 1 time of my 
visit these winnings had just got through one of the whin dykes 
that are so common in the Xatal Coalfield, and although there 
were only seventeen places, each 18 feet wide, opened up in the 
district in question, the Clowes lamp showed If per cent, of gas 
in an air-current of 28,700 cubic feet per minute. It would be 
interesting to know whether this gas still continues to come off. 

Sheets of diorite, otherwise described as " whin floats." such 
as are referred to by Mr. Fairbrother. are not at all uncommon in 
the Xatal Coalfield, and the whin dykes are evidently the 
channels by which these sheets or floats were injected from below. 
An area, therefore, covered by a " float " and cut off on all sides 
by whin dykes, forms, as it were, an entirely isolated pocket: 
and as this rock is practically impervious to both water and gas, 
it is highly probable that a greater pressure of gas would be 
registered from seams lying at comparatively shallow depths in 
Xatal than would be the case in Filmland. 

In other cases with which I am acquainted in Natal, gas came 
off very freely just after a whin dyke was pierced, especially 
when the area was overlain by a float, but after some months the 
gas appeared to gradually drain off. 

* Travs. Inat. M. E., 1918-1919, vol. lvi., page 6. 



1918-1919.] UARDWICK TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 13 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

December 14th, 1918. 



Mr. C. C. LEACH, Councillor, in the Chair. 



THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SCHEME OF 
THE ENGINEERING TRAINING ORGANIZATION. 

By F. W. HARDWICK, M,A. 

The Engineering Training Organization has been formed to 
serve as a central organization* for improvement in and better 
co-ordination of engineering training. Three objectst in 
particular are mentioned on which the proposed central organiz- 
ation might usefully concentrate its attention, namely: — 

" The first is the co-ordination of engineering training, including the 
fostering of apprenticeship as a national institution, and the consideration 
of means by which the works period of an engineering pupilage may be 
increased in efficiency, and a wider appreciation secured for the value in 
industry of university rank. 

" The second is the maintenance of a Central Bureau, where parents 
and educationalists can obtain accurate and comprehensive information 
relating to the engineering industry, and the proper course to pursue en 
behalf of boys who are desirous of making engineering their profession. 

" The third is the promotion of scholarships, or other equivalent means 
by which the best talent may be enabled to rise to its proper level under 
the stimulus of educational opportunity." 

The second of these objects will be considered first, partly 
because it seems necessary to have a clear and definite view of 
what is actually being done in education relating to coal-mining 
before the first of the objects named is taken into detailed 
consideration, and partly because it is a subject in which I have 
always felt personally interested. 

The work of a central bureau formed for the purpose of 
furnishing information respecting the training of young men 
who propose to become engineers must depend on the information 
given to that bureau by the various branches of the engineering 
profession. Hitherto The Institution of Mining Engineers has 
issued no instruction on this subject, although several very 
interesting papers} have been contributed to the Transaction's ; 

* " The Engineering Training Organization," Nos. 5 and 6. 

f " Engineering Training," No. 2, par. 4. 

+ A list of some of these papers is appended to this paper. 

VOL. LZIX.-lU8.lfl9. 3 E 



14 TEANSACTIONS THE If ORTH OF ENGLAND IH PIT m.. [VoL box. 

whilst the discussions on the e papers have revealed a variety of 

opinions, and have siiown that a Large amount of interest ii taken 
in the matter. Schemes <>t education for young men who are 

to be trained in coal-mining are contained in -nine of these 
papers, in calendars and other official publications of Dniversi- 
ties, Colleges, and Technical Schools, and in corresponding 

publications of education committees in coal-mining districts; 
but hitherto no attempt has been made to collect this informa- 
tion, to digest it, and to present it in such a way thai anyone who 
desires to profit by it can do so without a considerable amount of 
labour. 

The question may be asked whether such action is at all 
necessary? All members are acquainted with the various ways 
in which entry into the profession may be obtained, and in case 
of doubt on any point they know where to apply for information. 
It must, however, be remembered that this knowledge is not 
available to persons outside the mining profession, and can only 
be obtained by them with some difficulty. The choice of a 
profession for their sons is not an easy task for some parents, 
who do not know where to apply for the information necessary 
to enable them to decide on this important point. I used to think 
that a guide to the professions might be compiled, giving an 
outline of the training required for each profession, and the 
sources from which fuller information might be derived : 
fortunately the formation of the Engineering Training Organiz- 
ation seems likely to supply this want as far as engineering is 
concerned. 

It may possibly be due to this difficulty of obtaining informa- 
tion that in some cases the choice of a boy's career is postponed 
until he is about to leave school ; it is then too late to rectify 
any omissions in the latter part of his school training, and either 
the boy must be put to work partially equipped, or time must be 
spent on a subject, or subjects, in which he misrht have had 
instruction at school. 

If professions and industries give some clear and definite 
indication as to what is required, then the schools can make their 
arrangements in accordance with them. In this way there 
would be a better co-ordination of work. The change from school 
to the University or College, or to professional training, should 
be accomplished as smoothly as possible, and this ran be done if 
the professions themselves giye some guidance as to the courses 
available. Apart from the reason just given, the opportunity 
is a favourable one for the Institution to take stock of what has 
been, and is being, done in educational matters relating to coal- 
mining for its own information. If a report on the facilities at 
present existing for such education could be drawn up, giving 
a brief outline of the subject with references to the sources from 



1918-1919] HARDWICK — -TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 15 

which fuller information can be obtained, it would be of advan- 
tage not only to those mentioned in the previous paragraphs, but 
also to the members of the Institution. Such a survey of what 
has been accomplished would be of assistance to those who are 
preparing new schemes, and might obviate unnecessary labour 
and overlapping. 

The arrangement of a scheme of education in coal-mining 
differs from similar work in most other branches of engineering 
in that such a scheme must conform to the requirements of the 
Coal Mines Act, 1911, respecting;' the First-Class Certificate of 
Competency and the Surveyors' Certificate, and to the rules laid 
down under that Act by the Board for Mining Examinations. 
These requirements affect both the period and nature of the 
practical training, as well as the subjects which must be studied 
by candidates. These are, of course, minimum requirements, 
but whatever else may be added by professional opinion, care 
must be taken that the legal requirements are not infringed. 

Any general statement, therefore, relating to the course to be 
pursued by a student in coal-mining should contain a clear 
account of the regulations on the subject contained in the Coal 
Mines Act, 1911, and in the rules of the Board for Mining 
Examinations. The statement should explain any technical 
points which would not be understood by a person not connected 
with the mining profession, and those who are personally 
interested should be referred to the Home Office on matters of 
detail or doubt, and as to changes in the regulations. 

The regulations for the Surveyors' Certificate should also be 
given, with suggestions as to the best form of training for this 
certificate. On this point the Institution might give some 
guidance as to the advisability of a mining student preparing 
for both the First-Class Certificate of Competency and the Sur- 
veyors' Certificate. Mr. B. "W. Dron, in his paper on "The 
Training of Mining Engineers, "* has already mentioned this 
point, and it is important to know what is the general feeling on 
the subject, remembering that a student who has obtained his 
First-Class Certificate of Competency must spend a further two 
years in working for the Surveyors' Certificate. 

It is not proposed to enter into the various points connected 

with the school training of a boy who intends to enter the 

engineering profession. The subject has been fully dealt with 

in a Reportt of the Institution of Civil Engineers and in 

' Natural Science in Education, "+ and to the conclusions con- 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1914-1915, vol. xlix., page 187. 

t " Report of the Committee [of the Institution of Civil Engineers] 
appointed on 24 November, 1903, to Consider and Report to the Council 
upon the Subject of the Best Methods of Education and Training for all 
Classes of Engineers," William Clowes & Sons, Ltd., 31, Haymarket, S.W. 

X " The Report of the Committee on the Position of Natural Science 
in the Educational System of Great Britain," H.M. Stationery Office. 



16 TRANSACTIONS THR NORTH ()1 BNOl kND INSTITI n [Vol l T n 

turned in these reports I have nothing to add. 1 consider thai 
i be subjects <>f mathematics, mechanics, physics, and chemistry 
should betaken before they Leave school by all boys who prop* 
to become engineers. 

The training of students who propose <n take fix- First-Clan 
Certificate of Competency may be conducted on one oi three lines, 
namely : — 

(1) Attendance ;it an u approved " institution, obtaining an 
approved ' degree or diploma, and serving as an articled 

pupil at a colliery for a period oi not Less than three years. 

(2) As an articled pupil at a colliery tor not less than five 
years. 

(3) Practical experience (as defined in the rules of the Hoard 
for Mining Examinations) for not less than five years at a colliery. 

Although these various kinds of training present marked 
differences, yet to some extent one class overlaps the other. In 
all of them attendance at courses of technical instruction is 
possible ; in the first it forms a necessary part of the training. 

A study of the " approved " courses would be of interest, and 
would show what is being done at the present time. Some years 
ago, in the discussion on a paper by Prof. R. A. S. Redmayne* 
on " The Mining Department of the TTniversitv of Birmingham," 
I contributed a comparative tablet of the courses at the 
various institutions which were at that time * approved." If 
similar information were to be presented at the present time, in 
an improved form, it would show the lines on which various 
institutions have developed their courses, and would indicate the 
preparatory training required by each institution for students 
who proposed to attend. Divergent as are the views which have 
been expressed on the subject of the best training for coal-mining 
students, it will probably be found that there are courses already 
in existence to suit every variety of opinion. There are about 
fifteen institutions on the " approved " list, and some of these 
have both degree and diploma courses. A detailed account of 
each course does not seem to be necessary ; information is required 
chiefly under these heads : — 

(1) Regulations as to entrance ; in the case of degree students, 
by matriculation, or by passing an examination which is recog- 
nized by the particular institution as equivalent to matriculation : 
in the case of diploma students, whether there is any entrance 
examination, and, if so, in what subjects. 

(2) Length of course. 

(3) General outline of course. 

(4) Academic distinction awarded. 

*Now Sir Richard Redmayne, K.C.B., H.M. Chief Inspector of Mines. 
f Trans. Inst. M. E., 1904-1905, vol. xxviii., page 483. 



1918-1919.] HARD WICK TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 17 

(5) Whether there are any vacation courses which students 
are expected to attend. 

(6) Whether the regulations provide for practical work 
during the vacations. 

(7) Whether students are trained in coal-mining only, or 
whether instruction is given in other branches of mining. 

As the regulations concerning these courses may be changed 
in the future, it should be explained that the information given 
refers only to existing conditions. 

A recommendation has been made, especially in recent years, 
that after leaving school, and before entering a University or 
College, a boy should spend some time in practical work. A 
year is generally mentioned, but nine months has also been sug- 
gested. The object of this is to give the boy an insight into his 
professional work, and to bring him into touch with it at an 
earlier age than would otherwise be the case. This proposition 
requires very careful consideration, and it would be interesting 
to know whether the result has been satisfactory in any cases in 
which it has been put into practice. It may be questioned 
whether the beneficial effect of the practical experience so 
acquired is not set off by a loss of knowledge already acquired, 
which would have to be learned again when the student enters on 
his applied-science training. This, however, is a point which 
can only be decided by experience. 

On this question it would be interesting to know to what 
extent intermittent periods of practical work at a colliery are 
allowed to count towards the minimum period of three years 
required by the Coal Mines Act for this class of student. 

The training of the articled pupil has next to be considered — 
that is, the student who enters into articles for five years, as 
distinct from those students who take a degree or diploma and 
become articled subsequently. 

Some of the " approved " courses are probably so arranged 
that they can be taken by pupils while serving their articles. A 
course of this kind was mentioned by Mr. G. Blake Walker* in 
the discussion on Mr. R. W. Dion's paper on " The Training 
of Mining Engineers," and enquiry would, no doubt, reveal the 
existence of other similar courses. The course appears to be 
arranged on the " sandwich " system — that is, six months at the 
university and six months at the colliery — a system which has 
heady been in practice for some years for students in mechanical 
engineering. 

Where no arrangements are made for articled pupils to attend 
a course of instruction of this kind, they can gain some know- 
ledge of the necessary science and applied-science subjects by 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1914-1915, vol. xlix., page 208. 



18 HtANSAi flONS I 1 1 1, \< >in 1 1 01 ENGLAND INSTIT1 IK. [VoL Ixix. 

attendance in their spare time at such cla \e a oiaj be within 
their reach established by a University or College, or by the 
Local education authority. Probably in every district ther< i 
facilities of iliis kind, in most cases organized courses held eithei 
in the evening or on Saturday afternoons, and thes< are avail- 
able also for those who obtain I he Cerl ifical e of ( lompetency in the 
third way indicated previously— that is, by practical work in the 
mine. The number of these courses is so considerable that it 
would be impossible to icier to them in detail, but souk; indii 
tion might be given respecting the work which is being done 
generally. 

Among* the points mentioned in the first of the objects oi the 
Engineering Training Organization is "The Fostering of 
Apprenticeship as a National Institution/ ' This is explained 
more fully in " The Engineering Pupilage and the Engineering 
Trade Apprenticeship," by Mr. Algernon Berriman, O.B.E., to 
which reference should be made. As the terms " articled pupil ' 
and 4t apprentice " are in some cases used as though they were 
identical, it may be as well to state that in Mr. Berriman's paper 
the difference is defined thus— the " articled pupil " goes into 
the works in order to gain knowledge of the way in which the 
work in various departments is carried on, and to obtain an 
insight into the details of the organization ; he does not do so in 
order to acquire manual skill. The object of the " apprentice," 
on the other hand, is to acquire such knowledge as will make 
him a skilful workman, and the scheme outlined in Mr. 
Berriman's paper is drawn up with the idea of enabling the 
apprentice to do this, while at the same time careful attention 
would be paid to his technical education at a school or college, 
and opportunities of gaining experience in various departments 
of the works would be given to those apprentices who showed most 
promise. This, however, is not the whole of the scheme, since 
those apprentices who showed the greatest promise would be 
given the opportunity of carrying their training" still further. In 
this way young men of talent would receive an excellent technical 
education, while those who were less gifted would obtain a sound 
training that would enable them to do suitable work in their 
profession. 

It is a matter for consideration how far these suggestions can 
be applied to coal-mining, and for enquiry as to whether any- 
thing has been done in this direction. 

Schemes which appear to be somewhat similar have already 
been mentioned in the Transactions by Mr. G. Blake "Walker* and 
by Prof. W. Hipper, f as being either in contemplation or in 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1917-1918, vol. liv., page 482. 

f " University Education in Relation to Mining Engineering," bv 
William Ripper, C.H., D.Eng., D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., Trans. Inst. M. S. 
1917-1918, vol. liv., pag« 287. 



1918-1919.] HARD WICK TRAIxVlNG OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 19 

operation in the neighbourhood of Sheffield ; and similar schemes 
in other parts of the country were alluded to by Dr. Henry 
Briggs* and by Prof. George Knoxt in the discussion on Mr. 
Gr. L. Kerr's paper on " The Higher Training of Colliery 
Managers. "J 

Details of such schemes, and information as to the experience 
which has been gained in working them, would be of great 
interest, and would be useful to those who contemplate the idea of 
attempting something similar. 

The other points which are dealt with in the programme of 
the Engineering Training Organization may be left for future 
consideration when they have been more fully developed. 

Lack of time has not allowed me to go more fully into the 
subject of the paper, and to present more clearly the points which 
I wish to make. My present work has nothing to do with mining 
education, and consequently I have lost touch with the latest 
developments ; but perhaps for this reason I am better able to 
appreciate the difficulty which persons outside the profession 
must experience if they desire to obtain information on the sub- 
ject of the training of students in coal-mining. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

"' Report of the Committee [of the Institution of Civil Engineers] appointed 

on 24 November, 1903, to Consider and Report to the Council upon 

the Subject of the Best Methods of Education and Training for all 

Classes of Engineers," London, William Clowes & Sons, Limited, 31, 
Haymarket, S.W. 

" Natural Science in Education," published under the authority of His 
Majesty's Stationery Office. 

Institution of Mining Engineers. 
"The Education of Mining Engineers," by J. H. Merivale, 1892-1893, vol. v., 

page 623. 
'* Presidential Address : The Education of Mining Engineers," by George 

Blake Walker, 1896-1897, vol. xii., page 132; discussion, vol. xii., pages 

159, 213; vol. xvi., page 382. 
' Technical Education in Mining," by Henry Louis, 1897-1898, vol. xv., page 

5; discussion, vol. xv., page 19; vol. xvi., page 382. 
"Education of Mining Engineers," by A. Bauer, 1898-1899, vol. xvi., page 

499, abs. 
" Mining Course at Birmingham University." by C. Lapworth, 1901-1902, 

vol. xxiii., page 270. 
'Training of Industrial Leaders," by J. Wertheimer, 1901-1902, vol. xxiii., 

page 494; discussion, vol. xxiii., page 501. 
"The Training of a Mining Engineer," by R. A. S. Redmayne, 1902-1903, 

vol. xxiv., 243; discussion, vol. xxv., page 277; vol. xxvi., page 219; vol 

xxviii., page 358. 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1917-1918, vol. liv., page 152. 

f Ibid, page 143. 

Jlbid, 1916-1917, vol. liii., page 182. 



20 L'RANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IK mm m.. | \ ol. lux. 

The Technical [nstruction of forking Miners, with Sugg< as to 

Mine-managers' [examination ." by Llezandei I L903-1908, vol 

\w. , page I'M 
■' Eleport of the Council of 'I 'be In titution ol liining Bi oa the 

Coal-mines Regulation am (1887) Amendmenl Act, L903, and it- BaTecl 
upon Qualifications of Candidate foi Certificate! of Con ," 1904- 

1905, vol. xwiii., page 414. 

"The Kiining Department of the Qnive] ity of Birmingham," bj It. A 
Redmayne, 1904-1905, vol. xwiii., page 185; d a, vol. xzviii , pag< 

470; vol. xxix , pages 447, 540; vol. xxxi . page 544. 
" The Development of BigheT Education in North Staffordshire," by Thomas 

Turner, 1904-1905, vol xxix , page 28; discussion, rol. xxix., page 31. 
"The Education of Mining Engineers in the United States," by Howard 

Eckfeldt, 1904-1905, vol. xxix., page 401; discussion, vol. xxxi., page 491 
" An Outline of Mining Education in Now Zealand," by James Park, 1904- 

1905, vol. xxix., page 418. 
" Mining Education in the Victoria University of Manchester," by George 

H. Winstanley, 1905-1906, vol xxx., page 437. 
" Education and Training of Engineers : Report of a Committee appointed 

by the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers on November 24th. 

1903," 1905-1906, vol. xxx., page 485 
"The Education of Mining Engineers," by T. \V. Gregory, 1905-1906, vol 

xxxi., page 502; discussion, vol. xxxi /page 515. 
" The Mining School at Bochum, Westphalia," by Henry Louis, 1910-1911, 

vol. xl., page 405; discussion, vol. xl., page 414. 
"Presidential Address: Technical Education in Mining," by F. W 

Hardwick, 1912-1913, vol. xliv., page 425; discussion, vol. xliv., page 

437. 
"Mining Department of the University of Birmingham," 1912-1913, vol. 

xliv., page 773. 
'Presidential Address," by Sir Thomas Holland, 1913-1914, vol. xlvi., page 

339; discussion, vol. xlvi., page 354. 
"The Training of Mining Engineers," by R. W. Dron, 1914-1915, vol. xlix., 

page 187; discussion, vol. xlix., pages 200, 341, 515; vol. 1., pages 33, 60 
" Some Notes on the Education of the Colliery Manager," by John Gibson, 

1914-1915, vol. xlix., page 195; discussion, vol. xlix., pages 200, 341, 

515; vol. 1., page 33. 
" Some Remarks on Mining Education," by Noah T. Williams, 1914-1915, 

vol. xlix., page 238; discussion, vol. xlix., pages 246, 443. 
" Presidential Address : the Influence of Science, Education, and Legislation 

on Mining," by Wallace Thorneycroft, 1916-1917, vol. Hi., page 322; 

discussion, vol. lii., page 333. 
"The Higher Training of Colliery Managers," by G. L. Kerr, 1916-1917, 

vol. liii., page 182; discussion, vol. liv., pagts 9, 142, 479. 
"Presidential Address: Mining Education and Research in Lancashire; an 

Appeal for Wider Interest and Greater Support," by William Pickup. 

1917-1918, vol. liv., page 275; discussion, vol. liv., page 285. 
University Education in Relation to Mining Engineering," by William 

Ripper, 1917 1918, vol. liv., page 287; discussion, vol. liv., page 291. 
Notes on the Education (Scotland) Bill," by William Jarvie, 1917-1918, 

vol. lv., page 149; discussion, vol. lv ., pages 154, 203. 



Prof. PTenry Louis: Prof. Hardwiek's paper refers 
apparently only to the training of students who are preparing to 
become general managers, viewers, agents, or consulting engineers 



1918-1919.] DISCUSSION — TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 21 

— that is to say, to occupy what are usually looked upon as 
the higher branches of the mining profession. The training of 
officials up to the rank of under-manager is equally necessary, 
but this requires institutions, methods, and teachers of an en- 
tirely different type, and must therefore be considered quite 
apart from the other form of training. It will, of course, be 
always possible for a student of exceptional ability to> pass from 
the one category to the other, just as it is possible for a man to 
commence at the coal-face and finish at the head of the mining 
profession. In drafting general schemes, however, whilst these 
must be sufficiently elastic to allow the exceptional men to make 
the fullest use of their abilities, the schemes themselves must be 
devised to suit the average man and not the brilliant exception. 
Since Prof. Hardwick has not dealt with the training of colliery 
officials, nothing further need be said on this head, except to 
point out its necessity. 

The main point in the paper appears to be the advocacy of a 
central bureau where information can be obtained concerning 
the education and training required for the mining profession. 
From my own experience I doubt whether such a bureau is 
really required : there are mining colleges in every district in 
England, and no one is so remote from one or other of these 
that he cannot get into direct touch with it, or obtain full in- 
formation by post. If any central agency is needed, it would 
probably be best to have one in conjunction with a Mines De- 
partment for the United Kingdom, on the lines suggested by 
Sir Lionel Phillips in his recent report. 

Whilst there is much in Prof. Hardwick's paper with which 
I cordially agree, there are a few points on which I differ, to 
which I shall refer. 

With regard to school-training, I hold very different views 
from his; in my opinion, the proper object of a school training 
is not to lay the foundation for the study of special technical sub- 
jects, but to give a boy a thorough liberal education on the broad- 
est possible basis. That is the time when a boy should learn his 
own language thoroughly, as well as acquire a knowledge of one 
or two others : I still hold that for this purpose a boy should be 
taught a fair amount of Latin. Educational subjects such as 
geography and history should be taught thoroughly, and the boy 
should also be given a thorough grounding in the more elemen- 
tary parts of mathematics and allied subjects; he should be 
taught drawing and also general science, not necessarily any 
one science in particular, but scientific methods and principles 
in general. If he does not receive a thorough liberal education 
at school, he will never get it afterwards, so that the above is my 
ideal of what the school education of the future engineer ought 
to be. 



22 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol 

Willi respecl to practical work, mj practice for lome time 
past has been to recommend lads, ae oon a they bave pa 
their matriculation or school-leaving examination, to put in from 
three to nine months as working apprentices in an engineering 
works, in order to familiarize themselves with the workmen's 
poinl of view, and al the Bame time to gain an insighl into 
ordinary mechanical engineering, an acquaintance with whieli 
is accessary whatever branch of engineering a man may subse- 
quently lake up. I do not believe in a lad being kepi SO long 
at practical work as to get him out of Die li.il.il of book-learning. 
which would interfere with Ins College career; the method I 
have indicated here is one that I have tried repeatedly, and 
found highly successful. 

In reply to Prof. Hardwick's question as to intermittent 
periods of practical work at the colliery — for example, work done 
during the long vacation — this does count towards the minimum 
period demanded by the Coal Mines Act. 

With regard to articled pupils, I think that this system of 
entry into the mining profession should be discouraged. It 
used to answer admirably in the old days, when the demands 
made on a mining engineer were far less complex and when 
scientific methods were practically unknown. There seems to be 
a great consensus of opinion at present in favour of the view 
that a University education is essential for a properly qualified 
mining engineer. The system of pupilage is becoming less and 
less common, and in view of the great increase in highly 
specialized scientific knowledge that is now required, it will 
doubtless tend to disappear entirely. 

It may be further noted that Prof. Hardwick has contributed 
nothing to the solution of what I have always found to be the 
greatest difficulty in respect of lads whose families are not in 
touch with the mining profession, namely, how to get taken on 
at a colliery after their College course is finished. This difficulty 
is, of course, greatest where the lads' parents are unable to pay 
a substantial premium. This has always struck me as the weakest 
link in the chain of mining education : its solution lies in the 
hands, not of the teaching institutions, but of the collieries 
themselves; and in my opinion one of the great needs of the day 
is the provision of a considerable number of scholarships of a 
similar type to that recently founded by the Ebbw Yale Company 
at Armstrong College — scholarships given by large collieries 
or large colliery-owners, which give a lad. who has taken a good 
degree at College, enough to live on and three years' employment 
in a pit, so as to enable him, at the end of that time, to sit his 
colliery manager's examination, thus completing the connecting 
link between College and colliery. 



1918-1919.] DISCUSSION — TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 23 

Mr. Mark Halliday (Durham) : The Engineering 
Training Organization referred to in the paper deserves close 
attention, and anything that can be done to improve the educa- 
tional facilities of the mining profession ought to receive most 
careful consideration. I think we are all agreed that, generally 
speaking, there is much to be desired in present-day mining 
methods, and that education, in some degree, is essential to 
accomplish this object. The question of the educational 
standard is one upon which there has been, and is, great variety 
of opinion. Now that the subject of education is being so much 
discussed, it is fitting that some reference should be made to the 
degree of learning desirable to equip a man for a responsible 
post in mining engineering. A certain standard is already set 
by the requirements of the Coal Mines Act for Certificates of 
Competency, but it can hardly be said that it is sufficient. At 
all events, that part of the paper dealing with mechanical 
engineering subjects can only be classed as elementary. It is 
upon this section of mining education that, as a mechanical 
engineer, I wish to base ray remarks. Mining* operations are 
becoming more and more dependent upon the application of 
machinery for economical working, and require a more special- 
ized knowledge of mechanical principles than is at present de- 
manded of a colliery manager in the Home Office examinations. 
It is too much to expect it from him, because there is so much 
work entailed in connexion with mining proper that the average 
man cannot in his apprenticeship become possessed of expert 
knowledge in all the subjects related to it. Even in a University 
course for a degree or diploma in mining — which is the highest 
professional standard of education prevailing in that branch — 
the variety of subjects is such that it will not admit of an 
advanced knowledge in many essential studies, because there is 
only time to learn general and elementary principles. In order 
to meet this defect, I would suggest several departments for 
specialized study, to enable a man, after a general education, 
to concentrate on one of them, and thus have a fair chance of 
becoming expert in one particular branch of the profession . 

As far as I know, there is not any course of the University 
standard which provides a special training for engineers in 
mining machinery. In most Universities and Colleges — cer- 
tainly in Armstrong College — the mechanical engineering part 
of the course for a degree or diploma deals with general en- 
gineering principles and specializes in marine engineering. It 
is very rarely that reference is made to mining machinery except 
in so far as elementary parts are common to all classes of 
machinery. Some people will defend the existing system on 
the assumption that if a man applies himself seriously to the 



24 rRAJISACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [VoL fads' 

courses provided, liis general knowledge of engineering 
principles will then enable him to adapt himself readily to con- 
ditions prevailing a 1 coal-mines. Thai is true, bul in these dayt 
of specialization we require, for a better educational lyetem, 
something more than genera] principle-. Specialized education 
has been applied to marine and aaval engineering for some con- 
siderable time, with the result thai this country maintains its 
supreme position in lliat branch of industry. There is quite as 
much scope foT mie to concentrate one's studies on mining 
machinery as there is in thai for propelling ships; and it appears 
to me that properly organized courses, wiih suitable laboratory 
apparatus, is bound to yield good result- in a comparatively 
short time. 

If schemes for the improvement of mining education do 
materialize, this branch of the subject should not be lost sight 
of, and it should form an essential part of all mining depart- 
ments of Universities and Colleges. 

With regard to research-work in the various branches of 
mining engineering, it would be a distinct advantage to have 
research laboratories attached to the Colleges, to enable men. 
with certain prescribed qualifications, to have access to such 
places. Means would thus be provided for obtaining experi- 
mental data upon problems encountered in actual practice; in 
fact, the practical man possessed of a College training ought to 
have a type of mind that is continually in search for new 
things, and research laboratories will give considerable assist- 
ance and encouragement in that direction. 

If specialized courses should actually meet with favour, and 
if they should be extended to all branches of work related to 
coal-mining, such as electrical engineering, chemistry, coke-oven 
practice, bye-products, etc., then I venture the opinion that the 
mining industry will benefit enormously. 

Mr. H. F. Bulman (Acklington) : Prof. Hardwick's proposal 
that The Institution of Mining Engineers should issue an 
authorative statement with regard to the best training for 
mining students has much to recommend it. Such a statement, 
if well drawn up, would be likely to increase the number of 
suitable men entering the profession, and also to improve their 
training. As outlined by Prof. Hard wick, it should give clear 
and definite indication of what is required, some guidance as to 
the courses available, and the facilities for obtaining the needed 
education. A comparative table of the courses at the various 
Colleges which are " approved " would also certainly be useful. 

The problem seems to be : how can the student acquire the 
largest possible amount of practical experience and useful 
scientific knowledge bearing on his work in the shortest possible 



1918 1919] DISCUSSION TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 25 

time? It should be recognized that the work nnd the qualities 
of a resident colliery manager are not the some as those of a 
consulting mining 1 engineer. Well-trained men in both 
capacities are essential to the wellbeing of the industry, but the 
training need not be the same. Broadly speaking, in the case 
of the colliery manager the practical training should predomin- 
ate, and the scientific training in the other. 

With regard to the vexed question of how the practical and 
the scientific trainings may be best co-ordinated, it is of the 
first importance that a student should be keenly interested in 
his work. The average British boy is not naturally fond of in- 
tellectual exertion, and as a mining student he is more likely 
to pursue his scientific studies to advantage if he realizes how 
they will help him in his future work. If he knows enough of 
practical mining to make him appreciate the value of scientific 
training, he will derive more benefit from it. This consideration 
points to the " sandwich " system as defined by Prof. Hardwick. 
or some modification of it. as being the best. As one of the 
great industries of the country, coal-mining for its personnel 
should be able to draw on the best the country can supply. 

What capable and energetic men want is useful, interesting, 
and remunerative occupation. As the late Mr. Emerson Bain- 
bridge once wrote : " The profession of a mining engineer offers 
to those who have to choose a certain business occupation, what 
may be considered a special advantage in the fact that there is 
no professional career which requires a certain amount of know- 
ledge of such an interesting variety of scientific subjects. ,, 

Objections to the profession which one sometimes hears are 
that there is not much prospect for a man unless he has in- 
fluential friends or relatives to back him, that most of the 
appointments are given to practical pitmen, and that scientific 
knowledge is not valued and finds no reward. If scientific 
training is wanted, it must be taken into consideration when 
appointments are made. 

"A wider appreciation of the value in industry of University 
rank " will be secured by a closer alliance between industry and 
the University. There should be more co-operation between 
practical mining men and University professors and scientists. 
Those who control appointments should unite with educational- 
ists in picking out and encouraging likely men, and the picking- 
out should include not only College students, but also promising 
youths at the collieries, so that they may get the education they 
need. 

The Coal Conservation Committee has made a suggestion 
which deserves attention, namely, that scholarships should be 
provided to enable promising students who have distinguished 



26 THANRACnOlffl I ill nmi- i ii 01 r \(.i.\\ ii |\ ^ i i i i i i \'-,| I 

themselves iii th<> examinations for Certificates o\ Compete! 
to undertake research-work, 

Prof. William Garnett (London County Council Education 

Office): When I whs in Newcastle I waa very anxious to secure 
some arrangemenl by which pupils could attend College clai 
during part-time, devoting the resl of their time to work al the 
mines, believing that such division of time was besl in the in- 
terests of tlie majority of mining students: but T found thai the 
interpretation placed on the Coal Mines Regulation Acta would 
not permit such divided time to he counted. A Bhoeing-smitb or 
a man employed entirely on a Wagonway aboveground, " in or 
about a mine," could count the time, but not so a student who 
spent three days a week in the mine and the other three days 
under a professor in College. I found that the Government of 
the day were prepared to introduce a short Bill to meet my 
wishes if I could give an assurance that it would be unopposed, 
but unfortunately the miners' representatives, although entirely 
in favour of my proposal, were pledged to raise other questions 
if any measure dealing with coal-mines were introduced into the 
House of Commons, and these questions were bound to be 
opposed. The difficulty was surmounted later on. but not until 
I had left Newcastle. 

In connexion with coal-mining, as with other branches of 
engineering, there will always be a difference of opinion on the 
question whether a boy on leaving school should go at once to 
the Technical College for a continuance course of study extending 
over, say, three years, or should proceed at once to the mine or 
engineering works for a year or more before starting on his 
College course, or should combine practical and theoretical in- 
struction in some form, of sandwich system, which may be 
regarded as a compromise between the two. This difference of 
opinion continues to exist, because there is a difference in the 
mentality of different pupils. Some boys have sufficient power 
of imagination to realize engineering problems which are de- 
scribed in College lectures or in text-books with the vividness 
necessary to enable them to appreciate their practical import- 
ance and the sufficiency of the solutions which are presented to 
them. Boys of this type of mind can advantageously proceed 
directly from school to the Technical College, and they will 
recognize the relations between laboratory work on a small 
scale and industrial work on a large scale, as well as the bearing 
of pure science upon industry. Thev thus gain the advantage of 
continuity in their educational work, and deal with the mathe- 
matical and scientific problems presented to them in their 
College course before they have forgotten their school work, or 
lost the habit of learning from books or oral teaching. 



1918-1919.] DISCUSSION TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN COAL-MINING. 27 

On the other hand, there are many boys to whom books and 
oral teaching are mere words, unless they have had practical 
experience of the subjects treated. To them a lecture on the 
indicator-diagram, or on some of the aspects of the problem of 
haulage or winding, would appear to have no more direct bearing 
on their lives than the memory of the thirty-six exceptions to the 
rule that Latin nouns ending in " is " are feminine. Such boys 
are not incapable of becoming engineers, but to them experience 
of the mine or the works before proceeding to their College 
course is indispensable. It necessitates some revision of school 
work when the pupil enters College, and perhaps a little 
time is wasted in recovering studious habits, but this is inevit- 
able with pupils of this type of mind. The break between school 
and College should not generally exceed a year, unless pro- 
vision is made for the continuation of theoretical studies under 
supervision during the evenings, because the habit of learning 
from books is easily lost at this stage of life. 

Even in the case of the boy who can advantageously proceed 
direct from school to the Technical College, it is most important 
that some experience of the mine or workshop should be acquired 
before the end of the College course, and in this connexion the 
sandwich system has proved to be of great value in mechanical 
and electrical engineering. When in Newcastle I found that 
our most efficient students were those who had spent some time 
in the mine or workshops, dividing their time between that and 
the College course. 

I suppose that all parties are agreed that a boy who is to 
become a mining engineer should remain at school until he has 
reached the standard of efficiency of the first school examination 
of the Board of Education at the age of 16 or 17, and that his 
school course should include both mathematics and physical 
science, together with English language and literature, and a 
modern language, as recommended by Sir J. J. Thomson's Com- 
mittee. Some boys may advantageously remain at school for 
another two years, until they have reached the standard of the 
second school examination, and during that time should study 
mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, and geology, in 
addition to a modern language or two and English literature; 
but presumably the majority of mining students for some time 
to come will leave school at the stage of the first school ex- 
amination. 



2N 



TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IN STTTI ll.. [VoL Ixix. 



DISCISSION OF MR. CHARLES J. FAIRBROTHER'8 
PAPER ON ' RECORD OF GAS-PRE8S1 RE FROM A 
BOREHOLE."* 

Mr. Charles J. Fairbrothbb (Dannhanser, Natal)* wrote : 

In reply to Mr. Coulson's statement thai the pressure was mucb 

less than had been recorded in coal-seams in the County of 
Durham, I would point out that \h\< wns not anything like the 
final pressure, but only that at which it began to lift the casing. 
The final pressure must have been very much higher in order to 
blow out the water from the hole against a head of some 770 
feet. 

Mr. Atkinson has questioned the gas having come from the 
coal-seams, and suggested that it might come from the strata 
above or below. It certainly did not appear at any time before 
the coal was struck, and the maximum pressure was not reached 
until the hole was well into the bottom seam. The boring was 
continued for several feet into the floor of the lower seam, but 
there was no indication of any higher pressure there. 

The conditions in Natal can hardly be compared with those in 
England, as the seams are all intersected by whin dykes. The 
plans of a Natal colliery show a perfect network of these dyke^ 
running in all directions. As these dykes do not allow of the 
passage of the gas, each area becomes a small coalfield, very 
often charged with gas and water. The size of these areas vary 
greatly, but in the district described they are on an average about 
700 feet from dyke to dyke. It becomes quite a problem 
to open out a new area, say, 3,000 to 7,000 feet from the shaft- 
bottom, with all the old workings lying behind. 



•Trans. Inst ME. 1918-1919, vol. lvi., page 6 



1918-1919] CHEUNG — COAL-CUTTING BY ELECTRICITY. 29 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AxYD 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

April 12th, 1919. 



Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, President, in the Chair. 



COAL-CUTTING BY ELECTRICITY AND TIMBERING AT 
CANNOCK CHASE COLLIERY. 



By W. P. CHEUNG, B Sc. 



Coal -catting. — Cannock Chase Colliery was favourably placed 
in having at its disposal an installation of alternating-current 
plant" of sufficient capacity for coal-cutting. 

There are five drawing pits within a radius of 2 miles, and 
eight seams are worked, varying in depth from 250 to 900 feet, 
in five of which coal-cutters have been introduced. Despite 
natural difficulties such as faults, unevenness of floor, and 
variable gradients, the installation of coal-cutters has been a 
decided success. After a trial of three types of cutter, the most 
used now is the Hopkinson chain-cutter, which undercuts to a 
depth of 5 feet with a cut of 4 inches. 

The longwall method of working is used, the machine-face 
has a straight face of from 60 yards to 120 yards, and the holing 
is " end on." Taking a typical example of a machine stall of 
100 yards in a 4J-foot seam, an advance of 180 yards was made 
in twelve months, with the assistance of an electric belt- 
conveyor. 

The machine-face is generally cleared on the day-shift, so as 
to be ready for coal-cutting by the night-shift. The machine- 
men are paid at piecework rates. The delivery of coal in the 
conveyor-face is from one extremity of the face to the other, and, 
as the tubs are filled, the set is hauled away by main-and-tail 
rope, which is brought close to the face whilst in the machine- 
stall, without the conveyor. Where the height of the seam 
allows, and conveyors are not in use, advantage is taken of the 
dip of the seam, and the district is laid out so that the tubs are 
taken in at the higher end in sets of ten or more, and, as they 

*" "Rlpctrification of Cannock Chase Colliery." By S. F. Sopwith. Trans. 
Inst. M.TS.i vol. xlv., pagre 350. 

vol. iaiv.— i<rp-i9io. 4 E 



30 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. V<,j lxix. 

are filled, gravitate to the end road 60 or L20 yardc away, w\ 
they are picked up by the haulage. A.A manj ioaderi 

arc employ ed on t hose ia< i 

In the Bass Seam, which is liable to gob-fires, n li 
found thai there is Less ground for anxietj on thai account owing 
to the goaf being packed closely with Incombustible dirt. 

Economy in working ha.^ been marked, and without going 
into any details i\ may be Btated thai the results are eminently 
satisfactory, varying, of course, with the circumstances, but 
showing a saving .til round. More round coal is uow obtained, 
which is of importance to this colliery. 

Finally, the advantages and. especially during war condi- 
tions and consequent shortage of labour, the output have been 
maintained in a manner which would have been quite impossible 
in any other way. 

In 1913 the output from one coal-cutter was 1,138 tons, and 
this amount increased until in 1918 the output was 847,000 tons 
from thirty machines, which represents nearly 41 per cent, of 
the total output, and gives an average of 8,230 ton- per 
machine. It may be mentioned that, owing to the number of 
pits and scattered nature of the workings, more machines are 
necessary than would be the case if the workings were more 
concentrated. The following comparative figures will be of 
interest : — 



Year. 


Out ut h\ machines. 
Tons. 


Total output 
Tons. 


Total output liy machines 
Per c?nt. 


1913 


1,158 


613,537 


0-19 


1914 


1,565 


586,757 


0-27 


1915 


38,938 


680,338 


5-72 


1916 


108,741 


701,072 


15-51 


1917 


176,202 


677,980 


25-99 


1918 


247,675 


605,342 


40 91 



If all the coal produced by this colliery in the year 1918 had 
been worked by band instead of by both methods, the output 
would have been 76,700 tons less. 

When an electric installation is in a dangerous condition, it 
gives no warning to the sight or hearing, so that strict super- 
vision by efficient men and the use of the best apparatus have 
been carefully observed. That this is the case is shown by the 
fact that no serious accidents have taken place, although the 
transmission voltage is 3,000, which is reduced to 600 volts for 
the coal-cutter. 

Only one personal accident has taken place, owing to the 
carelessness of the man in charge in trying to tighten a coal- 
cutter chain while in motion. This was entirely against the 
rules, and he lost a finger in consequence. 

The attitude of the men proves their confidence in the instal- 
lation, for the machine stalls are eagerly sought after, and the 
old prejudice against electricity seems to have died out. 



1918-1919.] FAIRBEOTHER — GAS-PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE. 31 

Timbering. — The economy in the use of timber is very 
marked, especially in the Bass and Shallow seams, which now 
require only 5-foot as against 7-foot timber in the hand-stalls. 
An opportunity has been given to try further economies in 
timbering*, notably in the use of the economiser and S-F Metal 
props.* 

The economizer is a cast-iron hollow cone 9 inches long, the 
wider end of which is fitted about 4 inches over the end of an 
ordinary tapered prop, thus leaving an empty space of 5 inches 
between the small end of the prop and the floor when set. When 
depression in the roof takes place, the prop is squeezed into the 
empty and narrower part of the tapered cylinder, or hollow 
section of the cone, until it reaches the floor. If something 
must go, the prop breaks where the edge of the cylinder cuts the 
wood. The prop can then be withdrawn, re-tapered, and fitted 
again into the economizer, and additional economizers can be 
placed in the original, like fitting flower-pots inside each other, 
in order to make up the required length, and these are again 
set. In this way a piece of timber can be used to a very short 
length by using even six or seven economizers. When the prop 
becomes too short for further use, it can be split and made into 
lids. 

After twelve months 5 experience, this device shows a saving 
of 50 per cent, in timber, and, in addition, the men are not 
subjected to any delay for want of timber. 

The S-F metal prop is a later design, in which the economizer 
is used, but there is the advantage of the height of the prop 
being adjustable, and a device for the easy withdrawal of the 
same, whereby very little timber is used. 

The prop can be used in seams varying in height from 3 to 6 
feet, and can also be used in hand-stalls. 

The adoption of coal-cutting machinery has doubtless saved 
the situation during the extremely hard conditions imposed by 
the war, so that its introduction has been abundantly vindicated. 



DISCUSSION OF ME. CHARLES J. FAIRBROTHER'S 
" RECORD OF GAS-PRESSURE FROM A BOREHOLE. "t 

Mr. James Gibson (Cleveland, Transvaal) wrote : There is 
little doubt that the gases expelled were the ordinary hydro- 
carbons, although no mention is made as to their composition. In 
South Africa it is, I believe, unusual to find gas occluded under 
such pressure, hence the record is an important one. I think 

* Iron and Coal Trades Review. 101 S, vol. .. page 491. 

t Trans. Inst ¥. £., 191^-1919, vol. lvi., pages (> and \2C>. 



»2 



i i: \\s \( | [ONS i III, Noif | 11 01 }• \<.i \m, i n - l I I i J I.. Vol lux. 



the author might slate whether tin- Li the only occasion on 

which such a phenomenon bae been noticed, end ton Long the 
pressure continued before it eased oil. 

Mr. \V. Taylor Beslop (Natal) wrote: I obtained very clear 
proof, some years ago, at St. George's Colliery, Natal, of the 
transmission of gas through Bands to nee, as mentioned by Mr. 
■) . B. Atkinson. In driving through a dolerite dyke (he main 
place was in the lower seam and was driven into coal, and then 
in coal some 12 yards to the left. The return drive was in the 
upper seam, and some 8 yards in coal after passing through the 
dyke, until it reached a point immediately over the lower seam 
cross-drive. In both cases gas was encountered, but not in 
sufficient quantity to interfere with the work. As soon as the 
intervening bed of laminated sandstone was blasted through 
and a connexion made for ventilation, the places and the return- 
air course for some considerable distance became foul with gas, 
thus proving unmistakably that the sandstone was more porous 
to gas than either of the coal-seams. 

Generally in Natal when a new coal area is tapped, either 
by a shaft or through a dyke, gas is given off more freely than 
is the case in Great Britain; but it " bleeds off " quickly after 
some time has elapsed, and there is less gas than is usual 
in Great Britain. Probably the reason for this is that the 
sandstone bed between the two seams acts as an effective conduit 
for the gas given off by the coal. For the same reason, at times 
I found it necessary to put up boreholes into the sandstone roof, 
when developing drives, in order to tap the gas and prevent the 
gas-pressure from breaking down the roof of from 4 to 6 feet of 
sandstone which underlies the upper seam. I also found that 
gas-pressure broke down the siliceous-shale roof of the upper 
seam when the seam was first broken into, but after development 
had proceeded some distance no further trouble occurred. 




Wood Memorial Hall, and Offices of The North op England Institute ok Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



OF 




imttg anlr $$Ue|anrcaI (Supecrs. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 



AND 



ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR 1918-1919; 

LIST OF 

COUNCIL, OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

FOR THE YEAR 1919-1920; ETC., 
AND ROLL OF HONOUR, 



19181919. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 
Printed by Andrew Rf.id & Company, Limited, London and Newcastle-upon-Tyne 



1«H9. 



C N T B N T 8. 



PA '.I 

Annual Report of the Council, 1918-1919 v 

Annual Report of the Finance Committee, 1918-1919... ... ... ... viii 

General Statement, June 30th, 1919 ... .. ... ... ... ... ix 

The Treasurer in Account with The North of England Institute of Mining 

and Mechanical Engineers for the Year ending June 30th, 1919 x 
The Treasurer of The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers in Account with Subscriptions, 1918-1919 ... ... xii 

List of Committees appointed by the Council, 19191920 ... ... ... xiv 

Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining Engineers, 

1919-1920 xiv 

Officers, 1919-1920 ... xv 

Patrons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvi 

Honorary Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvi 

Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... xvii 

Associate Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xli 

Associates ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xliii 

Students ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Subscribers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 1 

Roll of Honour liii 



AXNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1918-1919. 



The Institute has sustained a great loss due to the deaths of 
several members. Mr. Frank Coulson, who was elected a 
member in the year 1868, became a member of the Council in 
1904, a vice-president m 1905, and was elected President in 
1916. Mr. Daniel Murgue, who was elected an honorary member 
in 1908. 

The Council also deplore the loss of the following members, 
killed in the European War: — John Beresford Jobling, Allan 
Andrew Dennis Join-, and Frank Philip Sleigh Lacey : and of 
the following 1 gentlemen who died during the year : —Members : 
Sir Boverton Redwood, Bart., Charles William Bartholomew, 
Edward Erskine Bird, Robert William Cochrane, -lames 
Ferguson, William Griffith, Arthur Haselden, Christopher 
Heslop, Alfred Hewlett, Frederick J. Horswill, John Wilson 
Richmond Lee, Alfred Andrew Lockwood, Tom Pattinson 
Martin, Robert William Angus Southern, Frank Stobart, 
Arthur Stone, Norman Muschamp Thornton, and William Pitt 
Welton. Associate member: Frederic Henry Edwards. Asso- 
ciates: Thomas Brown, George William Hedley, Isaac Penney, 
and Hubert Watts. 

The resignations (14) include the following: — Honorary 
members : Sir William Henry Hadow and Prof. Robert Lunan 
Weighton. Members: Edward William Andrews, Edward 
Johnson, Hugh Kirton, Arthur Hope Manning. Samuel Joseph 
Pollitzer, Robert Turnbull, and Henry Walker. Associate 
member: William Edwin Gray. Associates: Thomas Berryman 
and Geoffrey Elliot Blackett. Subscribers : International 
Correspondence Schools. 

The following gentlemen (11) have ceased to be members 
during the past year: — Members: Arthur Crosby, Sydney 
Croudace, Irving Rider Gard, Albert Henry Hooper, George 
Weymouth Hutchinson, John Paterson, Charles Benjamin 
Saner, Joseph Crosby Verey, and George Verny. Associate: 
Thomas Amour Scott. Student: John Walter Welch. 

The Council regret to report a decrease in the membership, 
due to the large number of deaths. The additions to the register, 
and the losses by death, resignation, etc., are shown in the 
following table : — 

Additions 

Losses 

Gain ... 

Loss 31 28 54 9 22 



1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


55 


47 


38 


101 


49 


34 


86 


75 


92 


58 


58 


56 


— 


— 


— 


43 


— 


— 



vi INN UAL REPOBT OF THE COUNCIL 

The membership for the las! six yeai bown in the 

I < 1 1 1 ( » \v 1 1 1 <•• I ; 1 1 ) I < ' : 



\ i ai ended A ugu 1 


L914 


!>i , 










Honorary members 


24 


26 


•J.". 


22 


22 




Members... 


846 


824 


780 






771 


■ i;itr members 


*.<; 


91 










iates 


.. 206 


•JO 7 


205 


L90 






Students 


.. 


:;i 


-n; 


is 


16 


9 


Subscribers 


35 

1,242 


36 


1,160 






84 


Totals 


1,214 


1,194 


i . 1 72 



A. list of members who have served with Bis Majesty's Fori 
ai home and abroad is being compiled, and, in order to make 
the same as complete as possible, the Council will be pleased to 
be advised of any member who has served. 

The Library has been maintained in an efficient condition 
during the year; the additions, by donation, exchange and pur- 
chase, include 80 bound volumes and 14 pamphlets, reports, etc. ; 
and the Library now contains about L5,954 volumes and 634 
unbound pamphlets. A card-catalogue of the book-, etc., con- 
tained in the Library renders them easily available for reference. 

Useful service to the profession would be rendered by the 
presentation of bocks, reports, plans, etc., to be preserved in the 
Library, and thereby become available for referenc< 

The Saturday afternoon lectures for colliery engineers, 
engine wrights, and apprentice mechanics arranged to take place 
at Armstrong College are still suspended on account of the war. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas continues to represent the Institute as a 
governor of Armstrong College, and Mr. John Robert Robinson 
Wilson, in conjunction with the President (Mr. John Simpson), 
represents the Institute on the Council of the College. 

Mr. Thomas Young Greener lias been appointed to represent 
the Institute upon the Board of Directors of the Institute and 
Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited. 

The President continues a Representative Governor upon the 
Court of Governors of the University of Durham College of 
Medicine during his term of office. 

Mr. W. C. Mountain has been appointed to represent the 
Institute on the Departmental Committee in Electrical Engineer- 
ing at Armstrong Colleg'e. 

The representatives of the Institute upon the Council of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers during the past year were as 
follows: — Messrs. R. S. Anderson, Sidney Bates, "W. C. 
Blackett, B. O. Brown, W. Cochran Carr, Benjamin Dodd, T. 
Y. Greener, Reginald Guthrie, Samuel Hare, A. M. Hedley. 
Philip Kirkup, C. C. Leach, Henry Louis, W. C. Mountain, R. 
E. Ornsby, M. W. Parrington, "Walter Rowlev, F. R. Simpson, 
John Simpson. W. O. Tate, J. R. R. Wilson, W. B. Wilson, 
and E. Seymour Wood. 

Under the will of the late Mr. John Daglish. funds have 
been placed at the disposal of Armstrong College for founding a 
Travelling Fellowship, to be called the "Daglish" Fellowship, 



LNNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Vll 

candidates for which must be nominated by the Institute. No 
application was made for this Fellowship for the year 1919. 

The G. C. Greenwell gold, silver, and bronze medals may 
be awarded annually for approved papers "recording- the results 
of experience of interest in mining, and especially where 
deductions and practical suggestions are made by the writer io r 
the avoidance of accidents in mines." 

The papers printed in the Transactions during the year are 

as follows : — 

" Coal-cutting by Electricity and Timbering at Cannock Chase 

Colliery," by Mr. Wing Po Cheung, Assoc. I.M.E. 

" Record of Gas-pressure from a Borehole," by Mr. Charles James 
Fairbrother, M.I.M.E. 

The Institute has received a legacy of £500 from the 
executors of the late George May, the income from which is to 
be used for purchasing a prize or prizes to be given annually 
to any of its students as the Council may think fit, such prize or 
prizes to be called the ik George May " Prize or Prizes. 

The rooms of the Institute have been used, during the year, 
by the Newcastle-upon-Tyne and District Branch of the British 
Foundrymen's Association; the Newcastle Local Section of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers; the North-East Coast 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders; the Newcastle 
Section of the Society of Chemical Industry; the North of 
England Branch of the Association of Mining Electrical 
Engineers; the North-Eastern Section of the Junior Institution 
of Engineers ; and the North of England Branch of the National 
Association of Colliery Managers. 

No excursion meetings have been held during the year. The 
Council hope to re-arrange the postponed excursion to Eskmeals 
in the future. 

Meetings of The Institution of Mining Engineers were held 
in Nottingham in September, 1918, and in London in June, 1919. 



\ 111 \ \ \ I \l IM i-ui; i ui I II I FINANCE < ou.Ui I J J. I.. 



A.Wl AL LtEPOU I OF THE I I NANI I. I UMMIT'J 1. 1.. 

L918-1919. 

A statement of accounts tor the year ending June 30th, 1919, 
duly audited, is submitted herewith by the [finance Committee. 

The total receipts, including £123 L8s. received for return 
of income tax for the year ending ApriJ 5th, L919, were £2,1 
(is. 2d. Of this amount £48 L4s. was paid as subscriptions in 
advance, Leaving 1 £2,727 12s. 2d. a^ 1 1 ■ * • ordinary income <>l the 
year, ;>s compared with £2,927 L9s. 5d. in the previous year. 
file amount received as ordinary subscriptions for the year 
was £2,017 : >s., and arrears £227 13s., as againsl £2,015 2s. 
and £339 7s., respectively in the year 1917-1918. Transactions 
sold realized £1 12s. (>d., as compared with £1 13s. 9d., and the 
amount received for interest on investments was £396 bs. 8d., 
as compared with £392 7s. the previous year. The income 
received by the George May Prize Fund for the year was £20 
6s. 4d., and there were no payments out of tin*- fund. 

The expenditure was £2,593 Is. 4d.. as against £2,480 15s. 
8d. in the previous year. Increases are showu in salaries and 
wages, heating, lighting and water, printing and stationery, 
postages, telephones, etc., incidental expenses, furniture and 
repairs, library, travelling expenses, and law charges. ])e 
are shown in rent, rates and taxes, cleaning of hall and office-, 
and contributions to The Institution of Mining Engineers. 

The balance of income over expenditure was £18-3 4s. 10d., 
and adding to this the amount of £484 Is. 4d. from the previous 
year, and deducting £820 invested in Government securities, 
leaves a credit balance of £347 6s. 2d. 

The names of IT persons have been struck off the membership 
list in consequence of non-payment of subscriptions. The 
amount of subscriptions written oft' was £142 12s., of which 
£59 12s. was for sums due for the year 1918-1919, and £83 for 
arrears. 

It is probable that a considerable proportion of this amount 
will he recovered and credited in future years. Of the amount 
previously written off £72 2s. was recovered during the past 
year. 

JOHX SIMPSON, President. 

August 9th. 1919. 



ACCOUNTS. 



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\r< ' ,1 n i 

l>i< I ii i I i Mouth of I 

Fon 

June 80th, L918. I 

To balance <>i" account al bankers 1 1 .» fj 

in Treasurer's hands <; L 16 ] 

isi 1 I 



.lime 30th, L919. 

To dividend <>l' per cent. <>n 207 shares of 62< I e^cli .. 
[nstitute and Coal Trade Chambers < iompanj . Limi 

for the year ending June 30th, L919 

,, interest on u if £1,400 with the I n «- r i r 

Coal Trade Chambers Coinpauy, Limited ... ... 19 

.. dividend on £'310 consolidated 5 per cent, preference 
stock of the Newcastle and Gateshead Wafer • 
Company ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 Q 

,. dividend on £450 ordinary stock of the Newcastle and 

Gateshead Gas Company ... ... ... ... 15 L5 

.. interest on £823 13s. 9d. 5 percent. War Loan, 1929 

1947 41 3 8 

.. interest on £500 5 per cent. National War Bonds, 1'.'27 25 

— - 3 

To sales of Ih'ansactions ... ... ... ... ... 1 12 6 

„ income tax for year ending April 5th. 11*19, returned !^:j h 

To Subscriptions for 1918-1919, as follows: — 

648 members r a £2 2s. 1,360 16 

67 associate members ... ... £'2 2s. 1 !0 1 I 

158 associates ... ... .. . u t'l 5s. 197 

13 students ... ... ... £1 5s. 16 5 

13 new members ... ... ... £2 2s. 27 6 

1 new associate members ... ... t'2 2s. 8 8 

8 new associates ... ... ... i* 1 ." s . 10 <> 

1 new subscribing- Hrm ... ... ... ... 2 2 



83 subscribing firms ... 



Less, subscriptions for current year paid in advance 
at the end of last year 



Add. arrears received ... ... ... ... ... 

Add, subscriptions paid in advance during current 
year 

To George May prize fund : 

Balance at bank at .June 30th, 1918 
Interest received on War Loan 



1,763 


1 





254 


2 





2.017 


3 





39 


1 





1,978 


2 





227 


13 





2.205 


15 





48 


14 





47 


19 


11 


26 


6 


4 



2.254 SI 



74 6 3 
£3,334 13 9 



ACCOUNTS 



XI 



Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers 
June 30 hi, 1919. 



Ck. 



June 30th, 1919. 
By salaries and wages 
., insurance 
,. rent, rates, and taxes 
., heating, lighting, etc. 
,, furniture and repairs 
., bankers' charges 
., library 

,. printing, stationery, etc. ... 
,, postages, telephones, etc. .. 
,, incidental expenses 
.. cleaning of hall and offices 
,, travelling expenses 
., prizes for papers ... 
., reporting general meetings 
Jaw charges... 



\iy The Institution of Mining Engineers : 
Calls, etc. 

Less, amounts paid by authors for excerpts 



By £400 4 per cent. Funding Loan. 1960/1990 

By balance of account at bankers 
,, ,, in Treasurer's hands 

By George May prize fund 
Balance at bank 



£ s. d. 

572 8 

34 6 7 

55 18 11 

34 12 7 

12 15 4 

21 

22 5 9 
249 7 1 
158 6 5 

96 17 6 

28 9 

42 7 1 

5 5 

12 12 

20 15 4 



1.227 1 10 
1 7 1 



290 17 4 
56 8 10 



1,367 6 7 



1.225 14 9 



2.593 1 4 
320 



347 13 2 

71 6 3 



£3,334 13 9 



\n LC COUNTS. 

DB. THB TbBASUBBB of In: NOBTB <>v ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF If] 



To T'.'-i members, 

is of whom have paid life-compositions, 



745 
() not included in printed list. 



To 195 associates, 

1 of whom has paid a life-composition. 

194 

2 not included in printed list. 



•i. <1. £ ■. (I. 



751 (a) £2 2s 1.577 2 

To 86 associate members, 

10 of whom have paid life-compositions. 



76 <a £2 2s 15'.) 12 



196 fe£lo> 245 i) 



To 15 students @ £1 5s. ... .. 18 15 



To 84 subscribing firms ... ... ... ... ... 258 6 

2,258 15 

To 13 new memhers (a) £2 2s. ... ... 27 6 



To 4 new associate members (5> £2 2s. ... ... 8 8 



To 8 new associates (a) £1 5s. ... ... 10 



To 1 new subscribing firm .. ... ... ... ... 2 20 

47 16 

To arrears, as per balance-sheet, 1917-1918 ... ... ... 421 5 

Add, arrears considered irrecoverable, but since paid ... 72 2 

493 7 



To subscriptions paid in advance during the current year ... ... ... 48 14 



£2,848 12 



ACCOUNTS. Xlll 

and Mechanical Engineers in Account with Subscriptions, 1918-1919. Cr. 

struck off 
paid. unpaid. list. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

By 648 members, paid @ £2 2s. 1,360 16 

77 „ unpaid ... @ £2 2s 16114 



751 



By 67 associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 140 14 

9 „ „ unpaid @ £2 2s 18 18 



76 



15 



By 83 subscribing firms, paid ... ... 254 2 

1 ,, ,, unpaid ... ... 4 4 



84 



By 13 new members, paid ... @ £2 2s. 27 6 



By 4 new associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 8 8 



By 8 new associates, paid ... @ £1 5s. 10 



By 1 new subscribing firm, paid ... ... 2 2 



2 „ resigned ... @ £2 2s 4 4 

1 ,, excused payment @ £2 2s. 2 2 

8 „ dead @ £2 2s 16 16 

15 „ struck off list @ £2 2s 3110 



By 158 associates, paid @ £1 5s. 197 10 

35 ,, unpaid ... (a) £1 5s. 43 15 

2 „ dead @ £L 5s 2 10 

1 „ struck off list @ £1 5s 15 

196 

By 13 students, paid ... ... (a> £1 5s. 16 5 

1 ,, unpaid ... @ £1 5s. 15 

1 ,. struck off list @ £1 5s 1 5 



2,017 3 229 16 59 12 

By arrears 227 13 182 14 83 

2,244 16 

By subscriptions paid in advance during tbe 

current year ... ... ... ... 48 14 



2.293 10 412 10 142 12 

£2,848 12 



\IV 



I.IS'i <u rOMMTTTEl 



IJST OF COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL, 

L919-1920. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. \V. C. Blacketi 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas. 
Mr. T. E. Korstkr. 



Financt Committee. 

Mr. T. V. Grek 
Mr. 0. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. H. M. Parrinoton. 
Mr. John Simpson. 



Mr. J. I;. BlMPSON. 

Mi I:. 8. I mi.. 

Mr. .1. R. R. W ii. 

Mr. I!. 8e1 HOUR Wool. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. Thomas Douglas. 
Mr. T. E. Forster. 



Arrears Commit t< i . 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. H. M. ParrinGTON, 
Mr. John Simpson. 



Mr. J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. R. s. Tatk. 

Mr. J. R. Pv. Wilson. 
Mr. K. Seymour Wood. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. C. S. Carnes. 
Mr. Ben.iamin Dodd. 
Mr. Mark Ford. 



Library Gommiti<< . 

Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. R. W. Glas^. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. H. M. Parbengton. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. W. 0. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. C. S. Carnes. 
Mr. J. S. Cowell. 
Mr. T. E. Forster. 



Prizes Committee. 

Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood 



Selection and Editing of Papers Committee. 



Prof. P. Phillifs Bedson. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. H. F. Bulman. 



Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 



Mr. W. 0. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 



N.B. —The President is ex-officio on all Committees. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE 

INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 

1919-1920. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. R. O. Brown. 
Mr. W. Cochran Carr. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. John English. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 



Mr. Reginald Guthrie. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Mr. Philip Kirkup. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. R. E. Ornsby. 



Mr. H. M. Parrington. 
Mr. Walter Rowley. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. W. 0. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 
Mr. W. B. Wilson. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



OFFICERS. XV 

OFFICERS, 1919-1920. 



PAST-PRESIDENTS {ex-officio). 
Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 
Dr. JOHN BELL SIMPSON, Bradley Hall, Wylam, Northumberland. 
Mr. THOMAS DOUGLAS, The Garth, Darlington. 
Mr. WILLIAM OUTTERSON WOOD, South Hetton, Sunderland. 
Mr. THOMAS EMERSON FORSTER, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. MATTHEW WILLIAM PARRINGTON, Hill House, Monkwearmouth, 

Sunderland. 
Mr. WILLIAM CUTHBERT BLACKETT, Acorn Close, Sacriston, Durham. 
Mr. THOMAS YOUNG GREENER, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County Durham. 
Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, Follonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, 

Northumberland. 

PRESIDENT. 

Mr. FRANK ROBERT SIMPSON, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, 

Count} T Durham. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
Mr. MARK FORD, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, County Durham. 
Mr. SAMUEL HARE, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
Mr. CHARLES CATTERALL LEACH, Seghill Hall, Northumberland. 
Prof. HENRY LOUIS, 4, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. JOHN MORISON, 18, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. JOHN ROBERT ROBINSON WILSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 

4, Park Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

RETIRING VICE-PRESIDENTS {ex-officio). 
Mr. ARTHUR MORTON HEDLEY, Eston House, Eston, Yorkshire. 
Mr. RICHARD LLEWELLYN WEEKS, Willington, County Durham. 

COUNCILLORS. 

Mr. ROBERT SIMPSON ANDERSON, Highfield, Wallsend, Northumberland. 

Mr. SIDNEY BATES, The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, Northumberland. 

Mr. CHARLES SPEARMAN CARNE.s, Marsden Hall, South Shields. 

Mr. WILLIAM COCHRAN CARR, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. JOSEPH STANLEY COWELL, Vane House, Seaham Harbour, County 
Durham. 

Mr. BENJAMIN DODD, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham. 

Mr. ROBERT WILLIAM GLASS, Ax well Park Colliery, Swalwell, County 
Durham. 

Mr. FREDERIC OCTAY1US KIRK UP, Medomsley, County Durham. 

Mr. PHILIP KIRKUP, Briermede, Low Fell, Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. WILLIAM CHARLES MOUNTAIN, Sun Buildings, Collingwood Street, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. HENRY MASON PARRINGTON, Dene House, Castletown, Sunderland. 

Mr. THOMAS VENTRESS SIMPSON, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, Northumber- 
land. 

Mr. ROBERT FOSTER SPENCE, Back worth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. ROBERT SIMON TATE, The Old House, Trimdon Grange, County Durham. 

Mr. WALKER OSWALD TATE, Harton Colliery, South Shields. 

Mr. RICHARD JAMES WEEKS, Bedlington, Northumberland. 

Mr. WILLIAM BRUM WELL WILSON, 19, West Parade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. ERNEST SEYMOUR WOOD, Cornwall House, Murton, County Durham. 

TREASURER. 
Mr. REGINALD GUTHRIE, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

HONORARY SECRETARY. 
Mr. MATTHEW WILLIAM PARRINGTON, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
Mr. ALLAN CORDNER, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Wl I I oi Ml Ml: I I' 



LIST OF M EM BERS, 

A.UGD81 9, 1919. 

PATRO 

The Most Honourable the MARQUESS OP LONDONDERRY. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF DURHAM. 

The Right Honourable the EARL GREY. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF LONSDALE. 

The Righl Honourable the KARL OK WHARNCLIFFE. 

The Right Reverend the LORD BISHOP OI DURffAM. 

The Right Honourable LORD ALLENDALE. 

The Right Honourable LORD BARNARD. 

The Right Honourable LORD RAVENSWORTH. 

The Very Reverend the DEAN AND CHAPTER OF DURHAM 



HONORARY MEMBERS (Hon. M.I.M.E.). 

* Honorary Members during term of office only. 

Date of Election 

1 JOHN BOLAND ATKINSON, 86, St. George's Terrace, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... . Aug. 2, 1913 

2 RICHARD DONALD BAIN, Avkleyheads, Durham June 10, 1911 

3*PROF. PETER PHILLIPS HUDSON, Armstrong College. Xew- 

castle-upon-Tyne. Transactions sent to co Basil Anderton, 

Public Library, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... Feb. 10. 1883 

•4 THOMAS DOUGLAS, The Garth, Darlington (Past- M Aug 21, 1852 
President, Mem her of Council) H.M. Dec. 14, 1912 

5 Prof. WILLIAM ( JARXETT, London County Council Education 

Office, Victoria Embankment, London, W.C. 2. ... ... Nov. 24, 1894 

6 Sik HENRY HALL, I.S.O., Brookside, Chester June 10, 1911 

7*JOHN DYER LEWIS, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 21, 

Stanwell Road, Penarth Dec. 11,1909 

8*Prof. HENRY LOUIS, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. Transactions sent to The Librarian, Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... Dec. 12, 1S96 

9*THOMAS HARRY MOTTRAM, H.M. Divisional Inspector 

of Mines, 1, Imperial Crescent, Doncaster ... ... ... June 10, 1911 

10*ROBERT NELSON, H.M. Electrical Inspector of Mines, 18, 

Brook Green, London, W. 6. ... ... ... ... ... Dec. 11, 1909 

11*ARTHUR DARLING NICHOLSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector 

of Mines, Astley, Manchester ... ... ... ... ... June 10, 1911 

12*Sir RICHARD AUGUSTINE STUDDERT REDMAYNE, 
K.C.B. , H.M. Chief Inspector of Mines, Mines Department, 
Home Office, Whitehall, London, S.W. 1 Dec. 11, 1909 

13*Prof. THOMAS FRANKLIN SIBLY, Armstrong College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... April 12, 1919 

14*Dr. AUBREY STRAHAN, Director of the Geological Survey 

of Great Britain, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1. .. Aug. 1, 1914 

1o*Prof. HENRY STROUD, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 

Tvne Nov. 5, 1892 

16 Sir JETHRO JUSTINIAN HARRIS TEALL, 174, Rosendale 

Road, West Dulwich, London, S.E. 21. Aug. 1,1914 

17*Prof. WILLIAM MUNDELL THORNTON, Armstrong College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 12, 1910 

1S*HENRY WALKER, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 2, 

Kinnear Road, Edinburgh Oct. 13,1917 

19* WILLIAM WALKER, H.M. Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Mapledene, Ashtead, Epsom , Oct. 14, 1905 

20MOHN ROBERT ROBINSON WILSON, H.M. Divisional In- 
spector of Mines, 4, Park Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Aug. 2, 1913 



Aug. 


5, 


1905 


Feb. 


14, 


1903 


Feb. 


8, 


1908 


A. Feb. 


10, 


1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XV11 

MEMBERS (M.I.M.E.). 

Marked * hare paid life composition. Date of Election 

and of Transfer. 

1 Abbott, Ernest William, 21, Pearl Assurance Buildings. 

Northumberland Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... Feb. 10,1917 

2 Abbott, Henry Arnold, H.M. Divisional Inspector of 

Mines, Wilmot House, Erdington, Birmingham ... Feb. 13, 1904 

3 Abel, Walter Robert, A Floor, Milburn House, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ... Dec. 8, 1906 

4 Adair, Hdbert, Gillfoot, Egremont, Cumberland April 8, 1905 

5 Adam, Thomas Walter, The New Monckton Collieries, S. April 3, 1909 

Limited, near Barnsley. Transactions sent to c o Rev. A. Dec. 10, 1910 
H. T. Adam, 14, West Beach, Lytham ... ... M. Dec. 14, 1918 

6 Adams, George Francis, Chief Inspector of Mines in India, 

Dhanbaid, E.I. Railway, Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, 
India ... 

7 Ains worth, Herbert, P.O. Box 1553, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal 
S Aldridge, Walter Hull, c/o William B. Thompson, 14, 

Wall Street, New York City, U.S. A 

9 Allison, John Henry, Littleburn Colliery, near Durham 

M. June 9, 1917 

10 Allison, J. J. C, Woodland Collieries, Butterknowle. A.M. Feb. 13. 1886 

County Durham M.June 8,1889 

11 Allison, Lancelot, T'ung Hsing Sino Foreign Coal Mining 

Company, Limited, Men-t'ou-Kou, via Peking, North 

China April 14, 1917 

12 Anderson, Coverdale Smith, Bilton Banks, Lesbury, A. April 10, 1915 

Northumberland M. April 13, 1918 

13 Anderson, Robert Simpson, Highfield, Wallsend, North- S. June 9, 1883 

umberland {Member of Council) A.M.Aug. 4, 1888 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

14 Anderson, William Thomas, c o Farrer Brothers, 4, London 

Wall Buildings, Blomheld Street, London, E.C. 2. ... Oct. 12, 1912 

15 Andrews Arthur, Woodlands, Riding Mill, Northumber- 

land Aug. 2, 1902 

16*Angwin, Benjamin, 3, Penlu Terrace, Tuckingmill, 

Camborne Nov. 24, 1894 

17 Appleby, William Remsen, Minnesota School of Mines, The 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. A. April 14, 1894 

18 Archer, William, Victoria Garesfield, Lintz Green, County A.Aug. 6, 1892 

Durham M. Aug. 3, 1895 

19 Armstrong, George Herbert Archibald, Castle View, 

Chester-le-Street April 8, 1905 

20 Armstrong. Henry, Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood A.M. April 14, 1883 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... M. June S, 1889 

21 Ashmore, George Percy, 95, Linden Gardens, Bayswater, 

London, W. 2 Feb. 13,1897 

22*Ashton, Sir Ralph Percy, co Kilburn, Brown and Com- 
pany, Orient House, New Broad Street, London, E.C. 2. Aug. 2, 1913 

23 Askew, Alfred Hill, Boulby Grange, Loftus, Yorkshire A. Feb. 9, 1907 

M. April 14, 1917 

24 Atkinson, John Boland, 86, St. George's Terrace, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Oct. 11, 1902 

25 Attwood, Alfred Lionel, Minas Pena del Hierro, 

Provincia de Huelva, Spain ... ... ... ... Aug. 5, 1905 

26 Bainbridge, Emerson Muschamp, Springfield, Elmfield 

Road, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 8, 1902 

27 Barkes, Percy, Elemore Colliery, Hetton-le-Hole, County A. June 12, 1909 

Durham M. Feb. 10, 1917 

28 Barnard, Robert, c/o Thomas T. Rankin, 2, Coleman 

Street, London, E.C. 2 Dec. 11, 1897 

29 Barrass, Matthew, Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thorn- S. Feb. 9, 1884 

ley, County Durham A.Aug. 1,1891 

M. De'c. S, 1900 



XVIII 



LIS! (il MKMH 



30 Babbbtt, Omib smith, Alquife, Por Guadix, Prorincia de 

( iranada, Spain 

31 Barrett, Rollo Samtki,, Brookside, Beaton Barn, Dudley, 

Northumberland 

32 Babbs, Edward, Cathedral Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

33 Bartlett, Georce Pil(;hrr, Theatre Lane, Durban, 

Natal, South Africa ... 

34 Batchelok, Owes Salusbury, o/o Mrs. G. P. Watt, P.O. 

Box 943, Kamloopa, British Columbia 

35 Bates, Sidney, The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, North- 

umberland (Moulin- of Comic I/) ... 

36 Bates, Thomas, West Wylam Terrace, Prudhoe, Ovingham, 

Northumberland 

37 Bateson, Walter Remington, P.O. Box 1051, Halifax, 

Nova Scotia ... 

38 Batey, John Wright, Elmfield, Wylam, Northumberland 

39 Bawden, Ernest Robson, Church Street, St. Day, Bcorrier, 

Cornwall 

40 Bayliss, Ernest John, Claudio Coello, 4, Madrid, Spain... 

41 Beard, James Thom, 58, Washington Avenue, Danbury, 

Connecticutt, U.S.A. 

42 Beith, John William, Apartado 45, Bilbao, Spain 

43 Bell, George William, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 

Northumberland 

44 Bell, Harold Marmaduke Charles, High Hedgefield 

House, Blaydon-upon-T} T ne, County Durham ... 

45 Bell, Joseph Fen wick, Eppleton Hall, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

46 Bell, Marshall Blackett, 24, Blackhills Terrace, Horden, 

County Durham 

47 Bell, Reginald, Shildon Lodge Colliery, Darlington 

48 Bell, Walter, c'o Pyman, Bell and Company, Hull 

49 Bell, William Ralph, Hylton Colliery, Sunderland 

50 Bennett, Arthur Edgar, Trevu Villas, Beacon Hill, 

Camborne 

51 Bennett, Alfred Henry, The East Bristol Collieries, A, 

Limited, Kingswood Colliery, St. George, Bristol 

52 Benson, Robert Seymour, Teesdale Iron Works, Stockton- 

upon-Tees 

53 Bergna, Carlo Edoardo Mansueta, Naworth Coal Com- 

pany, Limited, Hallbaukgate, Carlisle ... 

54 Berkley, Richard William, St. John's, Wolsingham, 

County Durham ... ... ... A. 

55 Best, Earle, 12, Station Road, Hetton-le-Hole. County 

Durham 

56 Bewley, Thomas, Stobswood Colliery, Acklington, North- 

umberland 

57 Bigge, Denys Leighton Selby, Mercantile Chambers, 

53, Bothwell Street, Glasgow 

58 Bigland, Hubert Hallam, c o J. H. Holmes and Company, 

19, Waterloo Street, Glasgow 

59*Birkinsha\v, Frederick Edson, Marbella, Provincia de 
Malaga, Spain 

60 Blackett, William Cuthbert, Acorn Close, Sacriston, 

Durham (Past-President, Memher of Council) A. 

61 Blaiklock, Thomas Henderson, The Flatts, near Bishop 

Auckland 

62 Blandford, Thomas, Scriven Lodge, Knaresborough 



9, 1916 
3. Dec. 9, 1905 

A. Aug 1, 

M. .June 1 |, 1913 

Aug. 7, 1909 

11, 1909 

June 14, 1913 
i. Feb v 
M. June H. 1895 

A. April 13, 1907 
M. April 13, 1918 

Feb. II, 1905 
Feb. 9, 1901 

April 8, 1911 
April 13, 1901 

Feb. 14, 1903 
Feb. 10, 1917 
A. Oct. 14, 1911 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 
A. April 12, 1913 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

April 12, 1902 
A. Dec. 14, 1912 
M. April 14, 1917 

Dec. 13, 1902 
S. Oct. 8, 1889 
M. Feb. 10, 1894 
A. Oct. 13, 1894 
M. Dec. 12, 1903 

Dec. 14, 1912 
M. April 10, 1886 
M. June 8, 18S9 

April 8, 1911 

June 7, 1919 

S. Feb. 14, 1874 

M. Aug. 7, 1880 

M. June 8, 1889 

April 13, 1912 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

June 10, 1903 

Dec. 14, 1901 

Dec. 10. 1910 

s. Nov. 4, 1876 

M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

April 13, 1901 

S. Dec. 12, 1903 

A. Aug. 3, 1907 

M. June 12, 1909 






LIST OF MEMBERS. XIX 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

63 Blatcmford, William Hooper, Greytown, Natal, South 

Africa Feb. 10, 1912 

64 Blenner-Hassett, Gerald, P.O. Box 914, Durban, Natal, 

South Africa ... Oct. 14,1911 

65 Booth, Frederic Lancelot, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, S. Feb. 10, 1894 

Northumberland ... ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 4, 1900 

M. April 8, 1911 

66 Borlase, William Henry, Lime Grove, Tirril, Penrith ... Aug. 4, 1894 

67 Bowen, David, 68, Prudential Buildings, Park P\ow, Leeds April 3, 1909 

68 Bowman, Francis, Moselev House, Birtley, County A. June 8, 1895 

Durham * M. Feb. 13, 1904 

69* Bracken, Thomas Wilson, 40, Grey Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne Oct. 14, 1899 

70 Braidford. William, Jun., South Garesfield Colliery, 

Lintz Green, County Durham ... ... ... ... June 14, 1902 

71 Bramwell, Hugh, Great Western Colliery, Pontypridd ... S. Oct. 4, 1879 

A.M. Aug. 6, 1887 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

72*Brinell, Johan August, Nassjo, Sweden ... ... ... June 9, 1900 

73 Brodhurst, Bernard Lucas, Sunnybrow, Willington, 

County Durham Feb. 10,1917 

74 Brooksbank, Frank, Kinta Association, Limited, Ipoh, 

Perak, Federated Malay States ... April 4,1914 

75 Broome. George Herbert, Wonthaggi, Victoria, Australia Oct. 9, 1897 

76 Brown, Edward Otto Forster, 706-707, Salisbury House, S. Dec. 14, 1901 

Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2 A.Aug. 3,1907 

A.M. Oct. 12, 1907 
M. Dec. 14, 1912 

77 Brown, Isaac, North Seaton Colliery, Newbiggin-by-the- 

Sea, Northumberland ... Feb. 10, 1917 

78 Brown, John, 13, Fox Houses Road, Whitehaven S. June 8, 1907 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. Feb. 11, 1911 

79 Brown, John Coggin, Inspector of Mines in Burma, Tavoy, A.M. Dec. 11 , 1909 

Lower Burma, India... ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 7, 1915 

80 Brown, John Connell, Westport Coal Company, Limited, 

Denniston, Buller, New Zealand Feb. 8, 1908 

81 Brown, Myles, 4, Beaconsfield Crescent, Low Fell, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne June 14, 1913 

82 Brown, Robert Oughtox, Newbiggin Colliery, New biggin- S. Oct. 8, 1892 

by-the-Sea, Northumberland ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 3, 1895 

M. Oct. 12, 1901 

83 Brown, W. Forster, Guildhall Chambers, Cardiff S. Aug. 6, 1887 

M. Aug. 5, 1893 

84 Browne, Robert John, 5, Westfield Avenue, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dec. 8, 1917 

85 Browning, Walter James, c/o Rio Tin to Company, 

Limited, Rio Tinto, Provincia de Huelva, Spain ... Oct. 12, 1907 

86 Bruce, John, Hill Crest, Whitby S.Feb. 14,1874 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 

M. June 8, 1889 

87 Bryham, William, Bank House, Wigan Dec. 8, 1900 

88 Bull, Henry Matthews, Gopalichak Coal Company., 

Limited, Bansjora, E.I.R., Manbhum, Bihar and 

Orissa, India ... April 9, 1904 

89 Bulman, Edward Hemsley, New Kleinfontein Company, 

Benoni, Transvaal Feb. 13, 1892 

90 Bulman, Harrison Francis, Morwick Hall, Acklington, S. May 2, 1874 

Northumberland A.M. Aug. 6, 1881 

M. June 8, 1889 

91 Bunning, Charles Ziethen, c/o Gregoire Hiliades and S. Dec. 6, 1873 

Company, Pandemia, near Constantinople, Turkey ... A.M.Aug. 5, 1882 

M. Oct, 8, 1887 



XX 



LIS1 OF Mi\ir. 



92 Bubford, James Wilfebd, o/o Lobitos Oil-field Limited, 

Lobitos, Paita, Peru, South America 
93*Burls, Herberi Thomas, The Elms, St. Margaret's, 

Twickenham ... 
9l H Burn, Pranb Hawthorn, 9, Sandhill, Newcastle upon-Tyn*. 

Transactions .sent to Pattiehall House, Towcester 

95 Burne, Cecil Alfred, o/o The Asturiana Mines, Limited, 

Covadonga, Asturias, Spain 

96 Burnett, Cuthbert, Sunny Bank, Trowbridge 

97 Burnside, George, Engineering Works, Shiney Row, 

Pence Houses, Count} Durham 

98 Burton, George Augustus, Highfield, Nunthorpe, York- 

shire 

99 Bters, Guy Eustace, Cwmnant Colliery, Ynismeudw, 

Pontardawe, Glamorgan 

100 Calder, William, 16, Birchwood Mansions, Fortis Green 

Road, Muswell Hill, London, N. 10 

101 Carnegie, Alfred Quintin, 31, Manor House Road, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

102 Carnes, Charles Spearman, Marsden Hall, South Shields 

(Member of Council) 

103 Casson, William Walter, Breeze Hill, Whitehaven 

104 Chambers, R. E., Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, 

Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia 

105 Channing, J. Parke, 61, Broadway, New York City, 

U.S.A. 

106*Chappel, Walter Richard Haighton, Elm Court, 
Starcross, Devon 

107 Charleton, Arthur George, 5, Avonmore Road, West 

Kensington, London, W. 14. 

108 Charlton, William, Guisborough, Yorkshire 

109 Chater, Cecil William, c/o T. Cook and Son, Rangoon, 

Burma, India ... 

110 Cheesman, Edward Taylor. Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, 

County Durham 

111 Cheesman, Herbert, Hartlepool 

112 Cheesman, Matthew Forster, Throckley Colliery, New- 

burn, Northumberland 

113 Chicken, Bourn Russell, Bourn Engineering Company-, 

15a, Wilton Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.I... 

114 Church, Robert William, Government of India Railwaj' 

Board, Secretariat Buildings, Calcutta, India ... 

115 Claghorn, Clarence R., Claghorn, Indiana County, 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

116 Clark, Henry, Stockton Forge, Stockton-upon-Tees 

117 Clark, Robert, Bracken Road, Darlington ... 

118 Clark. Robert Blenkinsop. Springwell Colliery. Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

119 Clark, William Henry, Chhindwara Road, Nagpur, C.P., 

India ... 

120 Clifford, Edward Herbert. Rand Club, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal 

121 Clifford, William, Hedersonville, N.C., U.S. A 

122 Climas, Arthur Bertram, Priory House, Launceston 

123 Clive, Lawri.nce, H.M. Inspector of Mines 

121 Clothier, Henry William, 3, Park Villas, The Green, 

Wallsend, Northumberland 
125 Cr.ornH, Edward Stokoe, Barrington Cottage, Bedlington, 
Northumberland 



ari'l of Trauuf'-r 
Aug. .'{, 1912 

1889 

8. I • b ''. 1889 

A. Aug. 4. 

M. Aug. 3, MO 

Log. 4. 1894 

M. Aug. :>,. 1901 

June 8, 1 ^U~, 

June 1, 1918 

Dec. 9, 1905 

June 1, 1918 

Aug. 2, 1913 

Oct. 11, 1902 

Aug. 1, 1891 
Aug. 5, 1905 

June 9, 1900 

April 25, 1896 

Feb. 14, 1903 

Aug. 6, 1892 
Feb. 12, 1898 

April 13, 1912 

A. Aug. 2, 1890 

M. Aug. 6, 1892 

Aug. 6, 1892 

S. Dec. 13, 1902 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. April 14, 1917 

Dec. 12, 1903 

S. Dec. 9, 1905 

A. Aug. 3, 1907 

M. Oct. 12, 1907 

Aug. 5, 1899 

April 8, 1899 

Feb. 15, 1896 

s. May 3, 1873 

M. Aug. 4, 1877 

April 28, 1900 

S. Oct. 13, 1894 

A. Aug. 6, 1898 

M. April 8, 1911 

Feb. 9, 1895 

Dec. 10, 1910 

Aug. 2, 1913 

June 12, 1909 
A. Feb. 14, 1903 
M. April 8, 1911 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXI 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

126 Clough, James, Bomarsund House, Bomarsund, Bedlington, S. April 5, 1873 

Northumberland A.M.Aug. 3,1878 

M. June 8, 1889 

127 Cochrane. Brodie, Hurworth Old Hall, near Darlington . 

128 Cockbain, Tom Stewartson, Belvedere, Alnwick ... 



129 Cockburn, John, Trimdon Grange Colliery, County Durham 

130*Collins, Hugh Brown, Auchinbothie Estate Office, Kil- 
macolm, Renfrewshire 

131 Collins, Victor Buyers, 87, Albert Street, Wickham, New 

South Wales, Australia 

132 Colquhoun, Thomas Grant, 7, Marine Avenue, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... 

133 Commans, Robert Edden, Sandycroft, Speer Road, Thames 

Ditton, Surrey 

134 Comstock, Charles Worthington, 514, First National 

Bank Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

135 Cook, George, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Oakbank, White- 

haven ... 

136 Cook, Joseph, Washington Iron Works, Washington Station, 

County Durham 

137 Cook, James Falshaw, Washington Iron Works, Washing- 

ton Station, County Durham 

138 Cook, John Watson, Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland... 

139 Cooke, Henry Moore Annesley, The Ooregum Gold- 

mining Company of India, Limited, Oorgaum, Kolar 
Goldfield, Mysore, India 

140 Cooksey, Wilfrid, East Indian Railway Collieries, 

Giridih, E.I. R. , Bihar and Orissa, India .. 
141*Coppee, Evence, The Coppee Company (Great Britain), 
Limited, Kings House, Kings way, London, W.C. 2. ... 

142 Corbett, Vincent Charles Stuart Wortley, Chilton 

Moor, Fence Houses, County Durham 

143 Cothay, Frank Hernaman, 7, Valebrooke, Sunderland 

144 Couves, Harry Augustus, Tovil, Westfield Avenue, Gos- 

forth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

145 Cowell, Edward, Fishburn Colliery, Ferry Hill, County 

Durham 

146 Cowell, Joseph Stanley, Vane House, Seaham Harbour, 

County Durham {Memher of Council) 

147 Coxon, Samuel George, Malton Colliery, Esh, Durham ... 

148 Coxon, William Bilton, Seaton Hill, Boosbeck, Yorkshire 



149 Cragg, James Horace Maitland, 8, Chelsea Grove, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

150 Craster, Walter Spencer, P.O. Box 336, Salisbury, 

Rhodesia, South Africa 

151 Craven, Robert Henry, The Libiola Copper-mining Com- 

pany, Limited, Sestri Levante, Italy 

152 Crawford, James Mill, Denehurst, Ferry Hill, County 

Durham 

153 Crawford, Thomas, Springwell Colliery, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

154 Crookston, Andrew White, 188, St. Vincent Street, Glas- 

gow 

155 Croudace, Francis Henry Lambton, The Lodge, Lambton, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

156 Cruz y Diaz, Emiliano de la, Director-General de 

l'Empresa Minas et Minerales, Limited, Ribas, 
Pro vincia de Gerona, Spain 



Dec. 6, 1866 
A. Dec. 8, 1906 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 
A. April 9, 1904 
M. April 14, 1917 



April 14, 1894 

June 11, 1904 

Dec. 14, 1898 

Nov. 24, 1894 

June 10, 1905 

S. Aug. 2, 1902 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Feb. 10, 1912 

Oct. 9, 1897 

Feb. 12, 189S 
Oct. 14, 1893 

Dec. 12, 1896 

Aug. 1, 1914 

Feb. 9, 1907 

Sept. 3, 1870 
Aug. 2, 1913 

Feb. 10, 1906 
A. Oct. 8, 1904 
M. June 20, 1908 

Dec. 12, 1908 

A. Feb. 9, 1901 

M. Feb. 10, 1917 

S. Feb. 12, 1898 

A. Aug. 2, 1902 

M. Feb. 12, 1910 

Aug. 6, 1910 

Dec. 8, 1900 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Feb. 14, 1903 
A. Dec. 8, 1906 
M. Dec. 12, 1914 

Dec. 14, 1895 

June 8, 1907 

June 14, 1902 



XXII 



LIST ()!■ M I Ml'. I K 



157 Cruz n Diaz, Fkdbeioo de la, MinM y Fuerza de Caralp 

Ribas, Provincia de Goron&, Spain 
L58 Cullbn, Matthew, o/o P.O. Bos 194m, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal 
159 Cummings, .John, 1 1 amet< rloy Colliery, County Durham 

Kin Ourby, George Alexander, Thornley Souse, Thornley, 
County Durham 

161 Curry, Michael, Cornsay Colliery, Durham 

162 Dakers, William Robson, Tudhoe Colliery, SpennymoorA. 

163 Dan, Takuma, Mitsui Mining Company, 1, Buruga-cho, 

Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan 

164 Danchich, Valerian, Varvarka, 26, Moscow, Russia 

165 Darlington, Cecil Ralph, 6, Ravenscroft Avenue, Golders 

Green, London, N. W. 4. 

166 Darlington, James, Black Park Colliery, Chirk, Ruabon 

167 Davidson, Allan Arthur, c o F. F. Fuller, 638, Salisbury 

House, London Wall, London, E.C. 2. ... 

168 Davidson, Christopher Cunnion, Hardheads, Egremont, 

Cumberland ... 

169 Da vies, David, Covvell House, Llanelly 

170 Davies, William, West End, Hurworth, Darlington 

171 Davies, William Stephen, Maesydderwen, Tredegar 

172 Daw, Albert William, 11, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 4 

173 Dean, Harry, 30, Eastbourne Gardens, Whitley Bay, 

Northumberland 

174 Dean, John, A. H. Leech, Son and Dean, King Street, 

Wigan ... 

175 Dew, James Walter Henry, 8, Laurence Pountney Hill, 

Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4. ... 
176*Dewhurst, John Herbert, 28 and 29, Threadneedle Street, 

London, E.C. 2 

177 Dietzsch, Ferdinand, c/o Miss P. Dietzsch, 7, Emanuel 

Avenue, Acton, London, W. 3. 
178* Ding wall, William Burleston-Abigail, P.O. Box 179, 

San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 
179*Ditmas, Francis Ivan Leslie, President, Inter-Allied 

Railway S Commission, Cologne, Germany 

180 Dixon, Clement, P.O. Box 305, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South 

Africa ... 

181 Dixon, David Watson, Lumpsey Mines, Brotton. York- 

shire 

182 Dixon, George, Sejooah Colliery, Sijua Post Office, E.I.R., 

Manbhum, Bihar and Grissa, India ... ... 

183 Dobb, Thomas Gilbert, Brick House, Westleigh, Leigh ... 

184 Dodd, Benjamin, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham 

(Member of Council) 

185 Donald, William E., Whitchester, Haltwhistle, North- 

umberland 
186*Donkin, William, 19, Hosack Road, Balham, London, 

S.W. 17 A. 

187 Dormand, Ralph Brown, Cambois House, Cambois, Blyth 

188 Douglas, Arthur Stanley, Bearpark Colliery, Durham 
IS9 Dover, Thomas William, Sherburn Colliery, Durham 

190 Draper, William, Silksworth Colliery, Sunderland 

191 Duncan, William Shaw, 2 and 3, West Street, Finsbury 

Circus, London, E.C. 2 





• 1 • 




and of Tmr .''• ■ 


A. 




11, 


1013 


M. 


!»• 


II, 


i9ie 




Feb. 


12, 


1910 


A. 


Aug 




— t 


1902 


M. 




14, 


1 907 




Oct. 


12, 


1007 




Aug. 


6, 


L89fl 


M. 


Oct. 


14, 


1882 


M 


Aug. 


3, 


1889 




April 14, 


1 894 




June 


10, 


1911 




Dec. 


10, 


1910 


S. 


Nov. 


7. 


1874 


M. 


Aug. 


4, 


1S77 




April 


13, 


1907 




Oct. 


10, 


1908 




Dec. 


9, 


1899 




Dec. 


9, 


1911 




Feb. 


14, 


1903 




June 


12, 


1897 




June 


10, 


1905 




Feb. 


13, 


1904 




June 


10, 


1911 




Aprr 


2, 


1898 




Aug. 


5, 


1899 




Aug. 


4, 


1900 


A. 


June 


11, 


1898 


M. 


June 


14, 


1902 




Dec. 


14, 


1912 




Nov. 


2, 


1872 


S. 


June 


13, 


1896 


A 


Aug. 


6, 


1904 


M 


. Dec. 


8, 


1906 




Dec. 


8, 


1894 


S. 


May 


3, 


1866 


M. 


Aug. 


1, 


1868 




Oct. 


14, 


1905 


S. 


Sept. 


2 

*** 


1876 


M. 


Aug. 


1, 


1885 


M. 


June 


8, 


1889 


A. 


Dec. 


9, 


1893 


M 


Aug. 


3, 


1901 




Feb. 


13, 


1904 




April 


4, 


1914 


A. 


Dec. 


14, 


1889 


M. 


Dec. 


12, 


1903 




Oct. 


14, 


1905 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XX 111 



192 Dunn, George Victor Septimus, Poste Restante, Rangoon, 

Burma, India ... 

193 Dunn, Thomas Bowman, c/o J. Dunn and Stephen, Limited, 

21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow 
19-4 Durham, Thomas Stanley, Solway View, Whitehaven ... 

195 Eastlake, Arthur William, Grosmont, Palace Road, 

Streatham Hill, London, S.W. 2. ... 

196 Ede, Henry Edward, Rectory Chambers, Norfolk Row, 

Sheffield 

197 Edmond, Francis, The Grove House, Standish, Wigan 

198 Edwards, Edward, Ystradfechan, Treorchy, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

199 Edwards, Herbert Francis, 104, Stanwell Road, Penarth 

200 Edwards, Owain Tudor, Maesyffynon Offices, Aberdare ... 

201 Edwards, William John, 29, Oppidans Road, Primrose 

Hill, London, N.W 7 . 3. ... 

202 Elder, Moses, Hafod House, North Side, Workington 

203 Eliet, Francis Constant Andre Benoni Elie du, 

15, Rue St. Pierre, Lorient, France 
204*Elsdon, Robert William Barrow, c/o Jordan Brothers, 
Rivadavia 1255, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, 
South America 

205 Eltringham, George, Eltringham Colliery, Prudhoe, 

Ovingham, Northumberland 

206 Embleton, Henry Cawood. Central Bank Chambers, 

Leeds ... 

207 Englesqueville, Rene d', 62 bis, Rue de la Tour, Paris, 

XVI", France 

208 English, John, North Learn, Felling, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

209 English, William, Ferneybeds Colliery, Morpeth 

210 Eskdale, John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

211 Etherington, John, 39a, King William Street, London 

Bridge, London, E.C. 4. 

212 Evans, John, Great Cobar, Limited, Lithgow, New South 

Wales, Australia 

213 Evans, John William, Eirw Villa, Porth, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

214 Fairbrother, Charles James, The Durban Navigation 

Collieries, Dannhauser, Natal, South Africa 

215 Falcon, Michael, Imperial Buildings, 56, Kings way, 

London, W.C. 2 

216 Fallins, James, Abermain Colliery, Abermain, via West 

Maitland, New South Wales, Australia ... 

217 Fawcett, Edward Stoker, Giltbrook House, Giltbrook, 

Nottingham ... 
218*Fenwick, Barnabas. 66, Manor House Road, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

219 Fergie, Charles, 704, Upper Mountain Street, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada 

220 Fevre, Lucien Francis, 91, Rue Saint Lazare, Paris, IX e , 

France ... 

221 Field, Benjamin Starks, Alfred Field & Sons, Caledonian 

Insurance Buildings, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne 

222 Fisher, Edward Robert, Wansbeck, Ammanford, Car- A. 

marthenshire ... 

223 Fisher, Henry Herbert, Alta Gracia, F.C.C.A., 

Argentine Republic, South America 

224 Fleming, Henry Stuart, 1, Broadway, New York City, 

U.S. A 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

June 20, 1908 

Aug. 6, 1910 
Feb. 10, 1917 



June 11, 1892 

July 14, 1896 
Dec. 10, 1910 

Feb. 9, 1895 
Oct. 12, 1901 
Aug. 4, 1906 

June 13, 1914 
A. June 10, 1911 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

Aug. 3, 1901 



April 13, 1901 
A. Dec. 8, 1894 
M. Aug. 2, 1902 



April 


14, 


1894 


Feb. 


8, 


1908 


Dec. 


9, 


1899 


Dec. 


14, 


1907 


A. Oct. 


11, 


1902 


M. Aug. 


3, 


1912 


Dec. 


9, 


1893 


Aug. 


J, 


1914 


April 


8, 


1911 


A. Feb. 


8, 


1908 


M. Oct. 


12, 


1912 


S. Oct. 


13, 


1894 


A. Aug. 


4, 


1900 


M. June 


1, 


1912 



Oct. 10, 1914 
A. June 11, 1892 
M. Aug. 6, 1904 

Aug. 2, 1866 

Dec. 9, 1893 

Feb. 8, 1908 
S. Aug. 2. 1902 
A. Aug. 3, 1907 
M. June 14, 1913 
M. Aug. 2, 1884 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

Oct. 8, 1904 

June 10, 1905 



X X I V 



US'I 'H Mi.M l:| U 



225 Fletcher, Lancelot Holbtook, Allerdale Coal Compan 

Limited, Collier} Office, Greal Clifton, Workington ... 

226 "Fletcher, Walter, The Soiling, Bolton 

227 Ford, Mark, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham (Vice-President, Member of Coun 

228 Ford, Thomas, Blaydon Burn Colliei on upoi I 

County Durham 

229 Forster, Alfred Llewellyn, Newcastle and Ga1 

Water Company, Engineer's Office, Pilgrim 

Newcastle- upon-T\ 

2,30 Forster, Charles, Earls Drive, Low Fell, Gat* 
upon Tyne 

231 Forster, John Henri Bacon, Whitworth Hoi 

Spennymoor ... 

232 Forster, Joseph William, P.O. Box 48, Newcastle, 

Natal, South Africa ... 
2.3,3 Forster, Thomas Emerson. 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne (Past-President, Member of Council) ... A. 

234 Fowler, Robert Norman, Mosscroft, Elysium Lane, 
Bensham, Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... 



235 Fryar, Mark, Denby Colliery, Derby 



A 



236 Fryer, George Kkllett, 2, North Road, Dinnington 

Colliery, Dudley, Northumberland 

237 Futers, Thomas Campbell, 17, Balmoral Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... 

238 Galloway, Thomas Lindsay. Kilchrist, Campbeltown 

239 Garrett, Frederic Charles, Armstrong College, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

240 Gibson, James, Geldenhuis Deep. Limited, P.O. Box 54, 

Cleveland, Transvaal 

241 Gibson, Richard, Seaham No. 1 Colliery, West Wallsend, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

242 Gifford, Henry J., The Champion Reef Gold-mining Com- 

pany of India, Limited, Champion Reefs P.O., Mysore, 
India 

243 Gilchrist, James, The Beeches, Beechgrove Road, Lin- 

thorpe, Middlesbrough 

244 Gill, David Fritz, 36, Lowther Street, Whitehaven 

245 Gillman, Gustave, Aguilas, Provincia de Murcia, Spain 

246 Glass, Robert William, Axwell Park Colliery, Swalwell, 

County Durham (Member of Council) 

247 Goninon, Richard, Menzies Consolidated Gold-mines, 

Limited, Menzies, Western Australia 

248 Goodwin, William Lawton, School of Mining, Kingston, 

Ontario, Canada 

249 Gouldie, Joseph, 62, Standard Bank Chambers, Johannes- 

burg, Transvaal 

250 Grace, William Grace, Eston Mines, Eston, Yorkshire .. 



251 Graham, Edward, Jun., Bedlington Colliery, Bedlington, 

Northumberland 

252 Gray, Edmund, 150, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor 

253 Green, John Dampier, P.O. Box 1341, Durban, Natal, 

South Africa ... 

254 Greener, Herbert, West Lodge, Crook, County Dur- 

ham 



S. 
M. 
M 
S. 
A 
M. 
8. 
M. 
M. 



April l l. 

•Juno 8, 

2, 1902 

April 14, \'jr, 



June 8, 19 l 

April 9, 1910 
Nov. 24, 
Aug. 7, 1897 
Feb. 10, 1000 



Feb. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

.June 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

June 



13, 1004 

7, 1876 

1, 1885 

8, 1889 

2, 1902 

3, 1007 

4, 1917 
7, 1876 

4, 1883 

5, 1889 



A.M, 

M. 



Dec. 14, 1901 

Aug. 6, 1904 

Sept. 2, 1876 

April 13, 1912 
Dec. 9, 1899 
Feb. 13. 1904 

Aug. 5, 1911 



Oct. 14, 1893 





June 


13, 


1914 




Dec. 


12, 


1914 




Aug. 


2 


1902 


s. 


June 


io| 


1899 


A. 


Aug. 


i, 


1903 


M. 


Oct. 


12, 


1907 




June 


10, 


1906 




Feb. 


11, 


1899 




Aug. 


5, 


1893 


S. 


Feb. 


9. 


1907 


A 


Aug. 


1, 


1914 


M. 


Feb. 


10, 


1917 




Aug. 


1, 


1S96 




June 


19, 


1915 


A.M 


Dec. 


14 


,1901 


M. 


Aug. 


2, 


1902 




Feb. 


13, 


1909 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXV 



255 Greener, Thomas Young, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County S. 

Durham (Past-President, Member of Council) ... ... A.M 

M, 

256 Greener, William James, c/o Bird and Company, Char- 

tered Bank Buildings, Calcutta, India ... 

257 Greenwell, Allan, 9, Durham Villas, Kensington, 

London, W. 8. 

258 Greenwell, Alan Leonard Stapylton, Eldon Colliery, 

Bishop Auckland 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 
Julv 2, 1872 
Aug. 2, 1879 
June 8, 1889 

June 11, 1910 



259 Greenwell, George Clementson. Beechfield, Poynton. 

Stockport 

260 Greenwell, George Harold, Woodside, Poynton, Stock- 

port 

261 Gregson, George Ernest, 13, Harrington Street, Liver- 

pool 

262 Grey, John Neil, Milfield, Wooler, Northumberland 



A. 

M. 



Aug. 4, 
Oct. 8, 
Aug. 5, 
Dec. 14, 
March 6, 
Aug. 3, 
Dec. 12, 
Aug. 4, 
April 8, 



1900 
1898 
1905 
1907 
1869 
1872 
1903 
1906 
1911 



263 Griffith, Thomas, Maes Gwyn, Cymmer, Porth, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 
264*Grose, Frank, Carlton Terrace, Truro Road, St. Austell... 
265*Grundy, James, Ruislip, Teignmouth Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N. W. 2. Transactions sent to The Secretary, 

Mining and Geological Institute of India, Calcutta, 

India 

266 Gummerson, James Mosby, 5, Hillcrest Road, Acton, A.M. 

London, W. 3. ... ... ... ... ... ... M. 

267 Gummerson, James Mosby, Jun., 5, John's Place, Acton, 

London, W. 3 

268 Guthrie, James Kenneth, Coal Trade Offices, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

269 Haas, Frank, Fairmont, West Virginia, U.S. A 

270*Haddock, William Thomas, c o H. C. Morton, 2nd Street, S. 

Gezina, Pretoria, Transvaal ... ... ... ...A.M. 

M. 

271 Haggie, John Douglass, Pegswood Colliery, near Morpeth 

272 Hailwood, Ernest Arthur, The Towers, Churwell, Leeds 

273 Haines, Charles George Padfield, 9, Picton Place, 

Swansea 

274 Halbaum, Henry Wallace Gregory, 177, City Road, 

Cardiff 

275 Hale, James Stanley, Principe 4, Bilbao, Spain ... 

276 Hall, John Charles, Black Boy Colliery, Bishop Auckland 



A. 
M. 



277 Hall, Joseph John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

278 Hall, Joseph Percival, Shotton Colliery, Castle Eden, 

County Durham 

279 Hall, Robert William, The Anchorage, Port Mulgrave, 

Hinderwell, Yorkshire 

280 Hall, Tom, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland 

281 Hallas. George Henry, Claremont, Huyton, Liverpool 



Aug. 7, 1915 
June 10, 1905 
Feb. 10, 1912 

April 9, 1904 
April 9, 1910 



June 13, 1896 
June 10, 1899 
Dec. 12, 1903 

Aug. 10, 1918 

Dec. 14, 1912 

Oct. 14, 1911 
Oct. 7, 1876 
Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 
Dec. 11, 1909 
April 12, 1913 

Oct. 8, 1910 

April 8, 1899 

Dec. 14, 1918 

Dec. 14, 1889 

Aug. 3, 1895 



282 Halliday, Mark, 59, Old Elvet, Durham 

283 Hallimond, William Tasker, P.O. Box 5191, Johannes- 

burg, Transvaal 

284 Hallowes, Frederic Chaworth, Bebside Hall, North- 

umberland 

285 Hamilton, James, Hill Crest Villa, Castle Eden, County 

Durham 



S. 

A. 
M. 
A. 
M. 

S. 
A.M. 
M. 



Dec. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

June 

June 

Oct. 

Aug. 

June 

Aug. 



10, 1904 
9, 1897 
2, 1902 
9, 1909 

13, 1902 
8, 1907 
8, 1889 

7, 1876 

4, 1883 

8, 1889 

5, 1916 



Dec. 14, 1889 
Aug. 10, 1918 
Oct. 10, 1908 





■ 












L907 














14, 


1912 






1, 






Oct. 


14. 








9, 




A 


Feb. 


12, 


1898 


M 




14, 


1 907 


3. 


Aug. 






M. 


Aug. 


1. 


1891 




Oct. 






A. 


April 


14, 


1>94 


M. 


Oct. 


12, 


1901 


M. 


. I une 


12, 


ls97 


M. 


Apri 


13, 


1901 



WVI LIS I ■ )!• MEMB] I 



286 ELlnox, Him:v Mai i. I--, o Martin and Company, and 7, 

('live Street, Caloutta, India 
287*Hanoook, Henry Lipson, Wallaroo, South Australia 

288 Hands, John, The Kajang Central Rubbei Factory, 

Limited, Kajang, Selangor, Federated Malay States... 

289 IIann, Kd.mcnd Lawrk' gnborwen, Aberdarc 

290 Hann, Robert, Jan., Hawthorn Ville, The Haw thornes, 

East Boldon, County Durham 

291 Hannah, David, 14, Marine Parade, Penarth 

292 Hare, George, Fairlawn, Leeholme, Bishop Auckland 

293 Hare, Samuel, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland \ i> i 

President, M ember of Council) 

294 Harle. Peter, South Grange, Shincliffe, Durham ... 

295 Harle, Robert Alfred, Hebburn Collieries, Weston, 

New South Wales, Australia 

296 Harris, David, Tendega Collieries, Vryheid, Natal, South A.M. 

Africa ... 
297*Hawker, Edward William, Eagle Chambers, Pirie Street, 

Adelaide, South Australia ... ... ... ... ... Oct. 12, 1895 

298 Hawkins, Thomas Spear, c o The St. John del Rey Mining 

Company, Limited, Villa Nova de Lima, Estado de 

Minas, Brazil, South America ... ... ... ... Aug. 6, 1904 

299 Hay, Douglas, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 38, Old Elvet, 

Durham 

300 Hedley, Arthur Morton, Eston House, Eston, Yorkshire 

(Retiring Vice-President, Member of Council) 

301 Hedley, Morton, Stobbilee House, Langley Park, Durham 

302 Hedley, Septimus H. , Langholme, Roker, Sunderland 

303 Henderson, William, Alston House, Littletown, Durham 

304 Hendy, John Cary Baker. Etherley, via Darlington 

305 Henriksen, Gudbrand, Inspector of Mines, Tromso, 

Norway 

306 Herdman, William, St. John's Chapel, County Durham ... 

307 Heron, George Patrick, Pont Head House, Leadgate, 

County Durham 

308 Herrmann, Henry J. A., a Ai'n-Sedjera, par Lafayette, 

Algeria... 

309 Heslop, Michael, Rough Lea Colliery, Willington, County 

Durham 

310 Heslop, Septimus, 54, Henleaze Gardens. Westbury-on- 

Trym, Bristol ... 

311 Heslop, Thomas. Randolph Colliery, Evenwood. Bishop 

Auckland 

312 Heslop, Wardle, Ashcroft, Beech Grove Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

313 Heslop, William Taylor, St. Georges Colliery, Hatting 

Spruit, Natal, South Africa 

314 Hewlett, Alfred, The Cossall Colliery Company, Limited, 

Cossall, near Nottingham ... 

315 Hewlett, Erne, Ammanford Colliery Company, Limited, 

Ammanford, Carmarthenshire 

316 Higson, Jacob, Rossland, Northwood, Middlesex 

317 Hill, Frank Cyril Gibson, Oakdene, Oxford Road, 

Moseley, Birmingham 

318 Hill, William, The briars, Hinckley Road, Nuneaton ... 

319 Hilton, Thomas Worthington, Wigan Coal and Iron 

Company, Limited. Wigan ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 3, 1865 



Dec. 


14, 


1912 


A. Nov. 


24, 


1894 


M. Dec. 


12, 


1903 


A. Feb. 


13, 


1909 


M. Aug. 
S. Feb. 


2, 

15, 


1913 
1879 


A.M. Aug. 


1, 


1885 


M. Aug. 


3, 


1889 


Aug. 
Oct. 


7, 

14, 


1909 
1893 


Aug. 
Apri' 


6, 
11, 


1904 
1908 


April 


8, 


1911 


Dec. 


10, 


1898 


A. Feb. 


10, 


1894 


M. June 


21, 


1894 


Oct. 


12, 


1895 


S. Oct. 


2, 


1880 


A. M. Aug. 

M. Aug. 

S. Dec. 


4, 

3, 

10, 


1888 
18S9 
1904 


A. Aug. 
M. June 


7, 
14, 


1909 
1913 


Aug. 


3, 


1895 


Juue 


20, 


1908 


Oct. 


l0 ' 


1896 


Aug. 


' ; 


1862 


April 
A.M. June 


9, 
9, 


1910 
1883 


M. Aug. 


3, 


1889 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXV11 



320 Hindmarsh, Joseph Parker, Corrimal, South Coast, New 

South Wales, Australia ... ... ... ... 

321 Hindsox, George, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

322 Hindson, Thomas, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

323 Hodgkin, Jonathan Edward, Shelleys, Darlington 

324 Hogg, John, Jun., 154, Prospect Terrace, Eston, Yorkshire 

325 Holland, Charles Henry, P.O. Box 415, Auckland, New 

Zealand 

326 Holliday, Martin Forster. Park House. Durham 

327 Holliday, Norman Stanley, Langley Old Hall, Langley 

Moor, Durham 

328 Holman, Nicholas, c/o Starkey and Starkey, 93, York 

Street, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia... 

329 Hood, George, 9, Agents Terrace, Boldon Colliery, County 

Durham 

330 Hood, William Walker, Tredean. near Chepstow 

331 Hooper, James Augustus, Springfield, Lydney 

332 Hopwood, Howell Arthur, Lever Brothers, Limited, 

H.C.B. Department, Royal Liver Buildings, Liverpool 

333 Hornsby, Demster, Choppington Colliery, Choppington, 

Northumberland 

334 Hoso, Shonosuke, The Matsushima Colliery, West 

Sonokigun, Nagasaki, Japan 

335 Hotchkis, Daniel, Coal Cliff Collieries, Limited, Clifton, 

New South Wales, Australia 

336 Howes, Frank Tippett, White House, Hucclecote, 

Gloucester 

337 Howl, Thomas Ernest, Oakeley House, Leeswood, Mold 

338 Howson, Charles, Mainsforth, Ferry Hill, County 

Durham 

339 Hoyle, Henry Patrick, 46, North Bailey, Durham 

340 Humble, Ernest, Killingworth Colliery, West Wallsend, 

New South Wales, Australia 

341 Humble, John Norman, Whinbank, Stocksfield, North- 

umberland 

342 Humble, William, Lawson Street, Hamilton, Newcastle, 

New South Wales, Australia 

343 Humphris, Henry, Blaenau Festiniog 

344 Hunter, Christopher, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth 

345 Hunter, John, Norton House, Chester-le-Street 

346 Hunter, Joseph Percy, 7, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

347 Hunter, Robert, Inspector of Mines, Ipswich, Queensland, 

Australia 

348 Huntley, John Johnson, 54, Beacon Street, Low Fell, A 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

349 Hurst, George, Lauder Grange, Corbridge, Northumber- 

land 

350 Hutton, John George, Barfield, East Maitland, New 

South Wales, Australia 

351 Hylton, Frederick William, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland 

352 Hynd, Thomas, Trades Schooi, Wollongong, Illawarra 

Line, New South Wales, Australia 

353 I'Anson-Robson, William Leonard, 4, St. George's Ter- 

race, Newcastle-upon-Tyne .. ... ... 

354 Ide, Kenroku, Imperial University, Kioto, Japan 

355 Inskipp, Dudley James, 1, Broad Street Place, London, E.C.2. 

356 Jackson, Edgar Arthur, Clipsley Lodge, Haydock, St. 

Helens ... 





Date of Election 




and of Transfer. 




June 20, 


1908 




Dec. 8, 


1917 




Dec. 9, 


1905 




Dec. 13. 


, 1902 




Dec. 11, 


1915 




April 9, 


1910 




May 1, 


1875 


s. 


April 10, 


1897 


M. 


Feb. 13, 


1904 




Dec. 11, 


, 1909 




Dec. 14, 


1907 




April 9, 


1904 




Dec. 12, 


1908 




Oct. 12, 


1907 


A 


. Feb. 12, 


1898 


M 


. Feb. 10, 


1912 




April 1 1 , 


1908 




June 20, 


1908 


A. 


Dec. 10. 


1892 


M. 


Oct. 14, 


1893 




Aug. 4, 


1917 


S. 


Dec. 14, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 4, 


1906 


M. 


June 8, 


1907 




Dec. 12, 


1914 


S. 


Feb. 14, 


1903 


A. 


Aug. 3, 


1907 


M. 


April 11, 


1908 


S. 


Aug. 2, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1905 


M. 


Feb. 10, 


1912 




Oct. 14, 


1893 




Oct. 13, 


1900 


A. 


Dec. 10, 


1892 


M 


. Dec. 12, 


1903 




Feb. 9, 


1918 


A, 


, April 8, 


1911 


M 


. Dec. 12, 


1914 




June 14, 


1902 


.M. 


Dec. 14, 


1912 


M. 


April 12, 


1913 


S. 


April 14, 


1883 


M. 


Aug. 1, 


1891 




Dec. 10, 


1904 




Aug. 3, 


1907 


A. 


April 12, 


1913 


M. 


Feb. 9, 


1918 




Aug. 6, 


1910 




Feb. 14, 


1914 




June 8, 


1907 



Aug. 7, 1915 



\ \ V 1 1 1 



I 0I< MIMI: 



:;;>; .1 lokson, W \i n rGeoffbj \ Lck, W I i*imma 

3 Jacobs, Montagu, 25, Mapesburj R Leklewooa, 

London, N . \\ '. 2. 
358 Jameson, John Hum;, Chilton Ball, Pi Sill, County 

Durham 

360 Jamibson, John William, South Hetton, Sunderland 

361 Jarvib, Jambs, Kembla Heights, near Wollongong, N 

South Wales, Australia 

362 Jefferson. Frederick, Whitburn Colliery, South Shields 

363 Jeffreys, James Henry, Umtaii, Rhodesia, South Africa ... 
3(>l JENKINS, FREDERICK Willi LM, 65, Victoria Street, West- 
minster, London, S. W. 1. ... 

365 Jenkins, William. Ocean Collieries. Treorchy, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

366 JBNNINOS, Albert, 12, Swinburne Road, Darlington 

367 Jobling, Charles Ernest, Oaklands, Chobham, Woking 
368* JOHNS, John Henry, Thorsden, Guildford Road, Woking 

369 Johnson, Henry Howard ... 

370 Johnson, James, Boldon Lodge, East Boldon, County 

Durham 

371 Jones, Clement, Neath Colliery, Neath, New South Wales, 

Australia 

372 Jones, Evan, Plas Cwmorthin, Blaenau Festiniog ... 

373 Jones. Jacob Carlos. Wollongong. New South Wales, 

Australia 

374 Jones, Thomas, 5, Little George Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 1 

375 Jones, Walter, Parkhurst, West Hartlepool 



376 Joynes, John James, Ferndale, Lydbrook, Gloucestershire 



hum <,f Trt 

Jim.- 7. i 

9, 1909 

.111!!.: 13. I!) I 1 

Aug. -1. ; 

Feb. 8, 1908 

ii i-.; 
Oct. 

April 14, 1017 

Dec 8 

June 20, 1908 

Dec. 9, 1916 

• lune 21, 1894 

Feb. 13, 1904 

A. Aug. 6, 1898 

M. Dec. 12, 1903 

Dec. 8, 1906 
April 13, 1907 

Aug. 6, 1S92 

June 12, 1897 
S. Feb. 9, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

Aug. 6, 1904 



Karashima, Asahiko, Engineering Department, The Mitsui 

Bussan Kaisha, Limited. Surugacho, Tokio, Japan 
Kayll. Alfred Charles, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 



377 
378 
379 Kellett, Matthew Henry, Eldon, Bishop Auckland 



380 
381 

3S2 

383 
384 

385 
386 
387 

388 

389 
390 



Kelsick, Robert, Aberdare Colliery, Cessnoek, New South 
Wales, Australia 

Kennaway, Thomas William, Caledonian Collieries, 
Limited, Watt Street, Newcastle, New South Wales, 
Australia 

Kennedy, Percy Joseph Emerson, 4, St. Nicholas' Build- 
ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Kidd, Thomas, Jun. , Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain ... 

Kirby, Matthew Robson, 16, Old Elvet, Durham 





Aug. 


7, 


1915 


- 


Oct. 


7, 


1876 


YL. 


Aug. 


3. 


1889 


s. 


April 


11, 


1891 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1895 




June 


1, 


1912 



s. 

A. 
M. 



Kirk, Alfred Edwin, Aberdare Extended Colliery, 

Cessnoek, New South Wales, Australia ... 
Kirkby, William, c'o Aire and Calder Navigation, Leeds A.M. 

M. 

Kirkup, Austin, Mining Office, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses, S. 

County Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... M. 

Kirkup, Ernest Hodgson, Leafield House, Birtley, County S. 
Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... ... A. 

M. 

Kirkup, Frederic Octavius, Medomsley, County Durham S. 

{Member of Council) .. . ... ... ... ... ... A.M. 

M. 

Kirkup, Philip, Briermede, Low Fell, Gateshead-upon- S. 

Tyne {Member of Council) ... ... ... ... ...A.M. 

M. 



Aug. 6, 1910 

June 11, 1910 
Aug. 3, 1895 
June 9, 1900 
Aug. 1, 1903 
Oct. 12, 1907 

Dec. 14, 1912 
April 2, 1898 
Aug. 6, 1904 
April 9, 1892 
June 12, 1897 
April 13, 19(17 
Aug. 3, 1912 
April 12, 1919 
April 9, 1892 
April 25, 1896 
Feb. 14, 1903 
March 2, 1878 
Aug. 7, 1S86 
Aug. 3, 1889 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXIX 



391 Kirsopp. John, 36, Gladstone Terrace. Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne ' 

392 Kitchin, James Bateman, Luchana, Egremont, Cumber- 

land 
393*Knowles, Robert, Ednaston Lodge, near Derby 
394 Korte, Christian, 10, Avenue Crescent, Harehills Avenue, 

Leeds ... 
395*Kwang, Kwong Yung, Lincheng Mines, Lincheng, Chihli 

Province, Kin-Han Railway, via Peking, North China 

396 Laird, John, 52, Rua Boa Vista, Sala No. 13, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil, South America 

397 Lancaster, John, Auchenheath, Hamilton ... 
398*Landero, Carlos F. de, l !l Alamo, 4, Mexico City, Mexico 
399 Langslow-Cock, Edward Arthur, Chief Inspector of 

Mines, Naraguta, Bauchi Province, Northern Nigeria, A.M. 

West Africa M. 

400*Laporte, Henry. 151, Chaussee de Charleroi, Brussels, 
Belgium 

401 Lathbury, Graham Campbell, c/o Mrs. Lathbury, Hillside, 

Broadstone, Wimborne 

402 Lawn, James Gunson, c/o The Standard Bank of South 

Africa, Limited, 10, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, 
London, E.C. 4 

403 Lawson, John, The East Tanfield Colliery Company, Limited, A. 

East Tanfield, Tantobie, County Durham ... ... M. 

404 Lawson, William, Irondale, Pipers Flat P.O., New South 

Wales, Australia 

405 Leach, Charles Catterall, Seghill Hall, Northumber. 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

June 9, 1900 

Aug. 5, 1905 
April 10, 1886 

Feb. 13, 1909 

June 8, 1895 

June 13, 1914 

Sept, 7, 1878 
Feb. 15, 1896 

Aug. 2, 1902 
April 12, 1913 

May 5, 1877 

Feb. 14, 1903 



land (Vice-President, [Member of Council) 



... A.M. 
M. 



406 Leck, William, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Cleator Moor, 

Cumberland ... 

407 Leck, William John, Nigerian Eastern Railway, Port 

Harcourt, Nigeria, West Africa ... 

408 Ledger, William, Mount Nicholas, Tasmania 

409 Lee, Percy Ewbank, Westfield, Annfield Plain, County 

Durham . . 

410 Leech, Arthur Henry, 11, King Street, Wigan 

411 Lennox, Alfred, 13, Park View, Wallsend, Northumber- 

land 
412*Lf.ssner, Charles, Carril, Pontevedra, Spain 

413 Lidster, Ralph, Langley Park Colliery, Durham ... 

414 Lightley, John, New Brancepeth Colliery, Durham 

415 Lisboa, Miguel Arrojado Ribeiro, Caixa Postal, 829, 

Bio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America ... 

416 Lishman, Tom Alfred, Horden Dene, Kasington, Castle 

Eden, County Durham 

417 Lishman, William Ernest. 73, Osborne Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

418 Lister, John Alfred, The Anchorage, Hinderwell, York- 

shire 



A. 
M. 



S. 
A, 
M. 



July 14, 1896 
Oct. 10, 1908 
Feb. 9, 1918 

Aug. 6, 1910 
March 7, 1874 
Aug. 6, 1881 
Aug. 4, 1883 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Dec. 12, 1914 
Aug. 5, 1911 

Feb. 11, 1905 
Feb. 9, 1901 

June 9, 1917 

Oct. 14, 1911 

April 4, 1903 

April 25, 1896 

Aug. 4, 1917 

Aug. 5, 1905 
Nov. 24, 1894 
Aug. 7, 1897 
April 13, 1901 



June 10, 1893 
S. Dec. 8, 1906 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 
M. Feb. 10, 1917 

419 Liveing. Edward H., Brookfield House, Long Stanton, S. Sept. 1, 1877 

Cambridge A.M. Aug. 2, 1884 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

420 Long, Ernest, Sterndale, Romiley, Stockport Aug. 4, 1906 

421 Longridge, John, The Bungalow, Ginteen, Castlecomer, A. Feb. 11, 1905 

County Kilkenny M. April 14, 1917 

422 Long worth, William, Ocean House, Moore Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales, Australia ... ... ... ... June 11, 1910 

423 Louis, Henry, 4, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Vice-President, Member of Council) Feb. 15,1896 



WX LIST 01 M I M I'.l !' 

Mid of I'r»n»fer 

424 Lowdon, Thomas, rlamsteelt, near Durham Deo. 14, 1HH9 

426 Lyall, Bdwabd, 10, Victoria Road, Darlington ... 14, 1906 

426 Ltall, William, 15, Bracken Road, Darlington 13, 1909 

I-J7 McCarthy, Bdwabd Thomas, 10 and 11, Austin Priare, A,M. Oct B, 1887 

London, E.C. 2. M Aug 3, 1 SS9 

428 McCowan, Robert David, Roseneath, near Whitehaven .. Dc , II. 1909 

429 MoGbaohik, Duncan, West Wallaend, New South Wales, 

Australia .V.\. 24, I 

430 MacGrbuor, Donald, Bentley Colliery, Doncaster B. Feb. '•». 1901 

A. Aug. 1, L908 

M. Feb. 10, 1917 

431 McInerny, Augustin Joseph, 7, rue Blanche, Paris, France Aug. 4, 1906 

432 M VOKINTOSH, James, Mihijam, E.I.R., Sonthal Pergunnahs, 

Bihar and Orissa, India Oct. 12,1895 

433 McIntosh, Stewart, 50, Holywell Avenue, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland Feb. 12,1910 

434 McLellan.* Neil, Idsley House, Spennymoor Dec. 13,1902 

435 McMurtrie, George Edwin James, Radstock, Bath ... S. Aug. 2, 1884 

M. Dec. 12, 1891 

436 MoVee, Robert, Inspector of Mines, Jones Street, Collie, 

Western Australia ... ... ... ... ... June 1, 1912 

437 Manderson, John Thomas, Felling Colliery, Felling, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... Dec. 10, 1910 

43S*Markham, Gervase Edward, Acton House, Darlington ... 8. Dec. 4, 1875 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June S, 1889 

439 Marks, Arthur Tristman, 7, Cascade Avenue, Muawell 

Hill, London, N. 10 June 12, 1909 

440 Marks, Herbert T., 57, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. 2. Oct. 12, 1901 

441 Marley, Frederic Thomas, Monkscroft, St. Bees, Cum- S. Oct. 8, 1898 

berland .. ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

442 Marr, James Heppell, Castlecomer, County Kilkenny ... A. Feb. 13, 1897 

M. Dec. 12, 1903 
443*Marriott, Hugh Frederick, c o The Central Mining and 
Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E.C. 2 Dec. 12, 1896 

444 Marsh, Thomas Aspinall, Leaders Buildings, Wigan ... Oct. 10, 1908 

445 Marshall, Alexander Gilchrist, Denniston, Buller, 

New Zealand Dec. 10,1910 

446 Martin, Henry Stuart, co H. Eckstein and Company, 

P.O. Box 149, Johannesburg, Transvaal . ... April 13, 1907 

447 Matsubayashi, Yasukuma, Daimyokoji, Karatsumachi, 

Sagaken, Japau ... ... ... ... Feb. 12, 1916 

448 Matthews, Frederick Berkley, Westerhall, Langholm A.M.Dec. 9, 18S2 

M. June 8, 1889 

449 Maurice, William, Star Works, Young Street, Sheffield Dec. 14, 1907 

450 Mawson, Robert Bryh am, Elm Bank, Wigan June 11, 1892 

451 Mein, Henry Johnson, Carterthorne Colliery, Toft Hill, 

Bishop Auckland Dec. 9,1899 

452 Mellon, Henry, Brook Lea, Askam, Lancashire ... ... April 25, 1896 

453 Merivale, Charles Herman, Middleton Hall, Middleton, S. June 9, 1900 

Leeds A. Aug. 6, 1904 

M. Dec. 14. 1907 

454 Mermod. Louis, a Segre, Maine-et-Loire, France April 13, 1918 

455 Merz, Charles Hfsterman, 32, Victoria Street, West- 

minster, London, S.W 1. ... ... ... ... ... June 10, 1903 

456 Mesurier, George James Brooke Le, Ballarpur, Chanda, 

Central Provinces, India Aug. 1,1914 

457 Middleton, John Thomas, 28, Victoria Street, West- 

minster, London, S.W. 1 Dec. 10, 1910 

458 Milp.urn, Edwin Walter, 3, Haven View, Newbiggin-by- S. Feb. 10, 1900 

the-Sea, Northumberland ... ... A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. June 9, 1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXXI 



459 Millar, Stanley John, 19, Woodbine Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

460 Mills, Frederick Peter, 854, Scotswood Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

461 Milne, Norman Boarer, Inspector of Mines Office, Dun- 

dee, Natal, South Africa 

462 Minns, Thomas Tate, The Terrace, Shotton Colliery 

Sunderland 

463 Minto, George William, Harraton Colliery, Chester-le- 

Street ... 

464 Montgomery, Alexander, Department of Mines, Perth, 

Western Australia ... 

465 Moore, Frederick George, 63, Parliament Hill, Hamp- A. 

stead, London, N.W. 3. 

466 Moore, Robert Thomas, 142, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow 
4(57 Moore, William, N. P. Bank House, East Dereham, A, 

Norfolk 

468 Moreing, Charles Algernon, 20, Copthall Avenue, 

London, E.C. 2. 

469 Morgan, Griffith Rees, 178, Commercial Street, Sen- 

ghenydd, Cardiff 

470 Morgan, John, Stanley Villa, Crook, County Durham 

471 Morgans, Godfrey Ewart, New Broad Street House, 

London, E.C. 2 

472 Morison, John, 18, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne A 

( Vice-Pbesident, Member of Council) 

473 Morland-Johnson, Edward Thomas, The Limes, 6, Hart- 

ington Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester 

474 Morris, John, 15, Brynmill Crescent, Swansea 

475 Morris, William, Waldridge Colliery, Chester-le-Street ... 

476 Morse, Willard S., Seaford, Delaware, U.S. A 

477*Mort, Arthur, Khost, N. W. R. , Baluchistan, India 

478 Morton, Reginald Charles, 75, Surrey Street, Sheffield 

479 Morton, William Rostern, 37, Shortridge Terrace, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

480 Mountain, William Charles, Sun Buildings, Collingwood 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Member of Council) 

481 Mundle, Arthur, Cathedral Buildings, Dean Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

482 Murray, William Cuthbert, Framwellgate Colliery, 

Durham 

483 Murray, William John, Victor American Fuel Company, 

311, E. and C. Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. ... 

484 Musgrove, William, Heddon Colliery, Wylam, North- 

umberland 



485 Nagazumi, Junjiro, Kannonsaki, Shimonoseki, Japan 
486*Nakagawa, Shin, c/o Bureau of Mines, Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce, Kyobashi-ku, Tokio, Japan 

487 Nelson, Charles Anthony, Battle Hill, Willington Quay, 

Northumberland 

488 Nelson, George Catron, Holly Garth, Brandon Colliery, 

County Durham 

489 Nesbtt, John Straker, Marley Hill Colliery, Swalwell. 

County Durham 

490 Nevin, James, 9, Clarendon Street, Nottingham ... 

491 Newbery, Frederick, Throgmorton House, Copthall A.M. 

Avenue, London, E.C. 2. ... ... ... 

492 Newbigin, Henry Thornton, 3, St. Nicholas' Buildings, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 





Date of Election 




and of Transfer. 




Feb. 9, 


1918 




April 4. 


, 1914 




Dec. 11, 


1909 


s, 


April 10 


, 1897 


A 


Aug. 1, 


1903 


M. 


Feb. 12, 


1910 


A 


. Oct. 10, 


1891 


M 


. Feb. 14, 


1914 




Dec. 9, 


1899 


.M. 


Dec. 7, 


1909 


M. 


Dec. 13, 


1913 




Oct. 8, 


1892 


.M. 


Nov. 19, 


1881 


M. 


Aug. 3, 


1889 




Nov. 7, 


1874 




Aug. 7, 


1915 




Dec. 9, 


1905 




Dec. 12, 


1914 


.M, 


. Dec. 4, 


1 8S0 


M. 


Aug. 3, 


1889 




April 10, 


1897 


A 


. April 4, 


1903 


M 


. Aug. 6, 


1904 




Oct. 8, 


1892 




June 13, 


1896 




Dec. 9, 


1899 




Aug. 3, 


1907 




Aug. 7, 


1909 




April 9, 


1892 


s. 


June 5, 


1875 


m! 


Aug. 4, 


1877 




June 10, 


1903 




June 13, 


1914 


s. 


June 8, 


1895 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1903 


M. 


Feb. 10, 


1917 




Dec. 12, 


1908 




Oct. 13, 


1917 




Dec. 14, 


1912 


A. 


Feb. 8, 


1902 


M. 


Feb. 10, 


1912 


S. 


Oct. 9, 


1897 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1905 


M. 


Oct. 12, 


1907 




Dec. 14, 


1918 


M. 


April 2, 


1898 


M. 


Feb. 13, 


1904 



Oct. 13, 1894 



4!>7 Nisbet, Nobman, Harperley Hull, Tantobie, County Durham 



\n LIST 01 m i.m I'.l i 

■ i i 

and of Tm 

lie; Newman, Austin Fbed, 29, Tyrrel Street N rew 

South Wales, Australia ... ... ... ... i, 1917 

I'H Nicholas, Benjamin, Levant Mining Company, Levant 

Mine, Pendeen, Cornwall ... ... ... - b. 8, 1910 

495 Nicholson, Abthub Dablino, ELM. D I tor June 13, 1885 

of Mines, As t ley, Manchester ... A. Aug. 4, 1894 

M. Feb. L2 

196 Nicholson, John Eodg epen Colliery Office, Blytfa 

M. April 8, 1893 

A. Aug. 3, L901 

M. 1904 

19b Noble, Thomas Gbobgb, Sacriston Colliery, Durham ... A Feb. 13 

M. June 8, 189S 

499 NOMI, Aitaro, No. 2, 7 Chome, Kitamachi, Aoyama, 

Tokyo, Japan Aug. 5, L899 

500 North ey, Arthur Ernest, Mina Dario, Villar del Buey, 

Zamora, Spain June 10, 1903 

501 Oates, Robert Joseph William, National Bank of India, S. Feb. 10, 1883 

Limited, Calcutta, India ... ... ... ... ... A.M. Aug. 1. 1891 

M. Dec. 12, 1891 

502 Oliver, Ernest Hunter, Durham House, Murton Colliery, S. Feb. 8, 1902 

County Durham A.Aug. 1, 190S 

M. Oct, 9. 1909 

503 Oliver, Robert, Falcon Terrace, Wylam, Northumberland Dec. 11. 1915 

504 Olsen, Arnold Carl Louis, Modder East, Limited, P.O. 

Box 14, Springs, Transvaal... ... ... ... ... Dec. 9, 1905 

505 Ornsby, Robert Embleton, 7, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... ... June 11, 1898 

506 Orr, Herbert Parker, P.O. Box 903, New Glasgow, 

Nova Scotia ... ... ... ... ... ... June 9, 1917 

507 Oughtox, Ernest, Baluchistan Chrome Company, Limited, A. Dec. 11, 1909 

Hindubagh, Baluchistan, India ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 5, 1911 

508 Owens, William David, Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 239, 

Philadelphia Avenue, Pittston, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Feb. 11, 1905 

509 Palmer, Claude Bowes, Wardley Hall, Pelaw, Newcastle- A.M. Nov. 5, 1892 

upon-Tyne .. .. ... ... ... ... M June S, 1895 

510 Palmer, Harry, The Hill, Skelton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire S. June 14, 1902 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. Dec. 12, 1914 

511 Pamely, Caleb, 64, Cromwell Road, Bristol S. Sept. 5, 1868 

M. Aug. 5, 1877 

512 Pamblin, Eliah George, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge ... Aug. 1,1903 

513 Parish, Charles Edward, 63, Hanger Lane, Ealing, 

London, W. 5. ... Feb. 10, 1900 

514 Parkin, Robert, Hartford Colliery, Cramlington, North- 

umberland ... Feb. 10,1917 

515 Parrington, Henry Mason, Dene House, Castletown, S. Feb. 13, 1904 

Sunderland (Member of Council) ... ... ... ... A.Aug. 3,1907 

M. Aug. 7, 1909 

516 Parrington, Matthew William, Hill House, Monkwear- 

mouth, Sunderland (Past-President, Honorary S. Dec. 1, 1864 
Secretary, Member of Council) M.Aug. 6,1870 

517 Parrington, Thomas Elliot, Carley Hill, Monkwear- S. Aug. 3, 1895 

mouth, Sunderland A.Aug. 1,1903 

M. Oct. 12, 1907 

518 Parsons, Hon. Sir Charles Algernon, K.C.B., Heaton A.M. June 12, 1886 

Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne M. Aug. 3, 1889 

519 Pasquier, Arthur Edmund du, The British "Westinghouse 

Electric and Manufacturing Company, Limited, Con- 
solidated Buildings, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... ... Dec. 11, 1915 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXX111 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

520 Pattison, Charles Arthur, Evenwood, Bishop Auckland S. April 13, 1901 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 
M. April 14, 1917 

521 Peake, R. Cecil, Cumberland House, Redbourn, St. Albans S. Feb. 7, 1880 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1886 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

522 Pearson, John Charlton, Butt Bank House, Fourstones, A. Feb. 14, 1903 

Northumberland M. Feb. 10, 1917 

523 Pearson, Reginald George Yeb, 12, 1910 

524 Pedelty, Simon, 3, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope Colliery, A. Dec. 10^ 1892 

Sunderland M. Dec. 14, 1907 

525 Percy, Frank, Mining and Technical College, Wigan. 

Transactions sent to The Librarian, Wigan Free 

Library, Wigan Dec. 12, 1903 

526 Percy, Robert McLeod, Woodside, Poynton, Stockport ... Dec. 14, 1907 

527 Phillips, Henry Archibald Allen, Westmancote, 

Uplands Terrace, Swansea ... ... ... ... ... June 1, !912 

528 Phillips, Percy Clement Campbell, Hall's Collieries, 

Limited, Swadlincote. Burton-upon-Trent ... ... June 10, 1903 

529Pockson, Melville John Hastings, c/o Dr. Budge, 

Broomcroft, Cadoxton, Barry, Glamorgan ... ... Oct. 8. 1910 

530 Poole, Gordon George Thomas, Appleby Iron Company, A.M. Oct. 11, 1913 

Limited, Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire ... ... ... M. Dec. 12. 1914 

531*Poore, George Bentley, Ross, Marin County, California, A.M. Dec. 10, 18D8 

U.S.A M. April 8, 1899 

532 Porter. John Bonsall, McGill University, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada Dec. 8, 1900 

533 Powell, Charles Henry, Mount Biggenden Bismuth 

Mine, Biggenden, Queensland, Australia... ... ... June 14, 1902 

534 Prest, John Joseph, Hard wick Hall, Castle Eden, County 

Durham Feb. 9, 1901 

535 Price, Stephen Richard, Dilston House, Corbridge, S. Nov. 3, 1877 

Northumberland A.M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

536 Price, Samuel Warren, The Wern, Peterston-super-Ely, 

Cardiff Aug. 3, 1895 

537 Priest, William Hall, Auton Field, Bearpark, Durham .. Feb. 10, 1917 

538 Pringle, John Archibald, Mysore Mine, Marrikuppam, 

Mysore, India Dec. 10,1898 

539*Prior, Hon. Edward Gawler, Victoria, British Columbia. 
Transactions sent to Thomas R. Stockett, Western 
Fuel Company, Nanaimo, British Columbia ... ... Feb. 7, 1880 

540 Pullon, Joseph Thomas, Rowangarth, North Park Road, 

Roundhay, Leeds Feb. 11, 1905 

541 Rae, John Livington Campbell, Cooinda, High Street, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia ... Oct. 14,1899 

542 Raine, Frederick James, The New Copley Collieries, S. Feb. 15, 1896 

Limited, Cockfield, County Durham ... .. ... A. Aug. 6, 1904 

M. Feb. 9, 1907 

543 Ramsay, John, Tursdale Colliery, Ferry Hill, County A. April 27, 1895 

Durham M. Feb. 13, 1904 

544 Ramsay, William, The Redlands, Ibstock, Leicester ... Feb. 12, 1910 

545 Raw, George, Usworth Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham June 13, 1914 

546 Redman, Sydney George, Collingwood Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne " ... Feb. 10, 1906 

547 Reed, William Fenwick, 16, Princes Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... ... ... April 8, 1916 

548 Rees, Robert Thomas, Glandare, Aberdare Aug. 7, 1897 

549 Rees, William Thomas, Maesyffynon, Aberdare A.M. Oct. 9, 1897 

M. Feb. 12, 1898 

550 Rhodes, Charles Edward, The Bungalow, Lane End, 

Rotherham Aug. 4, 1883 



\ \ \ I \ 



\A>\ <H M |- \] f. 



551 Riohabdboh Nicholas, c/o Miss D. Richardson, 3, Summer- 

hill ( iim e, X' u cast Le upon I \ w< 

552 Riddle, Jambs Edwabd, 6, Loraine Terrace, Lemingi 

Scotswood, Northumberland 

553 Ridge, IIakkv Mackenzie, 2, Great Winchestei 

London, E.< '. _. 

554 Ridley, George Dinning, Linton Colliery, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

555 Ridley, James Cabtmell, Cathedral Buildings, Sen i^tle- 

upon-Tyne 

556 Ridley, Norman Backhouse, Union Chambers, 32, 

Grainger Street West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

557 Ridpath, Thomas Rossiter, Blaydon Burn, Blaydon-upon- 

Tyne, County Durham 

558 Rigby, Thomas Henry, Leaders Buildings, King Street, 

Wigan ... 

559 Ritson, John Ridley, Burnhope Colliery, Lanchester, 

Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... ... A. 

560 Ritson, Utrick Alexander, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

561 Ritson, William Henry, C.M.G., Springwell Hall, Durham A. 

562 Roberton, Edward Heton, Sibpur College, Calcutta, 

India 

563 Roberts, James, Jun., Perran House, Perranporth, 

Cornwall 

564 Roberts, John, 31, Graigyfedw, Abertridwr, Cardiff 

565 Roberts, William, Bella Vista, Perranporth, Cornwall ... 

566 Robertson, Daniel Alexander Wilberforce, Fairhaven, 

Park Road, Burwood, New South Wales, Australia . 

567 Robertson, David Wilson, Vanduara, Kirribilli Point, 

near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 
568*Robertson, James Robert Millar, 38, Pitt street, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 
569*Robins, Samuel Matthew, Netherleigh, Torrs Park, Ilfra- 

combe. Transactions sent to Thomas R. Stockett, 

Western Fuel Company, Nanaimo, British Columbia ... 

570 Robinson, George, Boldon Colliery, County Durham 

571 Robinson, George Henry, Jun.. The Itabira Iron Ore 

Company, Limited, c'o Wilson, Sons and Company, 
Limited, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil, South America 

572 Robinson, John Thomas, South Medomsley Colliery, 

Dipton, County Durham 

573 Robinson, John William, Hill Crest, Rosehill, Willington 

Quay, Northumberland 

574 Robinson, Stanley, Colliery Office, Bunker Hill, Fence 

Houses, County Durham ... 

575 Rochester, William, Belle Vue, Ryton, County Durham 

576 RoGERg, John, Tanfield Lea House, Tantobie, County 

Durham 

577 Ronaldson, James Henry, 17, Stanhope Gardens, London, 

S.W. 7 

578 Rosenplaenter, Carlos Bernard, c'o Henry S. King 

and Company, 65, Cornhill, London, E.C. 3. .:. 

579 Routledge, William Henry, Glanbaiden, Gilwern, 

Abergavenny ... ... ... ... ... ... ...A. 



s. 

A. 

M. 



A. 
M. 



S, 
A. 
M. 



.ui'l of Transfer 

IX 12, 1896 

:;. 1901 

D m. L901 

Oct. II, L913 

Dec. 14, 1907 
s. 1890 

10, 1917 

Dec. 14, 1912 

June 8, 1895 

June 8, 1901 

Aug. 4, 1906 

April 9, 1910 

Dec. 12, 1908 
April 11, 1891 
Aug. 3, 1895 
Feb. 14, 1903 

Oct. 7, 1871 
Dec. 11, 1915 
June 3, 1916 

Dec. 12, 1914 

Dec. 14, 1895 
Feb. 10, 1912 
Aug. 4, 1906 

Aug. 6. 1892 

April 8, 1916 



Aug. 





Oct. 12, 


1895 




June 10, 


1899 


s. 


Dec. 9, 


1899 


M. 


April 8, 


1905 




Feb. 13, 


1892 


S. 
A. 
M. 


April 12, 
Aug. 5, 
Feb. 14, 


1902 
1905 
1914 


S. 


Oct. 12, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1908 


M. 


June 1, 


1912 


A. 


Dec. 10, 


1898 


M. 


Dec. 12, 


190S 


S. 
A 
M 


April 8, 

Aug. 4, 

. Feb. 11, 


1899 
1906 
1911 




Aug. 6, 


1892 




June 1, 


1912 


S. 


Oct. 7, 


1876 


M. 
M. 


Aug. 1, 
June 8, 


1885 
1889 



1890 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 



XXXV 



580 Rowley, Walter, 20, Park Row, Leeds 

531 Rumbold, William Richard, Oruro, Bolivia, South 
America, via Buenos Aires i Tupiza 

582 Russell, Robert, Coltness Iron Works, Newmains, 

Lanarkshire ... 

583 Rutherford, Hooper, y Llanerch, Rhymney, Cardiff 



584 Rutherford, Robert, The Lawn, Rhymney, Cardiff 

585 Rutherford, Thomas Easton, Llanhilleth House, Llan- 

billeth, Monmouthshire 

586 Ryle, Percy, South View, Crook, County Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Aug. 5, 1893 

June 14, 1902 

Aug. 3, 1878 

S. Dec. 11, 1909 

A. Aug. 2, 1913 

M. June 9, 1917 

Oct. 11, 1902 

S. June 10, 1899 

A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. Aug. 4, 1917 

April 14, 1917 



587 Saint, Thomas Arthur, Blackgate House, Coxhoe, County 
Durham 



588*Saise, Walter, Stapleton, Bristol 



...A. 



589 Sam, Thomas Birch Freeman, Domkodu, Cape Coast 

Castle, Gold* Coast Colony, West Africa ... 

590 Samborne, John Stukely Palmer, Timsbury House, 

Bath 

591 Sample, James Bertram, Coolbawn, Castlecomer, County 

Kilkenny 

592 Sampson, William, Coast Water Supply, Kapar, Selangor, 

Federated Malay States 

593*Samwell, Nicholas 

594 Sandow, William John Josiah, Prestea Block "A," 

Prestea, Gold Coast, West Africa, via Seccondee 
595*Sawyer, Arthur Robert, 826, Salisbury House, London 

Wall, London, E.C. 2 A. 

596 Saweer, Stanley John, 10, Bourke Street, West Maitland, 

New South Wales, Australia. Transactions sent to 
c o Allan Cordner, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

597 Schnabel, Leberecht Ferdinand Richard, Sun Buildings, 

Corner of Bourke and Queen Streets, Melbourne, 
Victoria, Australia ... 

598 Scott, Anthony, Netherton Colliery, Nedderton, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

599 Scott, Charles F., Newbell, Consett, County Durham ... 

600 Scott, Ernest, 42, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

601 Scott, Edward Charlton, Woodside Cottage, Totley Rise, 

Sheffield ... 

602 Scott, Herbert Kilburn, 46, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 4 

603 Scott, William Angus, 102, St. Mary Street, Cardiff 

604 Scott, Walter Robert, The Limes, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham 

605 Sedcole, William John, 17, Westoe Road, South Shields 

606 Sethna, Nanabhoy Rustomji, c'o Midland Coal, Coke and 

Iron Company, Limited, Apedale, Newcastle, Stafford- 
shire 

607 Severs, Joseph, North Walbottle, Newburn, Northumber- 

land 

608 Severs, William, Beamish, County Durham 

609 Shanks, John, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada 

610 Sheafer, Arthur Whitcomb, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A 



S. 
A. 
M. 
M. 
M. 



Aug. 3, 1912 
Aug. 5, 1916 
April 12, 1919 

Nov. 3, 1877 
Aug. 3, 1889 

Aug. 5, 1893 



S. 
A. 
M. 



Aug. 
Jan. 
Aug. 



1, 1891 

19, 1895 

4, 1900 



S. 
M. 

A. 
M. 



A. 
M. 



Oct. 10, 1903 

Oct. 9, 1909 
April 13, 1901 

Feb. 8, 1908 

Dec. 6, 1873 

Aug. 2, 1879 

June 8, 1889 



Dec. 8, 1917 



April 13, 1907 

April 8, 1905 
April 11, 1874 
Aug. 4, 1877 
April 9, 1892 
Oct. 8, 1892 
Feb. 11, 1899 

Oct. 11, 1902 
June 10, 1911 

April 4, 1914 
April 4, 1914 



Oct. 10, 1914 

June 8, 1901 

Nov. 5, 1892 

Dec. 8, 1900 

Aug. 5, 1905 

Aug. 4, 1894 



B. 


Dec. 


6, 


1SG6 


M. 


Aug. 


l, 


L868 




Oct. 


4. 


1860 


S. 


Aug. 


3, 


1895 


A. 


Aug. 


o 


1902 


M. 


Oct. 


11, 


1902 


S. 


Dec. 


14, 


1895 


A. 


Aug. 


2, 


1902 


M. 


Dec. 


13, 


1902 



m\ l LIST <)!•' ICE1CBEH 

\>\\* Of Bsal I 
ai.'l <<f TnUMfl r 

till Sim i i- RiOberi Archibald, Ro ebank, Bnrnopfield, 

< 'omit x Dm ham ... ... ... .Imi»: lo, 1011 

612 Short, Frbdbrick, Rose Mount, Beamish, County Durham 8, 1919 

813 Sim, v, Thomas Fran klin, Armstrong Colli • N< i astle 

upon-Tyne April L2, 1919 

tilt Simon, Frank, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... D< . 14, 1895 

615 Simpson, ('harms Liddbll, 13, Montagu Place, Montagu 

Square, Loudon, W. 1. ... ... ... April 8 

616 Simpson, Francis Lever Garnsey, Mobpani Coal-mines, A.M. Dee. 13. 1884 

Gadawarra, C.P., India ... ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 3, 1889 

017 Simpson, Frank Robert, Eledgefield House, Blaydon-up kug. 4. L883 

Tyne, County Durham (President, Member of Council) M. Aug. I, l H '»l 

618 Simpson, John, Follonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Hay, Northumberland (Past -PRESIDENT, 
.1/' mber of < 'ouncil) .. 

619 Simpson. John Bell, Bradley Hall, Wylam, Northumber- 

land ( Past- 1 'resident, Member of Council) 

620 Simpson, Robert Rovvell, c o H. S. King and Company, 

9, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 1 

621 Simpson, Thomas Ventress. Throckley Colliery, Newborn. 

Northumberland {Member of Council) 

622 Skertchley, Sydney A. R., c/o The Institution of Mining 

and Metallurgy, 1, Finsbury Circus, London, E.G. 2. April 13, 1901 

623 Slater, Thomas Edward, Bryncaredig, 'Pontardawe, S. April 13, 1907 

Glamorgan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 2, 1913 

M. April 14, 1917 

624 Sloan, Robert Patrick, Craiglea, Graham Park Road, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... Oct. 8, 1910 

625 Smallwood, Percy Edmund, The Garth, Medomslev, A. Oct. 11, 1902 

County Durham M. Oct. 12, 1907 

626 Smart, Alexander, 4, London Wall Buildings, London 

Wall, London, E.C 2 Feb. 10, 1894 

627 Smith,. Arthur, Cambrian Colliery, Dannhauser, Natal, 

South Africa Aug. 10, 1918 

628*Smith, Richard Clifford, Grovehurst, Tunbridge Wells Dec. 5, 1874 

629 Smith, Robert Fleming, Melwyn, Clealor Moor, Cumber- 

land '. Aug. 6, 1904 

630 Smith, Thomas Henry, Dawdon Colliery, Seaham 

Harbour, County Durham . ... ... ... April 12, 1919 

631 Smith, William, P.O. Box 653, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... Oct. 11,1902 

632 Smith, William Woodend, 1, Victoria Terrace, St. Bees, 

Cumberland ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 6, 1904 

633 Snodgrass, Benjamin Walter, Delagua, Colorado, U.S.A. June 13, 1914 

634 Sopwith, Arthur, Chasetown, Walsall Aug. 6, 1863 

635 Southern, Charles, Radstock, Bath S. June 10, 1903 

A. Aug. 7, 1909 
M. April 14, 1917 

636 Southern, Edmund Octavius, North Seaton Hall, S. Dec. 5, 1874 

Ne\vbiggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland... ... A.M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

637 Southern, Stephen, Heworth Colliery, Felling, Gateshead- S. Dec. 14, 1895 

upon-Tyne A. Aug. 3, 1901 

M. Dec. 12, 1914 

638 Southwood, Reginald Thomas Enfield, Nether House, 

Spencer Road, Putney, London, S.W. 15. Feb. 10,1906 

639 Spence, Robert Foster, Backworth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne S. Nov. 2, 1878 

{Member of Council) A.M.Aug. 2,1884 

M. Aug. 4, 1889 

640 Stainton. William, Bank Chambers, Mold Feb. 13, 1909 

641 Stanley, George Hardy, South African School of Mines and 

Technology, P.O. Box 1176, Johannesburg, Transvaal April 12, 1902 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXVU 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

642 Steavenson. Chari.es Herbert, The Red House, Guis- S. April 14, 1883 

borough, Yorkshire .. ... ... ... .. A. Aug. 1, 1891 

M. Aug. 3, 1895 

643 Steel, Robert, Wellington Colliery Office, Whitehaven ... Aug. 5, 1905 

644 Stephenson, Ralph, Fern Cottage, Poolstock Lane, Wigan Dec. 10, 1904 

645 Stewart, William, Brodawel, Caerleon, Newport, Mon- 

mouthshire ... .. ... ... ... ... ... June 8, 1895 

646 Stobart, Henry Temple, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland S. Oct. 2, 1880 

A.M. Aug. 4, 1888 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

647 Stobart, William Ryder, Colliery Office, Etherley, 

Bishop Auckland Oct. 11,1890 

648 Stoker, Arthur P., 52, Holywell Avenue, Monkseaton, S. Oct. 6, 1877 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland A.M.Aug. 1,1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

649 Stokoe, James, Herrington Lodge. West Herrington, via A. Nov. 24, 1894 

Sunderland M. Dec. 10, 1904 

650 Stokoe, John George, Woodside, Maltbv, Rotherham ... A. Dec. 9, 1899 

M. Feb. 11, 1911 

651 Stokoe, Robert, Eppleton House. Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham Feb. 10, 1917 

652*Stonier, George Alfrkd, 726, Salisbury House, London 

Wall, London. E.C. 2 June 11, 1904 

653 Storey, William, Urpeth Villas, Beamish, County Durham April 12, 1902 

654 Stow, Audley Hart, Box 1477, Charleston, West 

Virginia, U.S. A Feb. 13, 1909 

655 Straker, J. H. , Howden Dene, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland Oct. 3, 1874 

656 Streatfeild, Hugh Sidney, Ryhope, Sunderland ... A.M. June 8, 1889 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

657 Stuart, Donald McDonald Douglas, 25, Woodstock Road, 

Redland, Bristol June 8,1895 

658 Suggett, Arthur, Ivy House, Witton-le-Wear, County 

Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... ... June 13, 1914 

659 Sugimoto, Isdzu, Yoshima Colliery, Iwaki-gun, Fuku- 

shima-Ken, Japan ... ... ... ... Dec. 14, 1918 

660 Summerbell, Richard, Preston Colliery, North Shields ,., A. Dec. 9, 1905 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

661 Sutcliffe, Richard, Horbury, Wakefield ••• June 14, 1902 

662 Sutton, William, Grosmont, 46, Palace Road, Streatham 

Hill, London, S.W. 2 April 28, 1900 

663 Swallow, Frederick Charles, Tankersley Grange, near 

Barnsley Dec. 9, 1911 

664 Swallow, John, 2, Percy Gardens, Tynemouth, North 

Shields... ... May 2, 1874 

665 Swallow, Ralph Storey, Park House, Duffield Road, A. Dec. 9, 1899 

Derby ... M. Dec. 12, 1903 

666 Swallow, Wardle Asquith, Seaham Colliery, New Sea- S. Dec. 9, 1893 

ham, Seaham Harbour, Countv Durham ... ... ... A.Aug. 3, 1901 

M. Aug. 2, 1902 

667 Swann, Joseph Todd, 1, Tyne View, Throckley, Newburn, S. Dec. 13, 1902 

Northumberland A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. Feb. 10, 1917 

668 Swinburne, Umfreville Percy, Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Union of South Africa, P.O. Box 1132, Johannesburg, A.M. Aug. 4, 1894 
Transvaal M. June 14, 1902 

669 Swindle, Jackson, North Bank, Beech Grove, Whickham, 

Swalwell, County Durham June 14, 1902 

670 Symons, Francis, Ulverston ... Feb. 11,1899 

671 Tallis, John Fox, Llantarnam Grange, Pontnewydd, New- 

port, Monmouthshire Dec. 12, 1903 

672 Tate, Robert Simon, The Old House, Trimdon Grange, S. Aug. 3, 1901 

County Durham {M ember of Council) A.Aug. 4,1906 

M. Dec. 11, 1909 



\ \ \ V 1 1 1 



LIS'] ()!• M I M I 



673 .Tate, Walker Oswald, Harton Colliery, Rontfa Shields 

( Mi llllx f nl ( 'mi m'il) ... 

874 Taylor, Eenry William, 28, Lombard < hamb 

George's Terrace, Perth, Western Australia 
675 Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, Northnm 

berland 
670 Teasdale, Thomas, Oaklands, 17. North Lodge Terra 

Darlington 
(577 Templeton, Johm Clark, c o Anglo Persian Oil Company, 

Limited, 23, Creat Winchester St net, London, E.C. 2. 
078 TENNANT, John Thomas, Mitchell Street, Alenu < th.-r . 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

679 Terry, Arthur Michael, 1, Clifton Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

680 Thom, Archibald, Risehow, Flimby, Maryport 

681 Thomas, David Lewis, The Villa, Pentrebach, Merthyr 

Tydvil 

682 Thomas, Ernest Henry, The Hollies, Trecynon, Aherdare 

683 Thomas, Iltyd Edward, Glanymor, Swansea 

684 Thomas, J. J., Hawthorn Villa, Kendal 

685 Thomas, Richard, Cambria Villa, Stockton, New South 

Wales, Australia 

686 Thomas, Richard. Jun., Rothbury Collieries, Branxton, 

New South Wales, Australia 

687 Thomlinson, William, Seaton Carew, West Hartlepool ... 

688 Thompson, Robert Reginald ... 

689 Thornton, Thomas, Victoria House, Barnslev 

690 Todd, John Thomas, Blackwell Collieries, Alfreton 



691*Townsend, Harry Poyser, Village Deep, Limited, 
P.O. Box 1064, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

692 Trevor, Earle Wellington Jenks, c'o The Pericarp 

Syndicate, Limited, 5, The Sanctuary, Westminster, 
London, S. W. 1. 

693 Trewartha-James, William Henry, Manor Lodge, 

4, Grove End Road, St. John's Wood, London, N. W. 8. 

694 Trotman, Henry Leigh, Capital and Counties Bank, 

Dawlish, Devon 

695 Tulip, Samuel, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses 

696 Turnbull, James, 3, Etterby Street, Carlisle 

697 Turnbull, James Armstrong, c o John R. Purdom, Lang- 

hench, Hawick 

698 Turnbull, John James, 135, Osborne Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... ..: 

699 Turnbull, John James, Jun., Umaria P.O., Rewah State, 

India 

700*Tyers, John Emanuel, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, A 
B.N.R., Central India 

701 Tyers, John Emanuel, Jun., Rewah State Collieries, 

Umaria, B. N. R., Central India ... 

702 Varty, Armstrong, Yourity, Beckermet, Cumberland ... 

703 Wadham, Walter Francis Ainslie, Millwood, Dalton-in- 

Furness, Lancashire ... 

704 Wales, Henry Thomas, Bank Chambers, Castle Square, 

Swansea 
703 Walker, Thomas A., Pagefield Iron Works. Wigan 
706 Walker, William Edward, Croft End, Bigrigg, Cumber- 
land 



8. 

\. 

M. 
A. 

M. 



S. 
M. 
M. 



S. 
A. 
M. 
M. 
M. 



Data 

nixl of Tnu 

1 I t I 'J. 1896 

1 9 13 

a 1904 

2, 1902 

Aug. 2, 1913 

duly 2 

April 9, 

L2, 1916 

12, 1903 

Aug. 6, 
Aug. .">, 1 905 

Ang. -l, 1913 

Feb. 10, 

Feb. 10, 1900 

June .1,1 894 

Feb. 11, 1899 

Feb. 8. 1919 

April 25, 1896 

Dec. 10, 1910 

Feb. 10, 1912 

Nov. 4, 1876 

Aug. 1, 1885 

June 8, 1889 

April 12, 1902 

Aug. 2, 1902 

Dec. 12, 1896 

Feb. 13, 1904 
June 12, 1S97 
Dec. 13, 1913 

Dec. 8, 1917 

Feb. 12, 1898 
Feb. 8, 1908 
Dec. 9, 1911 
April 8, 1916 
Dec. 10, 1877 
Aug. 3, 1889 

Aug. 2, 1913 

April 12, 1913 



Dec. 10, 1898 

Feb. 11, 1893 

June 8, 1895 

Nov. 19, 1881 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXX IX 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

707 Wall, William Henry, 748, Burrard Street, Vancouver, 

British Columbia ... ... .. ... June 14, 1902 

708 Walsh, George Paton, 3, Sarphatikade, Amsterdam, 

Holland Nov. 24, 1894 

709 Walton, Arthur John, Crown Mines, P.O. Box 102, S. Feb. 12, 1898 

Johannesburg, Transvaal ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 1, 1903 

M. April 9, 1910 

710 Walton-Brown, Stanley, Seghill Park, Seghill, Dudley, S. June 20, 1908 

Northumberland ... A. Aug. 3, 1912 

M. June 14, 1913 

711* Ward, Thomas Henry, Giridih, East Indian Railway, Bihar A.M. Aug. 5, 1882 

and Orissa, India M.Aug. 3,1889 

712 Ware, Francis Thomas, The Croft, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland June 11, 1910 

713 Waters, Stephen, Apartado No. 57, Pachuca, Mexico ... April 4, 1903 

714 Watson, Claude Leslie ... Dec. 8, 1900 

715 Watson, John, Blackball, New Zealand Dec. 12,1908 

716 Watson, Thomas, Trimdon Colliery, County Durham Oct. 11, 189U 

717 Watson, William, Settlingstones Mines, Fourstones, 

Northumberland April 14, 1917 

718 Watts, James, Guaranv, Perranwell Station, Cornwall ... A.M. Feb. 11, 1911 

M. Aug. 1, 1914 

719 Webster, Alfred Edward, Manton, Worksop June 12, 1897 

720 Wedderburn, Charles Maclagan, 8, East Fettes Avenue, 

Edinburgh Oct. 14, 1905 

721 Weeks, Richard James, Bedlington, Northumberland 

{Member of Council) Oct. 8,1910 

722 Weeks, Richard Llewellyn, Willington, County Durham A.M. June 10, 1882 

(Retiring Vice-President, Member of Council) ... M. Aug. 3,1889 

723*Weinberg, Ernest Adolph, c/o C. W. Moore, 5, London A.M. Feb. 12, 1898 

Wall Buildings, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2. ... M. Oct. 8, 1898 

724 Welch, William Hall, Talbot House, Birtley, County S. Feb. 10, 1906 

Durham A. Aug. 2, 1913 

M. June 9, 1917 

725 Welsh, Thomas, Maindee House, Upper Pontnewydd, 

Monmouthshire ... ... ... ... ... ... Feb. 14 

726 Welsh, Thomas, Holly Terrace, Stanley, County Durham Aug. 3 

727 White, Charles Edward, Wellington Terrace, South Shields S. Nov. 4 



A.M. Aug. 
M. Aug. 3 

728 Whitehead, Harold Joshua, A brain Coal Company, 

Limited, Bickershaw, Wigan ... ... ... ... Dec. 9 

729 Whitehead, Percy Colin, co The Bisichi Tin Company 

(Nigeria), Limited, Jos, Northern Nigeria ... ... Feb. 13 

730 Widdas, Frank, Thrislington Hall, West Cornforth, A. Dec. 8 

County Durham M. Feb. 10 

731 Widdas, Henry, Whitehaven Castle Estate, Somerset 

House, Whitehaven ... ... ... ... ... ... April 7 

732 Widdas, Percy, Oakwood, Cockfield, County Durham ... Aug. 6 

733 Wight, Frederick William, 5, Bondicar Terrace, Blyth... Aug. 5 

734 Wight, Robert Tennant, Deaf Hill Terrace, Trimdon 

Colliery, County Durham ... ... ... ... ... Oct. 13 

735 Wilbra ham, Arthur George Bootle S. Dec. 11 

M. Feb. 8 



736 Wild, Matthew Brown, 37, Arthur Road, Erdington, 

Birmingham Oct. 12, 1907 

737 Wilkinson, John Thomas, East Hetton Colliery, Coxhoe, 

County Durham Dec. 8, 1900 

738* Wilkinson, William Fischer, Hurstbourne Priors, White- 
church, Hampshire ... ... ... ... .. ... Oct. 10, 1896 

739 Willey, Joseph Leonard, P.O. Box 3, Brakpan, Transvaal Aug. 1, 1908 

740 Williams, Foster, Miniera di Libiola, Sestri Levante, A. April 13, 1907 

Italy M. June 20, 1908 

741 Williams, Griffith John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Coed 

Menai, Bangor Aug. 2, 1902 



1903 
1912 
1876 

1885 
1889 

1911 

1915 
1900 
1917 

1906 
1904 
1905 

1900 
1897 
1902 



xi 



LIS'J ui M I \i It] l( 



7 vi Williams, John, Dolavon, Llanrwst, Denbighshire 
713 Willi \ms, Robert, Friars Souss, New Broad 

London, E.( '.'_'. 
711 Willis, Edward Turnley, 3, The Drive, Gosforth, N"< 

casl le upon-Tyne 

745 Wilson, Anthony, lirenthwaite, Keswi- k A. 

746 Wilson, Frederick, Vane House. Dawilon Colliery, Sea- 

hani Earbour, County Durham 

747 WlLSON, .Iambs, Wellington House, Edmondsley, Durham 

748 Wilson, John Robert Robinson, If.M. Divisional In- 

spector of Mines, 4, Park Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne (Vice-President, Member 0/ Council) 

749 Wilson, John Reginald Straker, 3, St. Nicholas' Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

7.">0 Wilson, Joseph William, 118, Abington Avenue, North- 
ampton... 

751 Wilson, William Brum well, 19, West Parade, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne {Member of Council) 

752* Wilson, William Brumwell, Jun., Field House, High 
Spen, Rowlands Gill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

753 Wilson, William Smith, 54, Queens Road, Jesmond, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

754 Winchell, Horace VauGHAN, 1212, First National-Soo 

Line Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 

755 W t ood, Ernest Seymour, Cornwall House, Murton, County 

Durham {Member of Council) 

756 Wood, John, Coxhoe Hall, Coxhoe, County Durham 



757* Wood, Sir Lindsay, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street 
(Past-President, Member of Council) 

758 Wood, Richard, Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan ... 

759 Wood, Robert, 8, Olympia Gardens. Morpeth 

760 Wood, Thomas, Rainton, Graham Park Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

761 Wood, Thomas Outterson, Cramlington House. Cramling- 

ton, Northumberland 

762 Wood, William Outterson, South Hetton, Sunderland 

(Past-President, Member of Council) 

763 Woodbdrne, Thomas Jackson, De Beers Consolidated 

Mines, Limited, Bultfontein Mine, Kimberley, South 
Africa ... 

764 Worley, Robert, Rose House, Kellfield Road, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

765 Wraith, Charles Osborn, U.M.H.K., Elisabethville, 

Congo Beige, via Capetown 

766 Wright, Abraham, East Indian Railway, Engineering 

Department, Giridih, Bihar and Orissa, India 

767 Wrightson, Sir Thomas, Bart., Thornaby-upon-Tees, 

Stockton-upon-Tees ... 

768 Wrightson, Wilfrid Ingram, Ivy Cottage, Norton, A. 

Stockton-upon-Tees .. 

769 Wynne, Frederick Horton, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 

9, Northbank Terrace, Glasgow, W. 



\>&t* of I 
Mid of 'I 

Oct. s, L904 

June 13. 1^96 

June 10, 191 1 
M. Feb. 10, 1900 

M. Doc. 1:; i f » 2 

Dec 12, L908 

April 13, 1901 

Dec. 11, 1915 

Dec. L3, 1913 

June 10. 1911 
8. Feb. 6, 1869 
M. Aug. 2, 1873 

Feb. 9, 1901 

Feb. 8, 1913 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Oct. 10, 1891 

S. June 8, 1889 

A. Aug. 4, 1894 

M. Aug. 3, 1895 

Oct. 1, 1857 

June 14, 1902 

April 13. 1907 

S. >ept. 3, 1870 

M. Aug. 5, 1871 

Feb. 14, 1903 

Nov. 7, 1863 

Feb. 10, 1894 

April 13, 1918 

S. June 10, 1905 

A. Aug. 5, 1911 

M. Dec. 8, 1917 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Sept. 13, 1873 
M. Dec. 9, 1899 
M. Feb. 8, 1908 

Oct. 11, 1913 



770 Y'oull, Gibson, Dicksonia, Victoria Street, Mayfield, New 

South Wales, Australia Oct. 12,1901 

771 Young, Andrew, Westview, Broomhill, Acklington, 

Northumberland Dec. 11, 1909 

772 Young, George Ellis, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle- S. Aug. 3, 1901 

upon-Tyne A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Feb. 14, 1914 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Xli 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 

773 Young, John Andrew, Joseph Crawhall and Sons, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. Transactions, etc., sent to 3, Fountain A.M. Dec. 10, 1887 
Avenue, Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... .. M. Aug. 3, 1889 

774 Young, John Huntley, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland June 21, 1894 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Assoc. M.I.M.E.). 

Marked have paid life corn posit inn. 

1 Ainsworth, George, The Hall, Consett, County Durham 

2 Armstrong, John Hobart, 31, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

3 Atkinson, George Blaxland, Edinburgh Buildings, 

21, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

4 Barrett, Sir William Scott, 11, Old Hall Street, Liver- 

pool 

5*Bell, Sir H ugh, Bart. , Middlesbrough 

6 Benson, Walter John, Collingwood Buildings, Colling- 

wood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

7 Bleloch, Robert, e/o Royal Colonial Institute, North- 

umberland Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 

8*Broadbent, Denis Kipley, Royal Societies Club, St. James' 
Street, London, S.W. 1. transactions sent to The 
Library, Royal Societies Club, St. James' Street, 
London, S.W. 1 

9 Brutton, P. M., 17, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

10 Cackett, James Thoburn, Pilgrim House, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

11*Carr, William Cochran, Benwell Colliery, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne {Member of Council) 

12*Chewings, Charles, Eton Street, Malvern, South 
Australia 

13 Cochrane, William James, York Chambers, Fawcett 

Street, Sunderland ... 

14 Cook, Arthur Geoffrey Harold, Collingwood Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

15 Cooper, R. W., Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

16 Cope, William Henry, The University, Birmingham 

17 Corder, Herbert Scott, Lloyds Bank Chambers, Colling- 

wood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

18 Cordner, Allan, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Assistant Secretary, Member of Council) 

19 Cory, Sir Clifford John, Bart., c/o Cory Brothers and 

Company, Limited, Cardiff 

20 Dillon, Malcolm, Dene House, Seaham Harbour, County 

Durham 

21 Elcoate, John, 16, Marton Road, Middlesbrough 

22 Fenwick, Featherstone, County Chambers, Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

23 Ffennell, Raymond William, cjo The Central Mining and 

Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C 2. 

24 George, Edward James, Beech Grove, Consett, County 

Durham 

25 Gibson, George Ralph, Tyne Saw Mills, Hexham 

26 Gibson, Thomas William, Bureau of Mines, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 

27 Giddy, Thomas Grantham James, Kenilworth, Samdon 

Street, Hamilton, New South Wales, Australia 
28"'Graham, John, Findon Cottage, near Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Dec. 9, 1905 

Aug. 1, 18.85 

Nov. 5, 1892 

Oct. 14, 1899 
Dec. 9, 1882 

Feb. 8, 1913 

June 9, 1917 



Oct. 14, 1896 
Oct. 13, 1900 

Oct. 10, 1903 

Oct. 11, 1890 

April 25, 1896 

April 3, 1909 

Oct. 9, 1909 
Sept. 4, 1880 
Dec. 9, 1905 

Feb. 10, 1917 

June 19, 1915 

Dec. 11, 1897 

Dec. 14, 1912 
April 13, 1912 

June 8, 1907 

April 9, 1904 



Dec. 9, 1905 
June 20, 1908 

June 8, 1901 

April 8, 1911 
Oct. 9, 1897 



xlii 



LIST OF M I'M I'.l R 



on 

29 Graham, James Parmley, Bon Insurance r.midings, 

Collingwood Street, Newoastle-upon-Tyne l>< - l!tO«j 

30 Grebnwell, Bubbrt, 30 and 31, Furnival Street, Bolborn, 

London, K.C. 4. ... ... ... I . b. 14, 1!H4 

31 Gregson, Gborge Arthur, 12, Besketb Road, Southporl Aug. ;, 1916 

32 (jIunn, Scott, 27, Quayside, Newcastle upon ryne .. Aug. <i, l I 

33 Guthrie, Reginald, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Treasurer, Member of Council) ... Ang ». i- 

34 Haggie, Peter Norman Broughton, o/o Baggie Brothers, 

Limited, Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... L 10, 1908 

35 Beokels, Matthew Octavitts, Star Buildings, 26, North- 

umberland Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne... ... bee. 12, 1914 

36 Heeley. GeORGE, East Avenue, Benton, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne . ... Dec. 14. IS 

37 Hknzkli., Robert, Northern Oil Works, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne April 11, 18 

38 Highton, Langton, Newlands, Workington ... June 7. 1919 

39 Hopper, George William Nugent, The Ropery, 

Thornaby-upon-Tees, Stockton-upon-Tees ... ... Oct. 10, 1908 

40 Jeffrey, Joseph Andrew, c o The Jeffrey Manufacturing 

Company, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. ... ... ... Dec. 11, 1897 

41 Jeffries, Joshua, Abermain Colliery, New South Wales, 

Australia Dec. 10,1^9- 

42*Joicey, James John, The Hill, Witley, Godalming ... Oct. 10, 1891 

43 Jopling, Ford Stafford, Jun., 8, Thornhill Terrace, 

Sunderland Feb. 12, 1910 

44 Krohn, Herman Alexander, 103, Cannon Street, London, 

E.C. 4 Oct. 14, 1893 

45 Lamb, Edmund George, Borden Wood, Liphook, Hamp- 

shire Feb. 12, 1898 

46 Lambert, Cuthbert Alfred, North Eastern Railway 

Offices, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Pec. 12, 1914 

47 Latimer, William, 3, St. Nicholas' Buildings, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... Oct. 14, 1905 

48 Lawson, Henry Alfred, co Robert Frazer and Sons, 

Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... April 8,1911 

49 Leake, Percy Collinson, c/o Deanbank Chemical Com- 

pany, Ferry Hill Aug. 3,1907 

50 Lumsden, Henry Cook, 48, Kothwell Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Oct. 10, 1914 

51 Major, Herbert, 11, Belle Vue, Mowbray Road, Sunder- 

land June 1, 1912 

52 Mansfield, Francis Turquand, 457th Field Company, 

Royal Engineers, Army of the Rhine. Transactions A. Oct. 14, 1916 
sent to 16, Barclay Road, South Croydon, Surrey ... A.M. Feb. 10, 1917 

53 Moreing, Algernon Henry, 62, London Wall, London, 

E.C. 2. Oct. 14. 1911 

54 Morris, Percy Copeland, 79, Elm Park Gardens, Chelsea, 

London, S.W. 10 Eeb. 14, 1903 

o~) Oliver, James Stuart, 21, Tankerville Terrace, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 10, 1912 

56 Palmer, Sir Alfred Molyneux, Bart., John Bowes and 

Partners, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Nov. 24, 1894 

57 Patterson, Robert Oliver, Thorneyholme, Wylam, North- 

umberland ^ ... Feb. 12, 1910 

58 Perera, Jacob Salesten, 12, Race Street, Jesmond, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne June, 1, 1918 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 



xliii 



59 "Pickup, Peter Wright Dixon, Rishton Colliery, Rishton, 

Blackburn 
60 Prior- YVandesforde. Richard Henry. Castlecomer House, 

Castlecomer, County Kilkenny 
61* Proctor, John Henry, 29, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne... 

62 Raine, Winfred, Inglewild, Pity Me, Durham ... 

63 Ramsey, John Harry, Westcot, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

64 Reid, Sidney, Printing Court Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

65 Rogers, Isaac Bowman, 69, Holywell Avenue, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland ... 

66 Rogerson, John Edwin, Oswald House, Durham ... 

67 Russell. James, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

68 Sadler, Basil, Craigmore, Lanchester, Durham 

69 Samuel, David, Arcade Chambers, Llanelly 

70 Sanders, Charles William Henry, Fawnlees, Woking- 

ham, County Durham 

71 Simpson, Horace Sydney Kendal, P.O. Box 56, Dundee, 

Natal, South Africa ... 

72 Smith, Arthur Herbert, Broad Street House, New Broad 

Street, London, E.C. 2. 

73 Smith, Stanley, University College of W T ales, Aberystwyth 

74 Steuart, Douglas Stuart-Spens, Royal Societies Club, St. 

James' Street, London, S.W. 1. 

75 Strzelecki, Algernon Percy Augustus de, 39, Victoria 

Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 1. ... 

76 Todd, James, Lloyds Bank Chambers, Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

77 Waley, Frederick George, The Bellambi Coal Company, 

Limited, 9, Bridge Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 
Australia 

78 Walker, Frederick Tillotson, 27, Woodbine Avenue, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

79 Walter, Charles, 51, Brunswick Avenue, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 

80 Watson, John Robert, Thorndene, Hill Crest, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland 

81 Watt, Percy Buckton, 27, Holly Avenue, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. Transactions sent to c/o Allan Cordner, 
Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

82 Watts, John, Wingrove, Clayton Road, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne ... 

83 Welford, Thomas, c/o Colliery Manager, Minmi, New 

South Wales, Australia 

84 Whitehead, Thomas, Brindle Lodge, Preston 

85* Williams, Henry, Llwyngwern, Pontardulais, Glamorgan 
86* Wood, Arthur Nicholas Lindsay, The Hermitage, Chester- 

le-Street 
87 Wood, Hugh Nicholas, Sun Buildings, Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 



ASSOCIATES (Assoc. I.M.E.). 

Marked * has paid life composition. 

1 Adams, Robert, 3, Oswin Road, Forest Hall, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

2 Aldis, Gerald ... ... 

3 Alexander, Arthur Cecil, c/o Bengal Coal Company, 

Limited, Calcutta, India 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Dec. 9, 1905 
June 8, 18P9 

Dec. 13, 1913 

April 8, 1916 

Dec. 13, 1902 

April 13, 1912 
June S, 1895 
Feb. 13. 1904 

Feb. 11, 1905 
Dec. 13, 1902 

Dec. 14, 1901 

April 14, 1917 

June 14, 1902 
Oct. 12, 1918 

June 10, 1899 

Dec. 12, 1908 

Aug. 6. 1892 



Feb. 9, 1907 
April 14, 1917 
Dec. 14, 1918 
April 9, 1910 

Feb. 10, 1912 

April 8, 1911 

June 10, 1903 
June 12, 1897 
Dec. 9, 1905 

July 14, 1896 

Oct. 12, 1912 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



April 13, 1918 
S. Feb. 14, 1914 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 
S. June 10, 1911 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 



xliv 



LIS! oi \i I nI i;i Its 



i \ i.i w. Herbert Durham, Rewal 

Bengal Nagpur Railway, Central [ndia ... 

5 A ii.i Ri< n ixnsoN, 201 . Hugh Qa 

oastle-upon-Tyne 

G Anderson, Robert Wylie, Highfield, Walltend, North- 
umberland 

7 Armstrong, William Sinci m. u, Church Street, Marie) 

Hill, Swalwell, < bounty Durham 

8 Atkinson, William EIbnby, Dana Castle, Tow Law, 

County Durham 

'.) Bambo&OUOH, Jacob, New Monckton Collieries, Barnaley 

10 Banson, Charles Henry, 4, Rising Sun Cottages, 

Wellington Quay, Northumberland 

11 Barber, Norman Elsdale, Barnby Moor House, Retford... 

12 Barker, Joseph Edward, 2, Deaf Hill Terrace, Trimdon 

Colliery, County Durham •■• 

13 Bary-English, Henry Edward, 22, Avenue Raphael, 

Paris, XVI, France ... 

14 Bates, Johnson, 5, Grange Villa, County Durham 

15 BATTEY, THOMAS, Station Road. Shiremoor, Newcastle upon- 

Tyne 

L6 Bayfield, Henry, 41, Westcott Road, Tyne Dock, South 
Shields ... 

17 Benson, Herbert Sidney, Seaton Burn Colliery, Seaton 

Burn, Dudley, Northumberland ... 

18 Bewley, George, 46, Kingsley Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

19 Blunden, Philip Sidney, Eldon Colliery, Bishop Auckland 

20 Blythman, John, East View, High Heworth, Gateshead - 

upon-Tyne 

21 Booth, James Frederick, 8, Uxbridge Terrace, Felling, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

22 Bootiman, Frank Cecil, Woodside, YVestoe, South Shields 

23 Boutland, Thomas, 25, First Row, Ashington Northumber- 

land 
2A Brandon, Gkoffry, The Backworth Collieries, Limited, 
Backworth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

25 Brooks, Douglas Roy, The Lower Garth, Guisborough, 

Yorkshire 

26 Browell, Jasper Geoffrey, Low Trewhitt, Rothbury, 

Northumberland 

27 Brown, John Cecil, 9, East View, South Shields 

28 Brown, John William, 2, Dene Bridge, Ferry Hill, 

County Durham 

29 Brown, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 82, Sidney 

Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

30 Burt, Thomas, Hill House, Washington, Washington 

Station, County Durham 

31 Carroll, John, Hillcrest, Newfield, Willington, County 

Durham 

32 Cheesman, Edward Taylor, Jun., Clara Vale Colliery, 

Ry ton, County Durham 

33 Chen, Pao Kin, 39, North Soochow Road, Shanghai, China 

34 Cheung, Wing Po, 21, Sanderson Road, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

35 Chicken, Ernest, Sea View, Horden, County Durham ... 

36 Clark, Nathaniel J., Woodlands, Wallsend, > ew South 

Wales, Australia 



Date ' i Lion 

at '• r 

1-. i, 10, 1J 

-.. 10, 1917 

i j. 191 I 

A. Aug. 9. 1919 

June 7, 1919 

7, 1909 
Aug. 5, 1916 

'. 8, 1904 

April 13, 1918 

dim -JO. 1908 
A. Aug. 2, 1913 

April 12, 1919 

.ug. 7, 1909 

A. Feb. 11, 1911 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Oct. 13, 1^94 

Feb. 12, 1916 
8. Feb. 11, 1905 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 





Feb. 


10, 


1917 




June 


8, 


1907 




Dec. 


12, 


1914 




Dec. 


11, 


1909 


s. 


Feb. 


10, 


1912 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 


1917 




June 


1, 


1918 


s. 


Dec. 


8, 


1900 


A 


Aug. 


3. 


1907 


S. 


Dec. 


H, 


1907 


A. 


Aug. 


3, 


1912 


s. 


Oct, 


8, 


1910 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1917 


S. 


Feb. 


10, 


1912 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 


1917 




Feb. 


10, 


1917 




June 


14, 


1913 




April 


4, 


1909 




Feb. 


12, 


1898 



Dec. 10, 1910 
S. Dec. 11, 1915 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 

June 1, 1918 

Oct. 8, 1910 

S. April 13, 1901 

A. Aug. 1, 1903 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlv 



37 Clement, John, 3, Coronation Terrace, Guisborough, 

Yorkshire 

38 Clephan, Guy, The Cottage, Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, 

Norshumberland 

39 Coulson, William Hall, 2, Pimlico, Durham 

40 Coxon, Samuel Bailey, 3, Percy Terrace, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

41 Crawhall, John Stanhope, Westcroft, Stanhope, County 

Durham 

42 Crowle, Percy J., Mysore Mine, Kolar Goldfields, Mari- 

kuppam, Mysore, India 

43 Cummings, Willtam, 2, Dene View, Burnopfield, County 

Durham 

44 Cusson, Charles Frederick, Greenfield House, Station 

Road, Washington Station, County Durham ... 

45 Dakers, Edgar Walton, Weardale Mines and Quarries, 

Stanhope, County Durham ... 

46 Dales, John Henry, '2, Derwent View, Burnoptield, County 

Durham 

47 Daniell, Henry Edmund Blackburne, 7, Wallace Terrace, 

Ry ton, County Durham 

48 Davies, Daniel John, Morton Main Mining Company, 

Mortonmain, via Rylstone, New South Wales, 
Australia 

49 Davis, James E., South Medomsley Colliery, Dipton, 

County Durham 

50 Davison, Francis, Ash Grove House, Hedley Hill Colliery, 

near Waterhouses, Durham 

51 Devenport, Christopher, 112, Talbot Road, South Shields 

52 Dick-Cleland, Archibald Felce, c'o Amparo Mining 

Company, Etzatlan, Jalisco, Mexico 

53 Dixon, Matthew, 9, Otterburn Avenue, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 
'54 Douglas, Albert Edward 

55 Douglas, John, 2, The Villas, Dean Bank, Ferry Hill, 

County Durham 

56 Dunnett, Samuel, West View House, Coomassie Road, 

Waterloo, Blyth ... 

57 Dwane, Francis Cectl, Ballarpur, Chanda, Central 

Provinces, India 

58 Eadie, John Allan, Jun., Eller Bank, Harrington, 

Cumberland 

59 Elliot, Arthur, 40, West Kensington Mansions, West 

Kensington, London, W. 14. 

60 Elliott, George, Oakwood, Catchgate, Annfield Plain, 

County Durham 

61 English, Thomas Weddle, 1, Osborne Avenue, Hexham ... 

62 Fletcher, Daniel, 3, Victoria Terrace, Hamsterley 

Colliery, County Durham ... 

63 Flint, Frederic John, 5, Saltwell Street, Gateshead - 

upon-Tyne 

64 Flint, William Andrew, 27, Middle Row, Isabella Pit, 

Newsham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne .. 

65 Ford, Eric Loufwin, The White House, Morton, Alfreton 

66 Ford, Leo Dorey, E.I.R. and B.N.R. Joint Colliery, 

Bokaro, Gumujan P.O., Hazaribagh, Bihar and Orissa, 
India 

67 Forster, Edward Baty, Ingleside, Ryton, County Durham 

68 Fowler, Albert Ernest, 12, Wingrove Road, Newcastle. 

upon-Tyne 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer 

Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 10, 1910 

Dec. 14, 1912 

S. Oct. 12, 1907 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. Feb. 14, 1914 

A. Aug. 10, 1918 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Oct. 13, 1917 

Oct. 10, 1914 
S. Dec. 14, 1907 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 

April 4, 1914 
S. Aug. 3, 1907 
A Aug. 6, 1910 



Oct. 12, 1907 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Feb. 12, 1898 
Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 11, 1915 
S. Aug. 1, 1903 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 

Aug. 4, 1917 

June 8, 1895 

Aug. 2, 1913 

S. Oct. 10, 1903 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

S. Dec. 13, 1902 

A. Aug. 1, 1908 

June 8, 1907 
Feb. 11, 1905 

Feb. 9, 1918 

Aug. 7, 1909 

Oct. 12, 1918 
S. April 11, 1908 
A. Feb. 8, 1913 



Feb. 8, 1913 
April 7, 1906 

S. Oct. 12, 1907 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 



1 1 v i 



LIST 01 MEMB1 



09 Gallon, Joseph, 71, Seventh Row, Aihington, NortK 
umberland 

70 Gallwbt, John Payne, Royal Engineeri B perimenteJ 

Station, Porton, Salisbury 

71 Geraghty, Richard, Oherryburn, Mickley Square, StockH- 

field, Northumberland 

72 Gilchrist, George Atkinson, South Pelaw Colliery, 

( hester-le-Street 
7-'> Gould, George Donald, co Mrs. John Gould, 58, BSberi 
Road, Nottingham 

74 Graham, Robert, 1, Park Street, Willington, County 

Durham 

75 Graham, William, Jun., 6, Victoria Road, Whitehaven 

76 Graydon, George Watson, 10, The Avenue, Felling, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

77 Grey, William, Manor House, Broomhill, Acklington, 

Northumberland 
7S Guthrie, Kenneth Malcolm, 73, Cleveland Road, North 
Shields 

79 Halkier, Robert, The Villas, Hartford Colliery, Cram- 

lington, Northumberland ... 

80 Hall, Rowley, Station House, South Hylton, Sunderland 

81 Hanlon, Henry Charles Hubert, 7, Mark Lane, White- 

haven ... 

82 Hann, Thomas Cummins, 5, The Villas, Ferry Hill Village, 

Ferry Hill, County Durham 

83 Hare, Alfred Bessell, Shildon Lodge Colliery, Shildon, 

New Shildon, County Durham 

84 Hare, Ralph Victor, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland ... 

85 Harris, Francis Edwin, 2, Vale View, Porthill, Stoke- 

upon-Trent 

86 Hawkins, John Bridges Bailey, Staganhoe Park, 

Welwyn 

87 Heatherington, Arnold, Ouston House, Pelton, County 

Durham 

88 Hedley, Rowland Frank Hutton, Percy Villa, Salisbury 

Place, South Shields ... ... 

89 Henderson, Christopher Gregory, Shoreswood, Ash- 

ington. Northumberland 

90 Herdman.Fred. G., Main Street, Haltwhistle, Northumber- 

land 

91 Herriotts, Joseph George, 6, Station Road, Easington 

Colliery, County Durham 

92 Heslop, George, The Vereeniging Estates, Limited, Cor- 

nelia Colliery, Viljoen's Drift, Orange Free State, 
South Africa ... 

93 Heslop, William, Rose Cottage, Burnopfield, County 

Durham 

94 IIindmarsh, George Mason, Railway Street, Corrimal, 

New South Wales, Australia 

95 FTindson, Donald, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

96 Hockaday, John Bellamy, 5, Edward Street, Craghead, 

County Durham 

97 Holliday, Albert Edward David, Dunelm, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

98 Hood, Charles Attwood, Fox Hall, Butterknowle, County 

Durham 

99 Hudson, Mark, Upper Thorpe House, Guerney Valley, 

near Bishop Auckland 
100 Humble, William Henry, Waldridge Colliery, Chester- 
le-Street 



1 
and "f Tnu 

u 1909 
\. Aug. I, 1914 

ii. L913 
A. Aug 5, 1916 



Aug. lo 
8. IX I i 
A. Aug. 1 

April 8 

t. 12 

S. Oct. 13 
A. Aug. 3 

Feb. 10 

Dec. 14 

S. Aug. 5 

A. Dec. 13 



Feb. 10 

S. Dec. 14 

A. Aug. 10 

April 8 

April 10 

Dec. 14 
S. Dec. 10 
A. Aug. 4 



Aug. 

S. Dec. 13 

A. Aug. 6 

S. Dec. 9 

A. Aug. 10 

S. April 4 

A. Aug. 7 



June 1 
S. Dec. 14 
A. Aug. 6 

April 28 



Oct. 9 

Oct. 8 

Aug. 1 

Feb. 9 

Feb. 10 

April 12 

Feb. 10 

Dec. 9 

Dec. 14 



1918 
190] 
1908 

1916 

1 007 
1006 
1912 

1917 

1918 
1911 

1913 



1917 
1912 
1918 

1916 

1915 

1912 
1910 
1917 

1917 
1902 
1910 
1911 
1918 
1903 
1909 

1912 
1907 
1910 

1900 

1909 

1898 

1914 
1918 

1917 

1913 

1917 

1905 

1907 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlvii 



101 Hunter. Andrew, 3, Westcott Avenue, South Shields ... 

102 Hutton, Allan Robinson Bowks, Daw Wood, Bentley, 

Doncaster 

103 Hyde, George Alfred, Elder House, Us worth Colliery, 

Washington Station, County Durham .. 

104 Inman, William St. John, Torrington, West Cliffe, Roker, 

Sunderland 

105 Jackson, William Stamp, West View, Low Eighton, Low 

Fell, Gateshead-upon-Tyne... 

106 Jeffery, Albert John, Hedworth House, Barn Hill, 

Stanley, County Durham ... 

107 Jobling, John Swanstone, Wellington Terrace, Edmond- 

sley, Durham ... 

108 Johnson, Ernest Case, 19, Pavilion Terrace, Burnhope, 

Durham 

109 Kay, Peter, 54, Rosalind Street, Ashington, Northumber 

land 

110 Kelly, John, North Biddick Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Durham 

111 Kirkley, Aidan ... 

112 Kirkup, Philip, Jun., Briermede, Low Fell, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

113 Lee, Fang Chun, 10, Randolph Gardens, Carlton Vale, 

Maida Vale, London. N.W. 6 

114 Leebetter, William, Edith Avenue, Us worth Colliery, 

Washington Station, County Durham ... 

115 Leybourne, Elliot Angus, Birchholme, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

116 Logan, Reginald Samuel Moncrieff, 28, Simpson Terrace, 

Rlucher Colliery, Newburn, Northumberland 

117 Loudon, George, 1, Office Buildings, Harton Colliery, 

South Shields ... 

118 Lowry, Joseph Thompson, Rosslyn, 31, Rosewood 

Crescent, Walkerville, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

119 McKensey, Stanley, 39th Fortress Company, A.E., 

Nobby's Road, Newcastle, New South Wales, 
Australia 

120 McLaren, Ronald Henry, Offerton Hall, Sunderland 

121 Magee, Stanley Sharpe, Sharpe's House, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

122 Marr, Joseph, Ashleigh House, Sheriff Hill, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

123 Martin, David, 7, East View, Blackhills Road, Horden, 

County Durham 

124 Martin, Tom Pattinson, Seaton Park, near Workington... 

125 Merivale, Vernon, Middleton Hall, Middleton, Leeds ... 

126 Milburn, William, Hill House, Ouston. Birtley, County 

Durham 

127 Millne, David, 41, Sidney Row, Bedlington, North- 

umberland 

128 Mirza, Khurshid, Mining Engineer, Hyderabad, Deccan, 

India 
129*Mitchell- Withers, William Charles 

130 Murray, Robert Wallace, 8, Lintz Colliery, Burnopfield, 
County Durham 



Date of Biectiuu 
and of Transfer. 

Feb. 13, 1897 

S. April 8, 1905 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 

S. Feb. 13, 1909 

A. Aug. 5, 1911 

S. Feb. 11, 1911 
A. Aug. 4, 1917 



April 12, 1919 

April 28, 1900 

Oct. 12, 1907 
S. Feb. 10, 1917 
A. Aug. 9, 1919 

Oct. 12, 1918 

Feb. 10, 1917 

June 11, 1910 

S. Dec. 9, 1911 

A. Aug. 9, 1919 

Dec. 9, 1916 

Dec. 9, 1911 

S. April 2, 1913 

A. Aug. 7. 1915 

S. Feb. 9, 1901 

A. Aug. 1, 1903 

Feb. 12, 1916 
April 3, 1909 



S. Oct. 14, 1911 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. Feb. 10, 1912 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 





April 13. 


1912 




Feb. 10, 


1917 




Feb. 10, 


1917 


S. 


June 13, 


1914 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1916 


S 


. Oct. 8, 


1910 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1916 




June 8, 


1895 



Aug. 3, 1907 
S. June 13, 1914 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 
S. April 28, 1900 
A. Aug. 2, 1902 

Oct. 13, 1917 



xlviii 



I, Is | mi m | m |'.| [tfi 



L31 Mutoh, Edwabd Rodeb* i •"• Elosebarn Place, Edinburgh 

L32 Mycook, William, Front Street, Shotton Collier] 
Eden, Count} Durham 

L33 Nattri George, Redheugh Colliery, I I upon 

Tyne 

i:;i Nichols, Henbi Hebbbbt, Kibbles worth, Gatethead-upon 
Tync 

135 Nicholson, Gboboe Thompson, Dene House, Scotewood, 

Northumberland 

136 Oliver, William, 4, Quality Row, Harton Colliery, South 

Shields ... 

137 Oswald. GEOBOE Robert, Sritannarat, Xakon, Siam 

138 Owen, Arthur Lewis Scott, Houghton ( ollieiy, Houghton- 

le-Spring, County Durham ... 

139 Owens, George, Westerton Village, Bishop Auckland 

140 Paodon, Neville Blackmore, South Brancepeth, Spenny- 

moor. Transaction* sent to c,o B. L. Brodhurst, 

Sunnybrow House, Willington, County Durham 

141 Parish, Charles, Ch&rlaw, Sacristou, Durham 

142 Parker, Joseph William, Cornelia Colliery, Viljoen's 

Drift, Orange Free State, South Africa 

143 Parrington, Matthew Lilbdrn, Hill House, Monkwear- 

mouth, Sunderland ... 

144 Peel, George. Jim., 27, Langley Street, Langley Park, 

Durham 

145 Pollard, Thomas Hardwick, 24, First Row, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

146 Portrey, James, West Thornley, Tow Law, County 

Durham 

147 PrMPHREY, Charles Ernest, Bolam Hall, Morpeth 

148 Pye, Herbert James, Dunelm House, Middlefield. Ushaw 

Moor, Durham 

149 Ramsay. John Gladstone. Oak lea, Bowburn, Coxhoe, 

County Durham 

150 Ranken, Charles Thompson, Coanwood, Roker, Sunder- 

land 

151 Reed, John Thomas, 2, Ivy Terrace, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham 

152 Richardson, Frank, Rossington Colliery, Rossington, 

Doncaster 

153 Richardson, Henry, Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, County 

Durham 

154 Ridley, Henry Anderson, Burnbrae, Blaydon Burn, 

Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County Durham 

155 Ripley, William, 10, Railway Street, Tow Law, Comity 

Durham 

156 Ridley, William, Clifford House, Hamsteels, Quebec, 

Durham 

157 Rivers, John, The Villas, Thornley, County Durham 

158 Robinson, Thomas Lee, Office House, Newton Cap Colliery, 

near Bishop Auckland 

159 Rodway, William, South Row, Bedlington, Northumberland 

160 Rogers, Joseph Nelson Octavius, Lambton House, Fence 

Houses, County Durham 

161 Roose, Hubert Francis Gardner 

162 Rose, Alexander, Front Street, Grange Villa, County 

Durham 



• I ' 

pnl io. 191 6 

A. Aug. 9, 1919 

Oct 10, 1908 



April 14, 1917 

Aug. 3, 1907 

8. Dec 10, 1904 

A. Aug. f>. 1911 



April 8, 1916 
S. .June 9, 1900 

A. Aug. 3, 1907 

8. .lune 12, 1909 

A. Aug. 6, 1910 

Oct. 9, 1909 



Dec. 

Aug. 

June 
S. Oct. 
A. Aug. 

\pril 

Feb. 

Oct. 
S. Dec. 
A. Aug. 



14. 1907 

4. 1917 

11, 1910 
9, 1909 

5, 1916 

4, 1903 
10, 1917 

12, 1912 
10, 1904 

4, 1906 



Aug. 4, 1917 



Dec. 10, 1892 
S. Aug. 5, 1911 
A. Aug. 9, 1919 

April 4, 1914 
S. Oct. 12, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 14, 1907 

S. Aug. 1, 1908 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

Dec. 8, 1906 
Feb. 9, 1895 

April 12, 1913 
June 14, 1913 

April 4, 1914 
S. Dec. 9, 1899 
A. Aug. 3. 1907 

Feb. 10, 1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlix 



163 Scott, Charles Weatheritt, 9, Wensleydale Terrace, 

Gateshead -upon-Tyne 

164 Scott, John Linton, 48, Hay ward Avenue, Seaton Delaval, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

165 Severs, Jonathan, Hebburn House, Hebburn, County 

Durham 

166 Sheel, Harry, 11, St. Cuthbert's Terrace, Dean Bank, 

Ferry Hill, County Durham 

167 Simpson, Joseph. Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thornley, 

County Durham 

168 Snaith, Joseph, Fell House, Burnhope, Durham 

169 Snowdon, Thomas. Jim.. Oakwood, Cockfield, County 

Durham 

170 Southern, John, 9, Egremont Drive, Sheriff Hill, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

171 Spence, John Henry, 61, Caroline Street, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

172 Stewart, Roland, 40, Campbell Street, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

173 Stobart, Thomas Carlton, Ushaw Moor Colliery, 

Durham 

174 Stoker, John, 1, Office Street, Wheatley Hill, County 

Durham 

175 Stoker. Nicholas, South Pelaw Colliery, Chester-le-Street 

176 Strong, George Adamson, Kibblesuorth Hall, Gateshead.- 

upon-Tyne 

177 Stronc, John William, Maplethorpe, Bloxwich, Walsall 

178 Suggett, Ernest Hughes, Laburnum House, West Rain- 

ton, Fence Houses, County Durham 

179 Summerside, Edward, 2, Woodlands, Hexham 

180 Swan, William Edward, Rygnald Cottage, Smithy 

Houses, Derby ••• ... ... 

181 Thomas, Robert Clark, North Biddick Colliery, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 

182 Thompson, John Ballantyne, 166, Westoe Road, South 

Shields 

183 Turnbull, John. 1, South View, Sacriston, Durham 

184 Turnbull, William, Whitwell Villas, Langley Moor, 

Durham 

185 Varty, William Lawrence, Roadside House, Denton, 

Scotswood, Northumberland 

186 Varvill, Wilfred Walter, c/o Dowson and Wright, 13, 

Weekday Cross, Nottingham 

187 Wainwright, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 

West View, Fieldhouse Lane, Western Hill, Durham ... 

188 Walker, Arthur, 4, Fatfield Road, Washington, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 

189 Wallace, William, Rose Lea, Annbank Station, Ayr ... 

190 Walton, Isaac, 3, West Street, Tanfield Lea, Tantobie, 

County Durham 

191 Watson, Thomas, Jun., Cockton House, Bishop Auckland 

192 Welsh, Arthur, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope, County 

Durham 

193 Wigham, John Shiells, Beaconsfield Cottage, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

194 Wile, John William, Rising Sun Colliery, Wallsend, 

Northumberland 

195 Wood, George, South Farm, Cramlington, Northumber- 

land 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. Dec. 9, 1911 
A. Aug. 10, 1918 
S. Dec. 12, 1908 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 
S. June 8, 1895 
A. Aug. 4, 1900 

June 9, 1917 

S. June 10, 1905 

A. Aug. 2, 1913 

Oct. 12, 1907 

S. June 12, 1897 

A. Aug. 3, 1901 

Dec. 14, 1889 

Dec. 8, 1917 

Aug. 6, 1910 

Aug. 2, 1902 

June 3, 1916 
Feb. 13, 1904 
S. Aug. 2, 1902 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 
S. Oct. 9, 1909 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 

Oct. 9, 1915 
Dec. 11, 1909 

April 9, 1904 

S. Aug. 3, 1907 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 
S. Feb. 10, 1912 
A. Aug. 10, 1918 
Aug. 4, 1917 

Oct. 8, 1904 





April 13, 


1918 


s. 


Dec. 12, 


1908 


A. 


Aug. 2, 


1913 




April 2, 


1898 




April 10, 


1915 




April 12, 


1919 




Dec. 14, 


1907 


S. 


June 8, 


1907 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1911 


S. 


Aug. 1 , 


1896 


A, 


Aug. 1, 


1903 


S. 


June 13, 


1914 


A. 


Aug. 10, 


1918 




June 9, 


1917 




April 13, 


1907 




D 





I LI81 01 \ii.\im i 

196 Wood, Ootavius, Woodbine I New i 

Colliery, Durham \ t \u\- 

l<>7 Wood, Raymond Hewison, I i, Ale tildon, 

New Shildon, County Durham ... ... - Hti7 

198 Viiim;, William Robert, Boraarsund, Choppington, 

Northumberland ... ... 10, 1:117 



STUDENTS (StudJ.M.E.). 

1 Blenkinsopp, William Oswald, 10, Pilgrim - Mutton 

Colliery, County Durham ... June 1,1018 

2 Dawson. ARTHUR KENNETH, Holme Hou.se, West Auckland, 

Bishop Auckland ... Dec II, 1919 

3 Dillon. Norman M irgrave, Dene House, Seaham Barbour, 

County Durham .. ... t. 10, 1014 

4 Dixon, Norman, Shilbottle Colliery, Lesbury, Northumberland April 10, 1915 

.") Oibson, John Fen wick, Bentinck House, Ashington, Northum- 
berland Aug. 1, 1914 

6 Paxton, Robert Stanley, Hill Crest, Windlestone, Ferry Hill, 

County Durham ... ..." ... Dec. 8, 1917 

7 Shapley, Cecil Edward William, Kirklan, Torwood Gardens, 

Torquay Aug. 7, 1915 

8 Taggart, John, View House, Denton Burn, Scotswood, 

Northumberland Oct. 13, 1917 

9 Wilson, Henry Lawrence, Cradock Villas. Bishop Auckland Dec. 8, 1917 



SUBSCRIBERS. 

1 The Ashington Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

2 The Bearpark Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Royal Exchange, 

Middlesbrough. 

3 The Bebside Coal Company, Limited, 23, Queen Street, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

4 The Bedlington Coal Company, Limited (4), Watergate Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 

5 Bell Brothers, Limited (4), Middlesbrough. 

6 Wm. Benson and Son, Limited (5), Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

7 The Birtley Iron Company, Birtley, County Durham. 

7a The Pelaw Main Collieries Company (4), Birtley, County Durham. 

8 Bolckow, Vaughan and Company, Limited (4), Middlesbrough. 

9 John Bowes and Partners, Limited (4), Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

10 The Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Limited, 3, Great Winchester 

Street, London, E.C. 2. 

11 Broomhill Collieries, Limited (5), Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

12 Brunner, Mond and Company, Limited, Northwich. 

13 The Burradon and Coxlodge Coal Company, Limited, Hanover House, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

14 The Most Honourable the MARQUESS oi Bute, Bute Estate Othees, Aberdare, 

15 Cargo Fleet Iron Company, Limited, Middlesbrough. Transactions, etc., 

sent to W. A. Caddick, Cargo Fleet Iron Company, Limited, Middles 
brough. 
1(> The Carlton Iron Company, Limited (3), Carlton Iron Works, via Ferry 
Mill, County Durham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. U 

17 The Carterthorne Colliery Company, Limited, Zetland Buildings, 

Middlesbrough. 

18 The Charlaw and Sacriston Collieries Company, Limited, 34, Grey 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

19 The Consett Ikon Company, Limited (5), Consett, County Durham. 

20 M. Coulson and Company, Limited, Merrington Lane Iron Works, Spennymoor. 

21 County Borough of Gateshead Public Library, Swinburne Street, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne. 

22 The Cowpen Coal Company, Limited(4), P, King Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

23 The Cramlington Coal Company, Limited (4), West Hartley Main Fitting 

Office, Newcastle-upun-T} T ne. 

24 Crompton and Company, Limited, Pearl Buildings, Northumberland Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

25 Dominion Coal Company, Limited, Glace l>ay, Nova Scotia. 

26 The Right Honourable the Lark of Durham (4), Lambton Offices, Fence 

Houses, County Durham. 

27 The Easington Coal Company, Limited (5), Whitworth House, Spennymoor. 

28 The East Holywell Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

29 The Right Honourable the Earl of Ellesmere (4), Bridgewater Offices, 

Walkden, Manchester. Transactions sent to Charles Hardy, Bridge- 
water Oiiices, Walkden, Manchester. 

30 The Elswick Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

31 The Framwellgate Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Milburn House, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

32 Gent and Company, Limited, Faraday Works, Leicester. 

33 Geological Survey and Museum, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1. 

34 D. H. and G. Haggie, Wearmouth Patent Rope Works, Sunderland. 

35 The Hardy Patent Pick Company, Limited, Heeley, Sheffield. Transactions, 

etc., sent to C. i'ennett, 6, Lawson Terrace, Durham. 

36 The Harton Coal Company, Limited (G), Harton Collieries, South Shields. 

37 Thomas Hedley and Brothers, 4, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

38 The Heworth Coal Company, Limited, Deans Primrose Office, Newcastle- 

upon- 1 yne. 

39 The Horden Collieries, Limited (4), Castle Eden, County Durham. 

40 Joseph Johnson (Durham), Limited, 74, New Elvet, Durham. 

41 James Joicey and Company, Limited (4), Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

42 Kirkpatrick and Bark, Maritime Buildings, King Street, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. Transactions, etc., sent to J. A. Donkin, 12, Ashgrove Terrace, 
Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

43 The Lambton and [Jetton Collieries, Limited (10), Cathedral Buildings, 

Dean Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

44 Joseph Laycock and Company, Seghill, Dudley, Northumberland. 

45 The Most Honourable the Marquess of Londonderry (8), c o Vincent Charles 

Stuart Wortley Corbett, Londonderry Otliees. Seaham Harbour, County 
Durham. 

46 Mayor and Coulson, Limited, 47, Broad Street, Mile-End, Glasgow. 

47 The Mickley Coal Company, Limited (3), Mickley Offices, Stocksfield, 

Northumberland. 

48 The Moresby Coal Company, Limited, near Whitehaven. 

49 The Netherton Coal Company, Limited (3), Cathedral Buildings, Dean 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

50 The Newbiggin Colliery Company, Limited, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, North- 

umberland. 

51 The North Bitchp>urn Coal Company, Limited, Darlington. 

52 The North Brancepeth Coal Company, Limited, Crown Street Chambers, 

Darlington. 

53 The North Walbottle Coal Company, Limited, Akenside House, Quay- 

side, Newcastle-upon-Tjme. 

54 Osbeck and Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

55 Pease and Partners, Limited (5), Darlington. 

56 The Owners of Pelton Colliery', Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

57 The Priestman Collieries, Limited, Victoria Garesfield Colliery, Rowlands 

Gill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Transactions sent to H. Peile, The Priestman 
Collieries, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Ill LIS! 01 M I M B] i 

Robbi ind Company, Limited, Globe Works, LinooliL 

I'm: Ryhope Coal Company, Limited (4), Etyhope Colliery, Sunderland. 

tiit Sib 8. a. Sadleb, Limitbd, Middlesbrough. 

til Snt li. Sami klso\ and Company, Limitbd, Middlesbrough. 

62 Waltbb Scott, Limitbd, Victoria Buildings, Grainger 

castle-upon-Tyne. 

63 The Beaton Bubn Coal Company, Limited, Akenside B 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

ii4 The Beaton Dblaval Coal Company, Limitbd (4), Excl 
Quayside, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

of> Siemens Brothers and Company, Limitbd, 39, Collingwood Building 
oastle-upon-Tyne. 

(iti Wasteneys Smith and Sons, 57 to 60, Sandhill, N< istle-upon-Tyne. 

67 South Derwbnt Coal Company, Limited, West Stanley Colli. aley, 

County Durham. 

tis The South Betton Coal Company, Limited (4), 50, Johi iderland. 

G9 The South Moor Colliery Company, Limited, 4, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

70 Owners of South Pelaw Colliery, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

71 The Stella Coal Company, Limited, Bedgefield, Blaydon-up i . County 

Durham. 

72 The Sterling Telephone and Electric Company, Limited, 4:2. Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

73 Henry Stobart and Company, Limited (3), Colliery Office, Etherley, 

Bishop Auckland. 

74 Strakers and Love (4), Brancepeth Colliery Offices, Collingwood Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

75 The Throckley Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

76 The Acomb Coal Company, Limited, Acomb. Hexham. 

77 The Wallsend and Hebburn Coal Company, Limited, Exchange Buildings, 

Lombard Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

78 The Washington Coal Company, Limited, Washington, County Durham. 

79 The Weardale Steel, Coal and Coke Company, Limited (5), Tudhoe Iron 

Works, Spennymoor. 

80 The Wearmouth Coal Company, Limited (4), Sunderland. 

81 The West Mickley Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

82 W^estport Coal Company. Limited (4). Dunedin. Otago, New Zealand. 

83 Wingate Coal Company, Limited, Collingwood Buildings, Collingwood 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

84 The Workington Iron and Steel Company, Limited (4), Moss Bay. 

Workington. Transactions, etc., sent to A. Millar, Harrington Colliery, 
Lowca, Whitehaven. 



ENUMERATION. 

August', lt-19. 

Honorary Members ... _20 

Members ... ... ... ... • •• ••• ••• 774 

Associate Members ... ... ... ... ... 

Associates ... ••• 198 

Students ... 9 

Subscribers ... ... ... ... ... ••■ ... 84 



Totai 1,172 



Members are desired to communicate all changes of address, or any collections or 
omissions in the list of names, to the Assistant Secretary. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. lift 

ROLL OF HONOUR 

OF MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE WHO HAVE SERVED WITH HIS MAJESTY'S FORCES 

AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



Adam, T. W. (Lytham), 239th (A. T.) Company, Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Alois, Gerald (Seghill), Royal Army Service Corps (Captain). 
Alexander, A. C. (India), i)tk Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Almond, C. P. (Sunderland), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Killed in 

action. 
Anderson, R. W. (Wallsend), Tyne Electrical Engineers (Major). Awarded 

the Military Cross. 
Annett, H. C. (Widdrington), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). Killed in action. 
Ashton, Sir Ralph P. (London), 4th Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West 

Surrey Regiment) (Major). 
Atkinson, W. II. (Tow Law), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Avery, W. E. (Birtley), 16th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Lieutenant). Killed in action. 
Bainbridge, E. M. (Gosforth), Royal Army Service Corps (Lieutenant). 
Barber, N. E. (Retford), 8th Battalion, King's Royal Rifles (Captain). 
Barrett, R. S. (Dudley), Royal Engineers, Coast Defence (Lieutenant). 
Bell, Marshall B. (Horden), Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserves — St, 

John Ambulance Association (Reserve Ward Master). 
Best, Earle (Betton-Le-Hole), Royal Engineers (Captain). Awarded the 

Military Cross. 
Bigge, D. L. Selby (Glasgow), Northumberland Hussars Imperial Yeomanry 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Blackett, G. E. (Sacriston), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Captain). 
Blackett, W. C. (Sacrisfcon), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Colonel). Au-ardrd C.B.E and T.D. 
Blair, R. C. R. (Whitehaven), 5th Battalion, Border Regiment (Captain). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Killed in action. 
Blunden, P. S. (Bishop Auckland), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Booth, James F. (Felling), Royal Army Medical Corps (Captain). 
Bootiman, F. C. (South Shields), 23rd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Bowen, David (Leeds), Royal Engineers (Captain). 

Bracken, T. W. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Brandon, Geoffry (Backworth), 182ud Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Brass, J. R. (Sacriston), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Lieutenant). 

Killed in action. 
Brooks, D. R. (Guisborough), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Browell, J. G. (Rothbury), 1st Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field Artillery 

(2nd Lieutenant). 



Iiv koi, I. OP HOI 

Brown, John 0. (South Shield 3rd Company, Royal Ei 

(Lieutenant), 
Calder, \\ i i.i.i \ m (London), Royal Engineers (Li 
Care, W. Cochran (Newca tic upon-Tyne), Royal Army Service I ; 

tnounl I )<|) ii t nit hi ( Lieul enant). 
Chambers, l>. M. (London), Tunnelling Compani al Bogie in) 

/v Med in action. 
Charlton, 15. II. (Tow Law), Ith Battalion 

Colonel). Awarded tin Military < < Killed in nil ion. 

Charlton, Gk P. II. (Seaton Delaval), LOth Battalion, South v. i: 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Chater, C. W. (Rangoon), Indian Army Reserve of Officers, attached I» ( 

lOt h Lancers (Hodson's Horse) (2nd Lieutenant). 
Claghorn, Clarence R. (Pennsylvania), United St S I 

( Lieutenant). 

•iknt, John (Guisborough), Lsl Battalion, Coldstream Guard-, (Priv 

Discharged through iron mis. 
Clephan, Gxty (Monkseaton), 4th Northumbrian (Howitzer) Brigade, Royal 

Field Artillery (Captain). 
Clive, Lawrence (Newcastle, Staffordshire), 5th Battalion, North Stafford- 
shire Eegiment (Captain). 
Coade, Samuel (Millom), 257th Company, Royal Engineer- (Sapper). Killed 

in action. 
Collins, H. B. (Kilmacolm), Royal Engineers (Major). 
Colquhoun, T. G. (Monkseaton), attached Recruiting Staff, 10th Regimental 

Area (Captain). 
Cootte, H. M. A. (Mysore, India), Kolar Goldfield Rifle Volunteers (Captain). 
Cothay, F. H. (Sunderland), Royal Navy (Temporary Engineer Lieutenant). 
Cotjlson, W. H. (Durham), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Captain). 
Coxon, Samuel B. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Somerset Light 

Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Crawhall, J. S., (Stanhope), Royal Engineers (Major). 
Crichton-Stcapt, The Right Hon. Lord Ninian (Falkland, Fifeshire), 6th 

Battalion, Welsh Regiment (Lieut. -Colonel). Killed in action. 
Crowle, Percy J. (Mysore, India), Kolar Goldfield Rifle Volunteerrs (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Daniell, H. E. B. (Ryton), 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Davies, William (Darlington), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Dawson, A. K. (Bishop Auckland), 179th Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Dick-Cleland, A. F. (Jalisco, Mexico), Royal Engineers (Acting Major). 
Dillon, N. M. (Seaham Harbour), Heavy Branch, Machine Gun Corps 

(Lieutenant). 
Ditmas, F. I. Leslie (Hammerwich), Assistant Director Railway Traffic. 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded the Distinguished Service Order, the Military 

Cross, and the French Croix de> Guerre avec Palme. 
Dixon, Clement (Bulawayo), Rhodesia Volunteer Reserve Force, South 

African Forces ( ). 

Dixon, George (Newthorpe), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). Killed in 

action. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. lv 

Dixon, George (Manbhum, India), Indian Army Reserve of Officers, attached 

to 26th (King George's Own Light Cavalry) (2nd Lieutenant). 
Dixon, Norman (Lesbury), West Yorkshire Regiment (Lance-Corporal). 
Earnshaw, Oscar (Hamsterley Colliery), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 

Killed in action. 
Edwards, O. T. (Aberdare), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Eliet, .F. C. A. B. Elie du (Lorient, France), 1st Regiment du Genie 

(Capitaine Commandant). 
English, John (Felling), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Major). 
Ffennell, R. W. (London), Officers' Cadet Battalion (Major). 
Flint, W. A. (Newsham), 15th Battalion, Dm ham Light Infantry (Private). 
Ford, L. D. (Bokaro, India), 2nd Battalion, Queen Victoria's Own Sappers 

and Miners (2nd Lieutenant). 
Fowler, A. E. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 174th Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Gallon, Joseph (Ashington), Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Gallwey, J. Payne (London), 24th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Major). 
Garrett, F. C. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Northern Cyclists' Reserve Battalion 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Gibson, J. F. (Ashington), 18th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Private). 
Gould, G. D. (Nottingham), 7th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, attached 

1st Northamptonshire Regiment (Major). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Gray, Edmund (Tudhoe), 176th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Greener, W. J. (Calcutta), Indian Army Reserve of Officers, attached to 

34th Sikh Pioneers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Greenwell, G. H. (Poynton), 257th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Greenwell, Hubert (London), Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (Lieutenant). 
Gregson, E. M. (Southport), 4th Battalion, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Gregson, G. A. (Southport), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Guthrie, K. M. (North Shields), Royal Engineers (Captain). Awarded the 

Military Cross. 
Hall, Row-ley (South Hylton), 19th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Hance, H. M. (Nagpur, India), 179th Company, Royal Engineers (Major). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the Military Cross. 
Hands, John (Federated Malay States), Kuala Lumpur Civil Guard (Private). 
Hare, A. B. (Shildon), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Lieutenant). 
Hare, R. V. (Bishop Auckland), 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Hay, Douglas (Durham), 50th (Northumbrian) Divisional Ammunition 

Column, Royal Field Artillery (Captain). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Heatherington, Arnold (Pelton), 11th Battalion, Border Regiment 

(Corporal). 
Herdman, Fred G. (Haltwhistle), 9th Foreway Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 



I VI BOLL OF HONOUB. 

Misi.oi', James (Acklington)j Northumberland Bus an [mperia] Yeouu 

(Trooper). Killed in action. 
Hewlett, A.lfred (Cossall), 5th Battalion, tfanchestei Regiment (Lieut.- 

Colonel). 
IIim.son, Donald (Durham), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant), ivwrded 

the Military Cross. 
Eindson, George (Durham), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). Awarded the 

Military Cross. 
Hopper, G. W. N. (Stockton-upon-Tees), 5th Battalion, Durham Light In- 
fantry (Major). 
* Howl, T. E. (Mold), Tunnelling Companies, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Bunter, J. Perci: (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Field Artillery (2nd 

Lieutenant) 
I'Anson-Robson, W. L. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Tynemouth Royal Garrison 

Artillery (Captain). 
Jacobs, George (Sunderland), Royal Army Medical Corps (Corporal). Killed 

in action. 
Jobling, J. Beresford (Woking), Labour Corp* (Captain). Killed in net ion. 
Johnson, H. H. (Londou), Tank Corps (Lieut-Colonel). 
Jones, A. A. D. (Sibpur, India), 250th Company, Royal Engineers (Corporal). 

Awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. Killed in action. 
Jones, Evan (Blaenau Festiniog), Tunnelling- Companies, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). 
Jopling, F. S., Jun. (Sunderland), lst/3rd Scottish Horse (2nd Lieutenant). 
Kayll, A. C. (Gosforth), 6th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Lieut. - 

Colonel). 
Kent, G. H. S. (London), 490th (H. C.) Field Company, Royal Engineers 

(Captain). Killed in action. 
Kirkley, Aidan (Cleadon), 3rd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 

Awarded the Military Cross. 
Kirkup, E. H. (Birtley), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 
Kirktjp, Philip, Jun. (Low Fell), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded the Distinguished Service Order (and Bar). 

aiid the Military Cross. 
Lacey, F. P. S. (Manchester), Royal Garrison Artillery (Lieutenant). Killed 

in action. 
Leybourne, Elliot Angus (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), 8th Battalion, Durham 

Light Infantry (Captain). 
Logan, R. S. M. (Newburn), 4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Cap- 
tain). 
Lyall, Edward (Darlington), 278th Company. Eoyal Engineer- (Major). 

Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. 
McKensey, Stanley (New South Wales), 39th Fortress Company, A.E. 

(Lieutenant). 
Magee, S. S. (Hetton-le-Hole), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Mansfield, F. Ttjrquand (East Croydon), 3rd Battalion, Royal West Kent 

Regiment, attached 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Marley, F. T. (St. Bees), 178th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Marr, J. Heppell (Castlecomer), 6th Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers 

(Captain). 



ROLL OF HONOUR. lvii 

Martin, Tom Pattinson (Workington), Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 

(Lanoe -Corporal) . 
Merivale, Vernon (Leeds), 7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Major). 

Awarded the Military Cross (and Bar). 
Milburn, E. W. (Newbiggin-by-the-Sea), 7th Battalion, Northumberland 

Fusiliers (Major). 
Moore, F. G. (London), Schools of Aeronautics (Instructor Royal Air Force). 
Moreing, A. H. (London), Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Morgans, Godfrey E. (Leeds), Royal Engineers (Lieut. -Colonel), 
Morton, R. C. (Sheffield), 4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Muse, T. J. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Corporal). Killed in action. 
Nelson, Robert (London), Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Nicholson, J. H. (Blyth), Royal Garrison Artillery (Lieut. -Colonel). 
Oughton, Ernest (Baluchistan), 4th Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Paddon, N. B. (Spennymoor), 253rd Company, Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Palmer, C. B., D.L. (Pelaw), Northumberland Volunteer Medical Corps 

(Lieut. -Colonel), and County Director Volunteer Aid Detachments, 

Northumberland and Durham. 
Parrington, M. L. (Sunderland), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Pearson, R. G. (Paardekop, Transvaal), Botha's Natal Horse Regiment, 

South African Forces (Captain). 
Pringle, J. A. (Marikuppam, India), Kolar Goldfield Rifle Volunteers (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Prior-Wandesforde, R. H. (Castlecomer), Royal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Pumphrey, C. E. (Morpeth), 10th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Captain). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Ramsey, J. H., T.D. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), late 6th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (Captain). 
Ranken, C. T. (Sunderland), Royal Field Artillery (Lieutenant). 
Ridley, William (Tow Law), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Lieutenant). 
Ridpath, T. R. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 1st Indian Cavalry Supply Column, 

Motor Transport Section (2nd Lieutenant). 
Ritson, J. R. (Durham), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Major). 
Ritson, W. H., V.D. (Durham), 16th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers 

(Lieut. -Colonel). Awarded Order of St. Michael and St. George. 
Roberts, John (Cardiff), 326th Quarrying Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Rogebs, J. N. O. (Fence Houses), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
Roose, H. F. G. (Chile, South America), Royal Engineers (Captain). 
Rowley, Walter (Leeds), Royal Engineers (Major). 

Saint, T. A. (Coxhoe), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Lieutenant). 
Sawyer, Stanley J. (New South Wales), 1st Australian Tunnelling Company 

(Lieutenant). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Scott, C. W. (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), 28th Battalion, Northumberland 

Fusiliers (2nd Lieutenant). 
Scott, G. H. H. (Guildford), 7th Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West Surrey 

Regiment) (Captain). Killed in action. 



Iviii ROLL Of HONOl r 

Scott, BiBBSBt K. (London), Northumberland Buaiari Imperial feomanry 

(2nd Lieutenant). 
SxdcolBj W. .J. (South Shields), Royal Engineers ( ). 

Shaim.ky, C. E. W. (Torquay), 3rd Battalion, Devonshire Regiment (2nd 

Lieutenant). 
Shiel, F. R. A. (Burnopfield), 1st Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field 

Artillery (Captain) Iwarded ih<- Distinguished Service Order. 
Simpson, Claude F. B. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light 

tnfantry (Captain). Killed in action 
Simpson, F. R. (Blaydon-upon-Tyne), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Colonel). 
Simpson, Joseph (Thornley), 18th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Sergeant). 
Spence, J. H. (Hetton-le-Hole), Royal Army Medical Corps (Private). 
Stewart, Roland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Swinburne, U. P. (Johannesburg), 7th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders 

(Lieut. -Colonel). 
Taggart, John (Scotswood), 87th Training Reserve Battalion (Private). 
Terry, A. M. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Major). 
Thirlwell, T. A. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Tunnelling Companies, Royal 

Engineers (Captain). Awarded the Croix de Guerre. Killed in action. 
Thomas, R. Clark (Washington), 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (2nd 

Lieutenant). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Thomlinson, William (Seaton Carew), 19th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry 

(Major). 
Thompson, J. B. (South Shields), Royai Engineers iLieutenant). 
Thornton, Frank (Bishop Auckland), 171st Tunnelling Company, Royal 

Engineers (Captain). Killed in action. 
Thornton, Thomas (Barnsley), Royal Field Artillery (Major). 
Turnbull, J. A. (Hawick), 23rd Battalion, City of London Regiment, Royal 

Fusiliers (Captain). 
Varvill, W. W. (Nottingham), 4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (2nd 

Lieutenant). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Wadham, W. F. A. (Dalton-in-Furness), 4th Battalion, The King's Own 

(Royal Lancaster Regiment) (Lieut. -Colonel). 
Walker, Arthur (Washington), 2nd Artists' Rifles, O.T.C. (Private). 
Walker, F. T. (Gosforth), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 
Wallace, William (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), 12th Battalion, King's Royal 

Rifle Corps (Lieutenant). Awarded the Military Cross. 
Walton-Brown, Stanley (Seghill), Royal Army Service Corps (Captain). 
Watson, C. L. (Bath), 182nd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers 

(Lieutenant). 
Watson, J. R. (Monkseaton), Inspector of Ordnance Machinery, Army 

Ordnance Department (Lieutenant). 
Watson, Thomas, Jun. (Bishop Auckland), 17th Battalion, Durham Light 

Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 
Watts, Hubert (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Northumberland Fusiliers (Captain). 

Killed in action. 
Weeks, F. M. (Craghead), 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (Captain). 

Killed in action. 
White, R. E. (Blyth), Royal Engineers (2nd LieutenantV Killed in action. 
Whitehead, Percy C. (Torquay), Rcyal Field Artillery (Captain). 
Wilbraham, A. G. B. (London), Royal Engineers (Lieutenant). 



ROLL OF HONOUR. Ux 

Wilkinson, M. H. (China), Royal Engineers (Captain). Awarded the Military 
Cross. Killed in action. 

Wilkinson, W. F. (Whitchurch), Railway Transport (Captain). 

Wilson, H. Russell (Darlington), Durham Light Infantry (Captain). Killed 
in action. 

Wilson, J. R. Straker (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), London Scottish (Private). 

Wilson, W. Smith (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Royal Engineers (Captain). 

Wood, T. O. (Cramlington), 7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (Cap- 
tain). 

Wraith, C. O. (Johannesburg), Royal Engineers (2nd Lieutenant). 

Wrightson, W. I. (Stockton-upon-Tees), 5th Battalion, Durham Light 
Infantry (2nd Lieutenant). 

Young, Charles (Rowlands Gill), St. John Ambulance Brigade (Sergeant). 
Killed in action. 

Young, J. A. V.D., (Gateshead-upon-Tyne), National Reserve (Major and 
Hon. Lieut-Colonel). 



In order that the above list may be as complete as possible, members 
engaged in military or naval duties are requested to send particulars of their 
rank and unit in which they are serving, to The Assistant Secretary, The 
North of England Institute op Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Neville 
Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



INDEX. 



INDEX TO VOL LXIX. 



Explanations. 

The — at the beginning of a line denotes the repetition of a word; and 
in the case of Names, it includes both the Christian Name and the Surname; 
or, in the case of the name of any Firm, Association or Institution, the full 
name of such Firm, etc. 

Discussions are printed in italics. 

"App." signifies Annual Report of the Council, etc., at the end of th<* 
Volume. 



Annual report of council, 1918-1919 , 

app. v. 
— , — — finance committee, 1918- 

1919, app. viii. 



Associate members, list, app. xli. 
Associates, list, app. xliii. 
Atkinson, J. B., record of gas-pres- 
sure from a borehole, 8, 9, 10. 



B. 



Blackett, W. C, record of gas-pres- 
sure from a borehole, 8. 

Borehole, record of gas-pressure from, 
6, 12, 28, 31. 

Bulman, H. F., overhead Kwpe wind- 



ing plant at Plenmeller colliery, 4. 
Bulman, H. F., training of students 
in coal-mining, with special refer- 
ence to the scheme of the engineer- 
ing training organization, 24. 



C. 



Cheung, W. P., coal-cutting by 
electricity and timbering at Can 
nock Chase colliery, 29. 

Coal-cutting by electricity and tim- 
bering at Cannock Chase colliery, 
29. 

Coal-mining, training of students, 13, 
20. 



Committees, 1919-1920, list of, app. 
xiv. 

Coulson, Frank, record of gas-pres- 
sure from a borehole, 8, 9, 10. 

Council, annual report, 1918-1919, 
app. v. 

— of The Institution of Mining En- 
gineers, representatives on, 1919- 
1920, list, app. xiv. 



Expulsion of Arnold Lupton, 1. 



E. 



Fairbrother, Charles J., record of 
gas-pressure from a borehole, 6.- 
Discussion, 8, 12, 28, 31. 



Finance Committee, annual report, 
1918-1919, app. viii. 



G. 



Garnett, William, training of 
students in coal-mining, with 
special reference to the scheme of 
the engineering training organiza- 
tion, 26. 

Gas-pressure from a borehole, record 



of, 6, 12, 28, 31. 

General meetings, 1, 11, 29. 

Gibson, James, record of gas-pressure 
from a borehole, 31. 

Greenwell, G. C, medals, presenta- 
tion of, 1. 



II. 



1 1 llbauMj II. W Q.j ox ii head A (bjx 

a iinliiii) plant nl I'h iiiiii Hit col 
In ii,, 3. 

Mwi.KY, A . overhead Koepe winding 
plant nl I'h ■iinirllrr colliery, 2. 

1 1 AKDwicK, r. \\ '., training of 
• t inlint g in oaal-mininfiTj wi\ \> 



i to tl I tue "I 

1 1n- . Ing trainii 

t ion . L3 Di *cu wion , ! 
Hksi.oi', \y i i vi. OB . ii cord <</ ga 

pressure from n borehoU 
Honorary membei w, Iwt, app. jnri. 



Koepe overhead, binding plant a1 

L. 

Leach, C. C.j record of gas-pressun 

from ii borehole, 9. 
Louis, IIknhv, I ruining of students 
in coal-mining, with special refer- 



M. 



Members, list, app. xvii. 



O. 



Officers, 1919-1920, list, app. xv. 
Overhead Koepe winding plant at 



Plenmelh c colliery, 2, 1 1 



ence to I In- schi nu of the eng 
ing training organization, 
Lupton, Arnold, expulsion, 1. 



Plenmeller collieryj Haltwhistle, 

2, 11. 



Parrington, M. W., record of gas- 
pressure from a borehole, 9. 
Tatrons, list, app. xvi. 
Plenmeller colliery, overhead Koepe 



winding - plant, 2, 11. 
Presentation of G. C. Green well 

medals, 1. 
President, election. 1. 



R. 



Kaw, George, notes on overhead 
Koepe winding plant at Plenmeller 
colliery, Haltwhistle, Northumber- 
land, 2, 11 

Record of gas-pressure from a bore- 
hole, 6, 12, 28, 31. 



S. 



Simpson, John, president, election, 1 
Special general meeting, 1. 



T. 



The Institution of Mining Eng-ineers, 
representatives on council of, 1919- 
1920, list, app. xiv. 



Representatives on council of The 
Institution of Mining Engineers . 
1919-1920, list, app. xiv. 

Rhodes, Harry, record of gas-pres- 
sure from a borehole, 12. 

Roll of honour, ajjp. liii. 



Students, list, app. 1. 

— , training of, coal-mining, 13, 20. 

Subscribers, list, app. 1. 



Timbering at Cannock Chase colliery, 

29. 
Training of students in coal-mining, 

13, 20. 



W. 



Winding plant at Plenmeller colliery, 



Kcepe overhead, 2, 11. 



TN 

1 

N8 



N ° r 1 t , h of England ins ti tut, 
of Mxning and Mechanical 

v.68- Ty S ni meTS ' NeWCastl ^P^- 

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